Fishblog

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Fishblog

  1. 1. Fish Unit
  2. 2. Fish Facts: <ul><li>More that 24,000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Found in a wide range of habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized for their environment </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh & saltwater environments have different effects on fish </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater fish continually urinate (hypotonic) </li></ul><ul><li>Saltwater fish continually drink water (hypertonic) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Specializations <ul><li>Gills: </li></ul><ul><li>Fins: </li></ul><ul><li>Scales: </li></ul><ul><li>Slime coat: </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral line: </li></ul><ul><li>Color patterns: </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fish Classes <ul><li>Class Agnatha: </li></ul><ul><li>Jawless fishes </li></ul><ul><li>No scales </li></ul><ul><li>Hagfishes </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom dwellers in cold marine waters </li></ul><ul><li>Often burrow into bodies of dead fish </li></ul><ul><li>Can tie their bodies in knots to evade capture </li></ul><ul><li>Lampreys </li></ul><ul><li>Many are parasitic </li></ul><ul><li>Some live in freshwater, some saltwater, etc </li></ul><ul><li>All reproduce in freshwater </li></ul>
  5. 5. Class Chondrichthyes <ul><li>Skeletons made of cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: lightweight, flexible, strong </li></ul><ul><li>All species are carnivores, some scavengers </li></ul><ul><li>Feed off a variety of foods </li></ul><ul><li>Skin covered with placoid scales </li></ul><ul><li>Includes sharks, skates, rays, sturgeon </li></ul><ul><li>Internal fertilization rather than external </li></ul>
  6. 6. Class Osteichthyes <ul><li>Bony fish </li></ul><ul><li>Have lungs (early bony fishes) or swim bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Swim bladder helps to control buoyancy </li></ul><ul><li>Have scales </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into lobe-finned fishes and ray-finned fishes </li></ul>
  7. 7. External Anatomy <ul><li>Operculum - bony gill cover </li></ul><ul><li>Fins - supported by bony rays or spines </li></ul><ul><li>Rays give the fin strength </li></ul><ul><li>Skin covered with scales </li></ul><ul><li>Scales used mainly for protection </li></ul>
  8. 8. Digestive System <ul><li>Esophagus = throat </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach - secretes acids, digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Intestine - nutrients absorbed here </li></ul><ul><li>Liver - secretes bile, which helps break down fats </li></ul><ul><li>Gallbladder - stores bile </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas - releases digestive enzymes into intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Undigested material eliminated through anus </li></ul>
  9. 9. Circulatory System <ul><li>Arteries - move blood away from the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Veins - move blood to the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries are smallest blood vessels (gas exchange) </li></ul><ul><li>Heart anatomy: </li></ul><ul><li>Blood collects in sinus venosus </li></ul><ul><li>Moves to atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Moves to ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Moves to conus arteriosus </li></ul><ul><li>Then moves to body…. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Respiratory System <ul><li>Fish breathe by using “countercurrent flow” </li></ul><ul><li>Water flows away from head, blood flows towards head </li></ul><ul><li>Very efficient gas exchange in capillaries </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nervous System <ul><li>Brain has cerebrum (central processor) </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum coordinates motor output </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla oblongata - acts as a relay station for stimuli & sensory receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, the m.o. sends sensory signals where they need to go </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral line system used to detect vibrations & pressure changes </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pacific Salmon <ul><li>Five species: </li></ul><ul><li>Chinook (King) </li></ul><ul><li>Coho (Silver) ….best fighting salmon </li></ul><ul><li>Chum (Dog) </li></ul><ul><li>Sockeye (Red) </li></ul><ul><li>Pink (Humpback) </li></ul><ul><li>Spend several years (up to 5-6) in saltwater then return to freshwater to spawn (anadromous) </li></ul><ul><li>Smell their way back to their spawning grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Die after they spawn </li></ul><ul><li>Young have “parr marks” for camouflage </li></ul>

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