Protista blog notes

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Protista blog notes

  1. 1. Introducing … the Protista!!
  2. 2. Protista Basics: <ul><li>Include: </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>Algae </li></ul><ul><li>Slime molds </li></ul><ul><li>Water molds </li></ul><ul><li>All are eukaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>All lack tissue differentiation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Protozoa <ul><li>Single-celled </li></ul><ul><li>Noted for their ability to move independently </li></ul><ul><li>Often called “animal-like” protista </li></ul><ul><li>About 65,000 species have been identified </li></ul><ul><li>Almost half of this number are extinct species </li></ul><ul><li>Live in many different environments </li></ul><ul><li>Are heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Some are free-living, others parasitic </li></ul>
  4. 4. Protozoan Reproduction <ul><li>All are capable of asexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Called “binary fission” </li></ul><ul><li>Some species reproduce sexually </li></ul><ul><li>Called “conjugation” </li></ul><ul><li>Conjugation in protozoa is more complex than in bacteria </li></ul>
  5. 5. Phylum Sarcodina <ul><li>40,000 + species </li></ul><ul><li>Most have flexible cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Have unique features </li></ul><ul><li>Many are “naked” - cell membranes directly exposed to environment </li></ul>
  6. 6. Specializations <ul><li>Have pseudopodia (“false feet”) </li></ul><ul><li>Are cytoplasmic extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for “amoeboid” movement </li></ul><ul><li>Also use them for feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Engulf via phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Many have contractile vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>Expels material from cell </li></ul>
  7. 7. Radiolarians & Foraminiferans <ul><li>Both have protective shells called, “tests” </li></ul><ul><li>Tests made of calcium carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for limestone formations </li></ul><ul><li>Radiolarian tests form “chert” (flint) </li></ul><ul><li>Found primarily in oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Major ingredient in Egyptian pyramids </li></ul><ul><li>Radiolarians amongst oldest sarcodines </li></ul><ul><li>Existed since Precambrian time (500 million years ago) </li></ul><ul><li>Most radiolarians live in shallow water </li></ul>
  8. 8. Phylum Ciliophora <ul><li>8000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Move with cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Most elaborate organelles of any protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>Some structures include a mouth pore, gullet, and anal pore </li></ul><ul><li>Macronucleus - multiple copies of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Needed for asexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Micronucleus - needed for conjugation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Phylum Zoomastigina <ul><li>2500 species </li></ul><ul><li>One or more flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Called “zooflagellates” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Trypanosoma genus </li></ul><ul><li>African trypanosomiasis - sleeping sickness; spread by tsetse fly </li></ul><ul><li>Mental deterioration, fever, coma </li></ul><ul><li>South American trypanosomiasis - Chaga’s disease. Spread by kissing bug. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart transplant required, no cure </li></ul>
  10. 10. Phylum Sporozoa <ul><li>6000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Most are parasitic - require vectors </li></ul><ul><li>Complex lifecycles, develop a protective cover called a “spore” </li></ul><ul><li>Most common called “Malaria” </li></ul><ul><li>Has killed more people than any other life form on the planet (2.7 million/yr) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Malaria Life-Cycle <ul><li>Person bit (mosquito vectors) </li></ul><ul><li>Sporozoites enter blood stream </li></ul><ul><li>Travel to liver, divide repeatedly into merozoites </li></ul><ul><li>Merozoites infect red blood cells (asexual) </li></ul><ul><li>Merozoites burst from RBC’s ..release toxins over and over again, change into gametocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs may not cure totally - lagging infection </li></ul><ul><li>Must have liver-stage drugs to cure </li></ul><ul><li>Mosquito can infect itself from a host vector’s gametocytes </li></ul>
  12. 12. Algae <ul><li>It’s NOT moss!! (moss is Kingdom Plantae) </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Produce up to 50% of the Earth’s oxygen supply </li></ul>
  13. 13. Phylum Chlorophyta <ul><li>Green algae </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Can be single-celled or live in colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Lives in moist conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Ponds, some species on rock & tree surfaces </li></ul>
  14. 14. Phylum Phaeophyta <ul><li>Brown algae </li></ul><ul><li>Found in cold saltwater environment </li></ul><ul><li>Giant kelp grow to over 100 m long </li></ul>
  15. 15. Phylum Rhodophyta <ul><li>Red algae (Rhodo/red) </li></ul><ul><li>Found in warm saltwater environments </li></ul><ul><li>Depth depends on amount of pigment </li></ul>
  16. 16. Diatoms and Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Both are considered algae </li></ul><ul><li>Diatoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Shells contain silica </li></ul><ul><li>Found in freshwater & saltwater </li></ul><ul><li>Component of phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Dinoflagellates: </li></ul><ul><li>Cause algal blooms “red tide” </li></ul><ul><li>Can exhibit bioluminescence </li></ul>

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