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NRC nutrient requirement of dairy cattle (seventh revised edition, 2001)
1. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html We ship printed books within 1 business day; personal PDFs are available immediately. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, National Research Council ISBN: 0-309-51521-1, 408 pages, 8.5 x 11, (2001) This PDF is available from the National Academies Press at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Visit the National Academies Press online, the authoritative source for all books from the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council: • Download hundreds of free books in PDF • Read thousands of books online for free • Explore our innovative research tools – try the “Research Dashboard” now! • Sign up to be notified when new books are published • Purchase printed books and selected PDF files Thank you for downloading this PDF. If you have comments, questions or just want more information about the books published by the National Academies Press, you may contact our customer service department tollfree at 888-624-8373, visit us online, or send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. This book plus thousands more are available at http://www.nap.edu. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Unless otherwise indicated, all materials in this PDF File are copyrighted by the National Academy of Sciences. Distribution, posting, or copying is strictly prohibited without written permission of the National Academies Press. Request reprint permission for this book.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS ● 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW ● Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture under Agreement No. 59-32U4-5-6, the Center for Veterinary Medicine of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under Agreement No. R-13-FD01495, and the American Feed Industry Association. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle / Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. — 7th rev. ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. ). ISBN 0-309-06997-1 1. Dairy cattle—Nutrition—Requirements. 2. Dairy cattle—Feeding and feeds. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition. SF203 .N883 2001 636.2Ј13—dc21 00-012828 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. iii Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html SUBCOMMITTEE ON DAIRY CATTLE NUTRITION JIMMY H. CLARK, Chair, University of Illinois DAVID K. BEEDE, Michigan State University RICHARD A. ERDMAN, University of Maryland JESSE P. GOFF, USDA/ARS/NSDC, Ames, Iowa RIC R. GRUMMER, University of Wisconsin JAMES G. LINN, University of Minnesota ALICE N. PELL, Cornell University CHARLES G. SCHWAB, University of New Hampshire TREVOR TOMKINS, Milk Specialties Company GABRIELLA A. VARGA, Pennsylvania State University WILLIAM P. WEISS, The Ohio State University COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION GARY L. CROMWELL, Chair, University of Kentucky MARY E. ALLEN, National Zoological Park MICHAEL L. GALYEAN, Texas Tech University RONALD W. HARDY, University of Idaho BRIAN W. McBRIDE, University of Guelph KEITH E. RINEHART, Perdue Farms Inc. L. LEE SOUTHERN, Louisiana State University JERRY W. SPEARS, North Carolina State University DONALD R. TOPLIFF, West Texas A&M University WILLIAM P. WEISS, The Ohio State University Staff CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Program Director NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Editor STEPHANIE PADGHAM, Project Assistant MELINDA SIMONS, Project Assistant* * through January 1999 v Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES HARLEY W. MOON, Chair, Iowa State University DAVID H. BAKER, University of Illinois MAY R. BERENBAUM, University of Illinois CORNELIA B. FLORA, Iowa State University ROBERT T. FRALEY, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri ROBERT B. FRIDLEY, University of California, Davis W.R. (REG) GOMES, University of California PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN, Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts GEORGE R. HALLBERG, The Cadmus Group, Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts CALESTOUS JUMA, Harvard University GILBERT A. LEVEILLE, McNeil Consumer Healthcare, Denville, New Jersey WHITNEY MACMILLAN, Cargill, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota (retired) WILLIAM L. OGREN, U.S. Department of Agriculture (retired) NANCY J. RACHMAN, Novigen Sciences, Inc., Washington, District of Columbia G. EDWARD SCHUH, University of Minnesota JOHN W. SUTTIE, University of Wisconsin THOMAS N. URBAN, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Des Moines, Iowa (retired) ROBERT P. WILSON, Mississippi State University JAMES J. ZUICHES, Washington State University Staff WARREN MUIR, Executive Director DAVID L. MEEKER, Director CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Associate Director SHIRLEY B. THATCHER, Administrative Assistant vi Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Preface Dairy cattle production is an important component of the food industry. Nutrition is a key factor in the performance, health, and welfare of dairy cattle. Given the large variation in dairy cattle types and the various environments in which they are maintained, producers must increasingly concern themselves with optimizing feeding programs. To that end, the Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition, which was appointed in 1997 under the guidance of the Committee on Animal Nutrition in the National Research Council’s Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, embarked on a monumental task in the development of a new edition of Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. As we conducted our work, it was our desire to provide users of this volume an accurate, comprehensive, and useful review of the scientific literature and practical experiences that have shaped our knowledge of dairy cattle nutrition over the past decade. We chose to provide both a written description of the biologic basis for predicting nutrient requirements and a computer model on a compact disk to use for estimating requirements of lactating, nonlactating, growing, and young dairy animals. The subcommittee recognizes that some users of this revision will prefer to apply tables of requirements for an average situation, and we have attempted to provide those tables. Although there is often uncertainty using a modeling approach to estimate nutrient requirements, we believed that we had a responsibility to move the science forward, so we included a model that was constructed on a substantial amount of data. We believe that the model builds on the work of previous Research Council committees and moves the science forward without reaching so far that estimates cannot be validated. We found that an abundance of new science-based knowledge had surfaced since the last edition, but we also found that our knowledge of many aspects of dairy cattle nutrition is incomplete; we chose not to venture too far from what our knowledge base would allow. In developing this report, the subcommittee considered current issues in dairy cattle production inasmuch as they affect nutrient requirements and animal feeding management, including new emphasis on environmental considerations in the feeding of dairy cattle. We have attempted in this new edition to focus more than in the past on considerations and criteria for establishing nutrient requirements. This study was conducted through the concerted efforts of the members of the Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition. We began our 3-year task in 1997 and completed this volume in 2000. We hope that it will be used with the same passion and enthusiasm with which it was developed. JIMMY H. CLARK, Chair Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition vii Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Acknowledgments A volume of this magnitude represents the combined efforts of many individuals. The subcommittee thanks all those who shared their insights and knowledge to bring this document to fruition. We would first like to thank everyone who participated in our public sessions and the special sessions that were organized for our benefit during the American Dairy Science Association meetings over the past several years. During the course of its deliberations, the subcommittee sought advice and special assistance from several people who gave generously of their time to help us complete our task. Very special thanks are due to Carl Davis, University of Illinois; Jim Drackley, University of Illinois; Gale Bateman, University of Illinois; Danny Fox, Cornell University; Brian Garthwaite, Food and Drug Administration; and Normand St. Pierre, Ohio State University. We are extremely indebted to them. In addition, we sought and received guidance early on from R. Lee Baldwin, University of California, Davis; Mark Hanigan, Purina Mills, Inc.; Rick Kohn, University of Maryland; and Dale Waldo, U. S. Department of Agriculture (retired). The expertise of Vajesh Durbal, Cornell University, is gratefully acknowledged. He was instrumental in programming the computer model, and we could not have accomplished what we did without his skill and patience. The subcommittee is grateful to members of the National Research Council staff who worked diligently to maintain progress and quality in our work. Through her dedication, guidance, and skill, Charlotte Kirk Baer transformed our spirited verbal pondering and imperfect written drafts into a comprehensive report. Stephanie Padgham provided able assistance and much-needed momentum during the final stages of our study. Melinda Simons supported all of us cheerfully and effectively during the early phases of the study and Laura Boschini shared her skills in preparing the report for publication. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: R. Lee Baldwin, University of California, Davis; Paul Chandler, Chandler Associates; Larry Chase, Cornell University; Jud Heinrichs, Pennsylvania State University; Roger Hemken, University of Kentucky; Alois Kertz, Agri Brands International; David Mertens, U.S. Department of Agriculture Dairy Forage Research Center; Jerry Olson, University of Minnesota; Leo Timms, Iowa State University; Michael Van Amburgh, Cornell University; Harold Van Horn, University of Florida; and Michael VandeHaar, Michigan State University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Michael Galyean, Texas Tech University, appointed by the Committee on Animal Nutrition, and Robert Wilson, Mississippi State University, appointed by the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources. These individuals were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring subcommittee and the institution. ix Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Contents OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1 DRY MATTER INTAKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Equations for Predicting DMI, 3 Lactating Cows, 3 Growing Heifers, 6 Nutrients and Feeding Management Related to DMI of Lactating Dairy Cows, 6 Moisture, 6 Neutral Detergent Fiber, 7 Forage to Concentration Ratio, 7 Fat, 7 Cow Behavior, Management, and Environmental Factors Affecting Feed Intake, 8 Eating Habits and Cow Behavior, 8 Weather, 9 Feeding Method—Total Mixed Ration vs. Individual Ingredient, 9 Feeding Frequency, 9 Sequence of Feeding, 10 Access to Feed, 10 References, 10 2 ENERGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Energy Requirements of Lactating and Pregnant Cows, 13 Energy Units, 13 Energy Values of Feeds, 13 Estimating TDN of Feeds at Maintenance, 14 Estimating DE of Feeds, 15 Estimating DE at Actual Intake, 16 Estimating ME at Actual Intake, 17 Estimating NEL at Actual Intake, 17 Estimating Net Energy of Feeds for Maintenance and Gain, 17 Comparison of New NEL Values with Values from 1989 Edition, 18 Precautions, 18 Energy Requirements, 18 Maintenance Requirements, 18 Lactation Requirements, 19 Activity Requirements, 20 xi Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html xii Contents Environmental Effects, 21 Pregnancy Requirements, 21 Tissue Mobilization and Repletion During Lactation and the Dry Period, 22 Body Condition Scoring, 25 References, 25 3 FAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Digestion and Absorption, 28 Digestibility and Energy Value of Fats, 29 Effects of Fat on Ruminal Fermentation, 30 Utilization of Fat in Calf Diets, 30 Fat in Lactation Diets, 30 References, 32 4 CARBOHYDRATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Nonstructural Carbohydrates, 34 Structural Carbohydrates, 36 NDF Recommendations, 37 ADF Requirement, 40 References, 40 5 PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Importance and Goals of Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition, 43 Major Differences from Previous Edition, 43 Protein, 44 Chemistry of Feed Crude Protein, 44 Mechanism of Ruminal Protein Degradation, 45 Kinetics of Ruminal Protein Degradation, 46 Nitrogen Solubility vs. Protein Degradation, 48 Microbial Requirements for N Substrates, 48 Animal Responses to CP, RDP, and RUP, 49 Synchronizing Ruminal Protein and Carbohydrate Digestion: Effects on Microbial Protein Synthesis, 52 Ruminally Protected Proteins, 54 Predicting Passage of Microbial Protein, 55 Predicting Passage of Rumen Undegradable Feed Protein, 58 Digestibility of Rumen Undegradable Feed Protein, 61 Predicting Passage of Endogenous Protein, 63 Evaluation of Model for Predicting Flows of N Fractions, 65 Predicting Passage of Metabolizable Protein, 65 Metabolizable Protein Requirements, 67 MP Requirements for Maintenance, 67 Protein Requirements for Pregnancy, 68 Protein Requirements for Lactation, 68 Protein Requirements for Growth, 68 Amino Acids, 69 Essential vs. Nonessential Amino Acids, 69 Limiting Essential Amino Acids, 71 Predicting Passage to the Small Intestine, 74 Requirements for Lysine and Methionine in Metabolizable Protein for Lactating Cows, 81 Ruminally Protected Amino Acids, 85 References, 85 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Contents xiii 6 MINERALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Macrominerals, 106 Calcium, 106 Phosphorus, 109 Sodium, 118 Chlorine, 121 Potassium, 124 Magnesium, 128 Sulfur, 131 Trace Minerals, 132 Cobalt, 132 Copper, 133 Iodine, 136 Iron, 138 Manganese, 139 Molybdenum, 140 Selenium, 141 Zinc, 143 Chromium, 146 Aluminum, Arsenic, Nickel, Silica, Tin, and Vanadium, 147 Toxic Minerals, 148 Cadmium, 148 Fluorine, 148 Lead, 149 Mercury, 149 References, 150 7 VITAMINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 Fat-Soluble Vitamins, 162 Vitamin A, 162 Vitamin D, 164 Vitamin E, 166 Vitamin K, 168 Water-Soluble Vitamins, 169 B-Vitamins, 169 Biotin, 169 Folic acid, 169 Inositol, 169 Niacin, 170 Pantothenic Acid, 171 Riboflavin (B2), 171 Thiamin (B1), 171 Vitamin B12, 172 B-Vitamins-General, 172 Vitamin C, 172 Choline, 173 References, 174 8 WATER REQUIREMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178 Water Intake, 178 Dry Cows, 179 Calves and Heifers, 180 Drinking Behavior, 180 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html xiv Contents Water Quality, 180 Summary, 182 References, 182 9 UNIQUE ASPECTS OF DAIRY CATTLE NUTRITION . . . . . . . . . . . . .184 Transition Cows and Nonlactating Cows, 184 Nutritional and Physiologic Status of the Transition Cow, 184 Nutrient Requirements for Pregnancy, 185 Nutrient Intake, 185 Energy and Protein Density for Dry Cow Diets, 186 Etiology and Nutritional Prevention of Metabolic Disorders, 188 Fatty Liver and Ketosis, 188 Udder Edema, 189 Milk Fever, 191 Grass Tetany, 194 Retained Placenta and Metritis, 194 Displacement of the Abomasum, 196 Rumen Acidosis and Laminitis, 197 Milk Fat Depression, 199 Performance Modifiers, 201 Mineral Salts and Their Role as Buffers, 201 Ionophores, 201 Direct Fed Microbials, 203 Fungal Cultures, 203 Bovine Somatotropin, 204 References, 205 10 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF THE YOUNG CALF . . . . . . . . . . .214 Energy Requirements of Calves, 214 Young Replacement Calves Fed Milk or Milk Replacer Only, 215 Young Replacement Calves Fed Milk and Starter Feed or Milk Replacer and Starter Feed, 219 Veal Calves, 220 Ruminant Calves (Large-Breed and Small-Breed Females) from Weaning to Body Weight of 100 kilograms, 220 Effects of Environmental Temperature on Energy Requirements of Young Calves, 220 Protein Requirements of Calves, 221 Mineral and Vitamin Requirements of Calves, 222 Minerals, 222 Vitamins, 224 Feed Composition Data with Application to Diet Formulations for Calves, 225 Other Aspects of Calf Nutrition, 226 Fetal Nutrition, 226 Colostrum, 227 Water and Electrolytes, 227 Milk Replacers, 228 Feed Additives, 228 Practical Feeding Considerations, 229 References, 230 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Contents xv 11 GROWTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234 Energy and Protein Requirements for Growing Dairy Heifers, 234 Terminology, 234 Growth Requirements and Composition of Gain, 234 Evaluation of Model Predictions of Energy and Protein Requirements for Growth of Dairy Heifers, 236 Setting Target Growth Rates, 238 Evaluation of Target Weight Equations, 239 Maintenance Requirement Effects on Growth, 239 Basal Maintenance Requirement, 240 Adjustment for Previous Temperature, 240 Adjustment for Previous Plane of Nutrition, 240 Adjustment for the Direct Effects of Cold Stress, 241 Adjustment for the Direct Effects of Heat Stress, 241 Model Evaluation, 241 References, 242 12 DAIRY CATTLE NUTRITION AND THE ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . .244 Nitrogen, 245 Phosphorus, 246 Summary, 247 References, 247 13 CARBOHYDRATE CHEMISTRY AND FEED PROCESSING . . . . . . .249 Nonstructural Carbohydrates, 249 Analytic Procedures, 249 Neutral Detergent Fiber, 249 Neutral Detergent Insoluble Nitrogen, 250 Acid Detergent Fiber, 250 Acid Detergent Insoluble Nitrogen, 250 Lignin, 250 Total Nonstructural Carbohydrates, 251 Effects of Processing on Energy in Feed, 251 Sources of Starch, 251 Oilseeds, 254 References, 255 14 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENT TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258 15 NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF FEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 16 MODEL EVALUATION AND PREDICTION EQUATIONS . . . . . . . .315 GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334 USER’S GUIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341 ABOUT THE AUTHORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .361 INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Tables and Figures TABLES 1-1 Validation statistics for prediction of dry matter intake by heifers, 6 1-2 Effect of bunk space per cow on feeding behavior and intake of early lactation cows, 9 2-1 Processing adjustment factors (PAF) for NFC, 14 2-2 True digestibility coefficients of CP used to estimate TDN1x values of animal-based feedstuffs, 15 2-3 True digestibilities at maintenance (assumed 8 percent increase in digestibility compared with 3X maintenance) of fatty acids from various fat sources, 15 2-4 Empty body (EB) chemical composition at different body condition scores (BCS), relative Eb weight (EBW), and NEL provided by live weight (LW) loss and NEL needed for LW gain, 24 2-5 Energy provided by or needed to change body condition score (BCS) of cows of different live weights and BCS, 25 3-1 Fatty acid composition and iodine values of fats and oils, 29 4-1 Nonstructural (NSC) and nonfiber (NFC) analyses of selected feedstuffs, 34 4-2 Composition of the NFC fraction of selected feedstuffs, 35 4-3 Recommended minimum concentrations (% of DM) of total and forage NDF and recommended maximum concentrations (% of DM) of NFC for diets of lactating cows when the diet is fed as a total mixed ration, the forage has adequate particle size, and ground corn is the predominant starch source, 37 5-1 Studies used to evaluate milk and milk protein yield responses to changes in the concentration of dietary crude protein, 50 5-2 Descriptive statistics for data set used to evaluate animal responses to CP and RDP, 50 5-3 Studies used to evaluate milk yield responses to changes in the concentration of dietary ruminally degraded protein, 51 5-4 Studies used to determine the relationship between NEL intake and passage of microbial protein to the small intestine of lactating dairy cows, 57 5-5 Studies reporting in situ determined estimates of N fractions and rates of protein degradations that were used in preparing this edition, 60 xvi Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Tables and Figures xvii 5-6 Recommended procedures and reporting details for a standardized in situ procedure for measuring ruminal degradability of protein in dairy cattle, 62 5-7 Published studies that were summarized for the purpose of arriving at estimates of intestinal digestibility of the RUP fraction of feedstuffs, 64 5-8 Studies used to validate the model equations for predicting flows of MCP, RUP plus ECP, and NAN flows to the small intestine, 66 5-9 Mean percentage contributions of cysteine (and its oxidation product cystine) to total sulfur amino acids (methionine םcysteine םcystine) and of tyrosine to tyrosine םphenylalanine in ruminal microbes and feedstuff, 70 5-10 A comparison of the EAA profiles of body tissue and milk with that of ruminal bacteria and protozoa and common feeds, 72 5-11 Experiments used to develop equations for predicting amino acid passage to the small intestine, 76 5-12 Feedstuffs and the extent of their use in the 199 diets in the data set used to develop equations to predict the content of individual EAA in total EAA of duodenal protein, 76 5-13 Descriptive statistics of the data used for developing equations for predicting content of individual EAA in total EAA of duodenal protein and for predicting flows of total EAA to the small intestine, 77 5-14 Comparison of the root mean square prediction errors (RMSPE) obtained from plots of residuals (predicted-measured vs. measured) for equations that predicted directly the flow of each EAA with those accepted for use in the model that predicts directly the percentage of each EAA in total EAA of duodenal protein, 80 5-15 Studies used to determine the dose-response relationships for lysine and methionine in metabolizable protein, 82 6-1 Comparison of estimated dietary copper requirements (mg/d) and dietary copper concentrations (mg/kg of DM) for cattle in various physiologic states, 134 6-2 Calculated copper absorption coefficients across various dietary sulfur and molybdenum concentrations, 134 6-3 Comparison of estimated dietary manganese requirements (mg/d) and dietary manganese concentrations (mg/kg of DM) for cattle in various physiologic states, 141 6-4 Comparison of estimated dietary zinc requirements (mg/d) and dietary zinc concentrations (mg/kg of DM) for cattle in various physiologic states, 145 7-1 Estimated absorption of selected B-vitamins from the small intestine compared with estimated requirements for tissue and milk synthesis of a 650-kg cow producing 35 kg of 4 percent fat-corrected milk/day, 173 8-1 Guidelines for total soluble salts (TSS) in water for cattle, 180 8-2 Water hardness guidelines, 181 8-3 Nitrate in water, 181 8-4 Generally considered safe concentrations of some potentially toxic nutrients and contaminants in water for cattle, 182 10-1 Daily energy and protein requirements of young replacement calves fed only milk or milk replacer, 215 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html xviii Tables and Figures 10-2 10-3 Daily energy and protein requirements of calves fed milk and starter or milk replacer and starter, 216 Daily energy and protein requirements of veal calves fed only milk or milk replacer, 217 10-4 Daily energy and protein requirements of weaned (ruminant) calves, 218 10-5 Effect of environment on energy requirement of young calves, 221 10-6 Mineral and vitamin concentrations recommended in diets of young calves, compared with average for fresh whole milk (DM basis), 223 10-7 Energy, protein, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations in feedstuffs commonly used in the formulation of milk replacers for young calves, 226 10-8 Energy, protein, fiber, and mineral composition of three milk replacers (MR), a starter feed, and a grower feed for young calves, 227 11-1 Relationships between mature size and growth requirements, 237 11-2 Calculation of target weights and daily gain using the data set of Van Amburgh et al. (1998a), 239 11-3 Application of equations to predict energy and protein requirements, using target weights and daily gains from table 11-2, 240 11-4 Multipliers used to adjust the maintenance energy requirement to reflect various environmental conditions, 241 11-5 Predicted effects of four environments on heifer performance, 242 14-1 Daily nutrient requirements of small breed cows (live weight 454 סkg) in early lactation, 260 14-2 Daily nutrient requirements of small breed cows (live weight 454 סkg) in midlactation, 261 14-3 Daily nutrient requirements of small breed cows (live weight 454 סkg) in midlactation, 262 14-4 Daily nutrient requirements of large breed cows (live weight 086 סkg) in early lactation, 263 14-5 Daily nutrient requirements of large breed cows (live weight 086 סkg) in midlactation, 264 14-6 Daily nutrient requirements of large breed cows (live weight 086 סkg) in midlactation, 265 14-7 Nutrient requirements of lactating dairy cows as determined using sample diets, 266 14-8 Nutrient requirements and required diet nutrient concentrations for fresh cows fed an example fresh-cow ration, 268 14-9 Nutrient requirements and diet concentrations needed to meet requirements for dry cows as determined using example diets, 270 14-10 Example diet incorporating dietary guidelines suggested in chapter 9 for transitioning a heifer during the later dry period to acclimate her to the lactating ration and to reduce metabolic disease, 272 14-11 Example diet incorporating dietary guidelines suggested in chapter 9 for transitioning a cow during the last weeks of gestation to acclimate her to a lactating ration and to reduce metabolic disease, 274 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Tables and Figures xix 14-12 Daily nutrient requirements (DM basis) of small breed (mature weight 054 סkg) non-bred heifers, 276 14-13 Daily nutrient requirements (DM basis) of large breed (mature weight 056 סkg) non-bred heifers, 277 14-14 Daily nutrient requirements (DM basis) of small breed (mature weight 054 סkg) bred heifers, 278 14-15 Daily nutrient requirements (DM basis) of large breed (mature weight 056 סkg) bred heifers, 279 14-16 Nutrient requirements of growing Holstein heifers using model to predict target average daily gain needed to attain a mature body weight of 680 kg, 280 15-1 Nutrient composition and variability of some feedstuffs commonly fed to dairy cattle, 283 15-2a Nitrogen fractions, RUP digestibility, and amino acids of feedstuffs, 290 15-2b Nitrogen fractions and amino acid composition of less commonly used feedstuffs, which are cited in the literature but were not included as commonly used feedstuffs in Table 15-2a, 300 15-3 Mineral composition of some feedstuffs commonly fed to dairy cattle, 304 15-4 Compositions of inorganic mineral sources and element absorption coefficients for dairy cattle on a 100% dry matter basis, 311 16-1 Sources of data used in the model evaluation, 316 16-2 Ration densities of required minerals for three categories of feeds for calves, 331 UG-1 Summary report for diet A, 355 UG-2 Net energy and protein requirements of heifers with mature weights of 400, 650, and 800 kg, 357 UG-3 Effect of body weight and rate of gain on daily gain, 357 UG-4 Target weights for dairy heifers, 358 UG-5 Target daily gains post transition to pre-conception for three mature sizes of dairy heifers, 358 UG-6 Inputs for heifer growth exercises, 359 UG-7 Maintenance energy requirement multipliers for various environmental conditions, 359 FIGURES 1-1 Dry matter intake prediction of early lactation cows using equation 1-2 and Kertz et al. (1991) equations, 4 1-2 Dry matter intake, four percent fat corrected milk production, and body weight change of primiparous and multiparous cows during 48 weeks of lactation, 5 1-3 Observed versus predicted dry matter intake of growing dairy heifers using beef calf equation from Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle (National Research Council, 1996), 7 2-1 The relationship between feeding level expressed as multiples of maintenance and the unit decline in diet TDN per multiple of maintenance where TDN percentage unit decline ,3.01 – ן 81.0 סr2 61 ,58.0 ס Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html xx Tables and Figures 2-2 Body condition scoring chart adapted from Edmonson et al. (1989), 23 5-1 Analyses of crude protein fractions using borate-phosphate buffer and acid detergent and neutral detergent solutions, 47 5-2 Response surface for data set described in ‘‘Animal Responses to CP, RDP, and RUP’’ section, 51 5-3 Plot of observed (open circles) and residuals (squares) for measured microbial N flow (g/day) versus estimated NEL intake in lactating and dry dairy cows, 56 5-4 Relationship between measured efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (g microbial N/kg rumen fermented OM) and apparent ruminal N balance, 57 5-5 Plot of adjusted (open circles) and residuals (squares) for measured microbial N (g/ day) versus measured total tract digestible OM (kg/d), 58 5-6 Plot of predicted vs. measured (filled circles) and residuals (predicted מmeasured; open circles) vs. measured flows of microbial N to the small intestine of dairy cows, 66 5-7 Plot of predicted vs. measured (filled circles) and residuals (predicted מmeasured; open circles) vs. measured flows of NANMN (rumen undegradable N plus endogenous N) to the small intestine of dairy cows, 66 5-8 Plot of predicted vs. measured (filled circle) and residuals (predicted מmeasured; open circles) vs. measured flows of NAN (microbial N םrumen undegradable N םendogenous N) to the small intestine of dairy cows, 67 5-9 Plot of predicted vs. measured (filled circles) and residuals (predicted-measured; open circles) vs. measured (Lys, g/d) (from predicted Lys, percent of EAA and predicted EAA, g/d), 79 5-10 Plot of predicted vs. measured (filled circles) and residual (predicted-measured; open circles) vs. measured Met, g/d (from predicted Met, percent of EAA and predicted EAA, g/d), 79 5-11 Plot of predicted vs. measured (filled circles) and residuals (predicted-measured; open circles) vs. measured flow of total EAA, 79 5-12 Milk protein content responses as a function of digestible Lys and Met concentrations in MP, 84 5-13 Milk protein yield responses as a function of digestible Lys and Met concentrations in MP, 84 9-1 Dietary concentrations of crude protein needed in diets fed to transition cows to meet requirements, 187 9-2 Dietary concentrations of NEL needed in diets fed to transition cows to meet requirements, 188 10-1 Example of growth rate predicted by the model in this edition for a 40-kg calf fed whole milk (open bars) or a milk replacer (dark bars) at 10, 14, or 18 percent of body weight, 229 16-1 Model predicted vs. actual dry matter intake, 316 16-2 NEL intake (estimated from observed dry matter intake and model estimated NEL concentration) versus NEL use (estimated from model predicted maintenance and lactation requirement plus NEL needed to meet observed body weight change), 317 16-3 Actual milk production versus model predicted MP allowable milk production, 317 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Tables and Figures xxi 16-4 Difference between MP allowable milk and actual milk versus model predicted lysine concentration of MP, 317 16-5 Difference between MP allowable milk and actual milk versus model predicted methionine concentration of MP, 317 UG-1 Settings for number properties, 344 UG-2 Settings for currency, 345 UG-3 Program menu bar, 346 UG-4 Help box, 348 UG-5 Program settings screen, 348 UG-6 Animal description screen, 349 UG-7 Production screen, 349 UG-8 Management/Environment screen, 350 UG-9 Feed screen, 350 UG-10 Ration screen, 352 UG-11 Reports screen, 352 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Overview Since 1944, the National Research Council has published six editions of Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. This seventh revised edition, Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle 2001, applies new information and technology to current issues in the field of dairy cattle production. Reflecting the rapidly changing face of dairy cattle production and dairy science, it includes more comprehensive descriptions of management and environmental factors that affect nutrient requirements and provides expanded discussions of nutrient needs for various life stages and levels of production. A revised approach to predicting nutrient requirements increases the user’s responsibility for accurately defining animals, diet, and management conditions to estimate nutrient requirements. A benefit associated with the increased responsibility is the ability of the user to make more-informed decisions in the field. A substantial part of the increase in decision-making power comes from the presentation of requirements with a computer model. Computer models are the only effective means of taking animal variation into account. Unlike static tabular values, computer models such as the one provided in this edition can describe animals in different states with differing needs. A model can accommodate fluctuations caused by the effect of feed ingredients on nutrient absorption and consequently on the animal’s performance potential, which affects its nutrient requirements. The model prepared in this publication was designed to provide practical, situation-specific information in a user-friendly format. Chapter 1 presents a discussion of dry matter intake, including factors that affect intake and methods of predicting it. Characteristics of the animal’s diet, environment, and physiologic makeup are considered, as are relevant management issues. After a brief description of available equations for predicting dry matter intake, the chapter discusses the dry matter intake equations included in this edition and closes with tables and graphs of intake across a lactation. Chapter 2 addresses energy, defining energy units and expressing methods of obtaining, estimating, and expressing energy values of feeds. The chapter discusses energy requirements for maintenance, lactation, activity, and pregnancy. Tissue mobilization and repletion and the effects of environment are discussed. The chapter concludes with a section on body condition scoring, which is accompanied by a reference chart. Chapter 3 covers digestibility and energy values of fat. It contains information on effects of fat on rumen fermentation and the use of fat in lactation diets. A table of fatty acid composition of fats and oils is presented. A comprehensive review of carbohydrates is provided in Chapter 4. Nonstructural and structural carbohydrates are discussed, with special attention to requirements for neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). Chapter 5 covers all aspects of protein and amino acid nutrition. This chapter documents an extensive literature base used in the development of equations and provides detailed explanations for estimating metabolizable-protein requirements for maintenance, pregnancy, lactation, and growth. The amino acid section is a substantial advance over the previous edition and provides readers with a discussion of predicting passage to the small intestine and equations for estimating lysine and methionine requirements. Requirements for macrominerals and trace minerals, and information on toxic minerals appear in Chapter 6. Each category includes an extensive list of minerals and covers their function, bioavailability, requirements by different classes of dairy animals, toxicity, and symptoms of mineral deficiency. Chapter 7 covers vitamins in a similar fashion, dividing them into fat-soluble and water-soluble categories. Like the minerals in Chapter 6, the vitamins in Chapter 7 are 1 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html 2 Overview discussed in the context of the animals that will be ingesting them. Sources and bioavailability of vitamins are provided, followed by a discussion of the functions of each vitamin, animal response to it, requirements for it, and factors that affect the requirements. Metabolism and requirements open the discussion of water in Chapter 8. This chapter furnishes information on factors in the environment and the water itself that affect intake. Among the factors considered are nutrients in the water and the presence of bacteria and algae. Chapter 9 addresses important issues peculiar to dairy nutrition. It considers the feeding of the transition cow, metabolic disorders (such as udder edema and milk fever), and performance modifiers (such as buffering agents and directly fed microbials). Chapter 10 offers information specifically on the nutrient requirements of the young calf and Chapter 11 on the heifer, and aspects of growth, maturity, and body reserves. One of the most important features of this revision is the inclusion of a discussion on the effect of dairy cattle feeding on the environment. Chapter 12 provides an overview of nutrients of concern and applies science to the challenges faced by managers in reducing nutrient excretion. Chapter 13 provides a discussion of feed chemistry and processing. Analytic procedures are described, and the effects of processing on energy in feed are reviewed. Nutrient requirement tables are presented in Chapter 14. These tables were generated with the accompanying computer model. Tables are provided for small- and largebreed cows at various stages of lactation. Chapter 15 provides a greatly expanded set of feed composition tables and an explanation of their use. The tables include nutrient breakdowns for a comprehensive list of feedstuffs commonly present in dairy cattle diets and some feeds that are less common. Chapter 16 presents an evaluation of the computer model. Data from experiments in which 100 different diets were fed in continuous feeding trials and published in the Journal of Dairy Science were used in the evaluation. After the evaluation, the anatomy and use of prediction equations in the computer program are presented. An introduction to this edition’s computer model is present in a user’s guide. Finally, a glossary of terms used in this edition is provided to increase readers’ ease of use and comprehension. Although the science base for predicting nutrient requirements summarized here has greatly expanded since the previous edition of this report, there are still gaps in our knowledge, particularly for specific animals of different ages and levels of production. The users of this volume are encouraged to seek a firm understanding of the principles and assumptions described here, because this understanding is essential for proper use of the tables and text and of the computer model and its output. The estimates of nutrient requirements that are presented in this report for different classes of animals were generated as examples and are intended for use as guidelines by professionals in diet formulation. Because there are many factors that affect requirements of animals under various conditions, the values presented here cannot be considered all encompassing and should not be interpreted as accurate or applicable in all situations. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html 1 Dry Matter Intake Dry matter intake (DMI) is fundamentally important in nutrition because it establishes the amount of nutrients available to an animal for health and production. Actual or accurately estimated DMI is important for the formulation of diets to prevent underfeeding or overfeeding of nutrients and to promote efficient nutrient use. Underfeeding of nutrients restricts production and can affect the health of an animal; overfeeding of nutrients increases feed costs, can result in excessive excretion of nutrients into the environment, and at excessively high amounts may be toxic or cause adverse health effects. Many factors affect voluntary DMI. Individual theories based on physical fill of the reticulorumen (Allen, 1996; Mertens, 1994), metabolic-feedback factors (Illius and Jessop, 1996; Mertens, 1994), or oxygen consumption (Ketelaars and Tolkamp, 1996) have been proposed to determine and predict voluntary DMI. Each theory might be applicable under some conditions, but it is most likely the additive effect of several stimuli that regulate DMI (Forbes, 1996). Feeds low in digestibility are thought to place constraints on DMI because of their slow clearance from the rumen and passage through the digestive tract. The reticulorumen and possibly the abomasum have stretch and touch receptors in their walls that negatively impact DMI as the weight and volume of digesta accumulate (Allen, 1996). The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fraction, because of generally low rates of digestion, is considered the primary dietary constituent associated with the fill effect. The conceptual framework for the metabolic-feedback theory contends that an animal has a maximal productive capacity and maximal rate at which nutrients can be used to meet productive requirements (Illius and Jessop, 1996). When absorption of nutrients, principally protein and energy, exceeds requirements or when the ratio of nutrients absorbed is incorrect, negative metabolic-feedback impacts DMI. An alternative to the metabolic theory is the theory Ketelaars and Tolkamp (1996) proposed based on oxygen consumption. This theory suggests that animals consume net energy at a rate that optimizes the use of oxygen and minimizes production of free radicals that lead to aging. In addition to the complexity and interaction of the physical, metabolic, and chemostatic factors that regulate DMI is the psychologic and sensory ability of animals (Baumont, 1996). Consistently accurate prediction of DMI in ruminants has been difficult to achieve because a complicated, diffuse, and poorly understood set of stimuli regulate DMI. For additional discussions and reviews on intake, see Baile and McLaughlin (1987); Forbes (1995); Ketelaars and Tolkamp (1992a,b); Mertens (1994); National Research Council (1987). In lactating dairy cattle, milk production (energy expenditure) usually peaks 4 to 8 weeks postpartum, and peak DMI (energy intake) lags until 10 to 14 weeks postpartum (National Research Council, 1989). It has been debated whether milk production is driven by intake or intake is driven by milk production. On the basis of energy intake regulation theory and others (Baile and Forbes, 1974; Conrad et al., 1964; Mertens, 1987; National Research Council, 1989), cows appear to consume feed to meet energy needs, so intake is driven by milk production. This increase in energy intake in response to energy expenditure has been clearly shown in the numerous lactation studies with bovine somatotropin where DMI follows milk production (Bauman, 1992; Etherton and Bauman, 1998). EQUATIONS FOR PREDICTING DMI Lactating Cows Earlier editions of Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle used various approaches to predict DMI. The 1971 edition (National Research Council, 1971) simply recommended feeding ad libitum during the first 6 to 8 weeks of lactation, and then feeding to energy requirements after that for lactating dairy cows. In 1978 (National Research 3 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html 4 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle Council, 1978), DMI guidelines were established by using a set of selected studies to create an interpolation table. Body weight and 4 percent fat-corrected milk were factors used to estimate DMI, which ranged from 2 to 4 percent of body weight. The 1989 edition (National Research Council, 1989) predicted DMI on the basis of energy requirement theory and expressed it simply as DMI (kg) ס NEL required (Mcal) NEL concentration of diet (Mcal/kg) (1-1) where net energy of lactation (NEL) included requirements for maintenance, milk yield, and replenishment of lost weight. Suggested modifications for expected DMI were an 18 percent reduction during the first 3 weeks of lactation and DMI reduction of 0.02 kg per 100 kg of body weight for each 1 percent increase in moisture content of the diet above 50 percent when fermented feeds were being fed. The DMI guidelines in the 1989 publication were based entirely on energy balance (that is, over the long term, energy intake must equal energy expenditure). The method was not designed to estimate daily DMI in the short term. It required accurate estimates of changes in body tissue mass (although the equation was based on changes in body weight, it assumed that body weight changes equaled changes in body tissue mass) and accurate estimates of the concentration of NEL in the diet. Because of changes in gut fill and inaccurate measurements, short-term changes in body tissue mass and the energy needed or provided because of those changes are difficult to measure accurately, as is the concentration of NE L in the diet. To improve the utility of this report, the present subcommittee decided to include an empirical equation to estimate shortterm DMI. Several DMI prediction equations have been developed for use in the field, but only a few have been published in the scientific literature and tested for accuracy (FuentesPila et al., 1996; Roseler et al., 1997a). The equations reported in the literature are based on the principle that animals consume dry matter to meet energy requirements or are developed by regression of various factors against observed DMI. DMI prediction equations that include animal, dietary, or environmental factors have been developed by Holter and Urban (1992) and Holter et al. (1997). In the approach used to develop DMI prediction equations in this edition, DMI prediction is based on actual data with the inclusion of only animal factors, which would be easily measured or known. Dietary components were not included in models for lactating cows, because the approach most commonly used in formulating dairy cattle diets is to establish requirements and a DMI estimate before dietary ingredients are considered. Equations containing dietary factors are best used to evaluate postconsumption rather than to predict what will be consumed. DMI data published in the Journal of Dairy Science from 1988 to 1998 (see Chapter 16 for references) and data from Ohio State University and the University of Minnesota (May, 1994) were used in evaluating and developing an equation for lactating Holstein dairy cows. The data set included 17,087 cow weeks (5962 first lactation and 11,125 second lactation or greater cow weeks), a diverse set of diets, and studies with and without bovine somatotropin and encompassed a 10-year period from 1988 to 1997. Weeks of lactation ranged from 1 to 80; most data were from 1 to 40 weeks. Equations evaluated were those of Roseler et al. (1997b) and May (1994) and an equation reported by Rayburn and Fox (1993) based on DMI values in the 1989 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (National Research Council, 1989). The best overall prediction equation, based on bias ( 72.0מkg/day) and mean square prediction error (3.31 kg 2/day) was a combined equation of Rayburn and Fox (1993) and an adjustment for week of lactation developed by Roseler et al. (1997b). The equation for predicting DMI of lactating Holstein cows is DMI (kg/d) ן 273.0( סFCM ן 8690.0 םBW0.75) מ 1( ןe((ן291.0מWOL)))76.3ם (1-2) where FCM 4 סpercent fat corrected milk (kg/day), BW סbody weight (kg), and WOL סweek of lactation. The term 1 מe((ן291.0מWOL ))76.3םadjusts for depressed DMI during early lactation. For early lactation cows, Equation 1-2 was compared to those developed by Kertz et al. (1991) using the validation data from Kertz et al. (1991). Dry matter intake predictions for the first 14 weeks of lactation are shown in Figure 1-1. Equation 1-2 predicts DMI very closely to the actual DMI for the first 10 weeks of lactation and then slightly under predicts DMI thereafter compared to the general overall predictions of Kertz et al. (1991). FIGURE 1-1 Dry matter intake prediction of early lactation cows using Equation 1-2 and Kertz et al. (1991) equations. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Dry Matter Intake Equation 1-2 is based entirely on Holstein cows. No published DMI data were available for developing or modifying the current equation for use with breeds other than Holstein. For DMI of Jersey cattle, readers are referred to Holter et al. (1996). No adjustment to the DMI equation for parity is needed. The bias and mean square prediction error for primiparous ( 61.0מkg/day and 3.05 kg2/day) and multiparous (0.12 kg/ day and 3.20 kg2/day) were similar and were not different from the overall combined prediction equation statistics. However, body weight and milk production data appropriate for first and second lactation animals must be used in the equation to estimate DMI accurately for these animals. The actual DMI, FCM, and body weight data from animals used to develop and validate the lactating cow DMI prediction equation are shown in Figure 1-2. Body weight change is based on animals becoming pregnant by week 17 of lactation, so later weights reflect cow and conceptus gain during the lactation. The DMI of lactating cows is affected by environmental conditions outside the thermal neutral zone (5 to 20°C). Both Eastridge et al. (1998) and Holter et al. (1997) have shown DMI decreases with temperatures above 20°C. The equation used for predicting DMI of lactating cows (Equation 1-2) in this edition does not include a temperature or humidity adjustment factor because of insufficient DMI data outside of the thermal neutral zone to validate equation modifiers. However, use of lowered milk production in Equation 1-2 during heat stress periods will reflect the reduction in DMI commonly observed during heat stress periods. Eastridge et al. (1998) suggested the following changes occur in DMI when temperatures are outside of 30 a 25 (kg/day) DRY MATTER INTAKE 5 Dry Matter Intake (Multiparous Cows) 20 15 Dry Matter Intake (Primiparous Cows) 10 5 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 45 b 35 (kg/day) 4% FAT CORRECTED MILK WEEK OF LACTATION 4% Fat Corrected Milk (Multiparous Cows) 25 4% Fat Corrected Milk (Primiparous Cows) 15 5 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 WEEK OF LACTATION BODY WEIGHT, kg 700 c 650 600 Primiparous Multiparous 550 500 450 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 WEEK OF LACTATION FIGURE 1-2 a) Dry matter intake, b) 4 percent fat corrected milk production, and c) body weight change of primiparous and multiparous cows during 48 weeks of lactation. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html 6 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle the thermal neutral zone; temperatures Ͼ20° C, DMI ן (1 °(( מC ))229500.0 ן )02 מand temperatures Ͻ5° C, DMI/(1 ° מ 5(( מC) .))446400.0 ןApplication of the Eastridge et al. (1998) adjustment factors to a DMI prediction from Equation 1-2 based on lowered milk production during periods of heat stress may result in an excessively low prediction of DMI. Growing Heifers Published data on DMI of growing heifers weighing from 60 to 625 kg are sparse. Most research studies used fewer than 40 animals with a narrow weight range and limited experimental observation period. Dry matter intake equations from Quigley et al. (1986) and Stallings et al. (1985) and calf equation from the Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle (National Research Council, 1996) were selected for initial evaluation using data from New Hampshire and Minnesota where dietary composition, heifer growth, and DMI were measured over several months. The equation of Quigley et al. (1986) and the Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle equation (National Research Council, 1996) include dietary energy content and body weight. An equation based only on animal parameters was preferred to one including dietary components, however, the only published heifer DMI equation without dietary components found was from Stallings et al. (1985). On evaluation, the limited animal parameter equation of Stallings et al. (1985) was found to have a much larger prediction error, especially for heifers above 350 kg, than either the Quigley et al. (1986) or the National Research Council’s Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle (1996) equation, which had similar predictive accuracy (Table 1-1). Because of more current evaluation and a much larger validation data set than Quigley et al. (1986), the equation for beef calves from the 1996 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle (National Research Council, 1996) was further validated using a data set from Purina Mills, St. Louis, Missouri. This data set included 2727 observations on growing heifers ranging from 58 to 588 kg and dietary net energy-maintenance concentrations from 1.24 to 1.55 Mcal/kg. Based on the fit of the data from the initial evaluation and the validation (Figure 1-3), the National Research TABLE 1-1 Validation Statistics for Prediction of Dry Matter Intake by Heifers Equation source Bias, kg/d MSPE,a kg2/d Quigley et al. (1986) Stallings et al. (1985) National Research Councilb (1996) Calves 23.0מ 23.1מ 15.0מ 1.47 1.90 1.48 a b Mean square prediction error. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle (National Research Council, 1996). Council equation for beef cattle is recommended for predicting DMI of growing, nonlactating Holstein heifers. DMI (kg/d) ( סBW0.75 ן 5342.0( ןNEM ן 6640.0 מNEM2 /)8211.0 מNEM) (1-3) where BW סbody weight (kg) and NEM is net energy of diet for maintenance (Mcal/kg). No adjustments for breed, empty body fat, feed additives, or anabolic implant were made. There is a considerable difference in the DMI predicted from the growing heifer equation (Eq. 1-3) during late gestation and the equation used to predict DMI of heifers the last 21 days of gestation (Eq. 9-1, Chapter 9). To avoid a large disconnect in DMI between days 260 and 261 in the model, the following adjustment factor for Equation 1-3 based on days of gestation is applied to Equation 1-3: [1 מ 012(( םDG) ;])5200.0 ןwhere DG סday of gestation. The adjustment is applied for utility in model usage and is not validated. Reported information on DMI of growing heifers during the last trimester of pregnancy is nonexistent. Data for predicting DMI of growing heifers for breeds other than Holstein or adjusting Equation 1-3 to fit other breeds was not found. Likewise, there is a dearth of information for developing adjustments to Equation 1-3 for temperature and other environmental factors. Fox and Tylutki (1998) modified the temperature and mud adjustments listed in the Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle (National Research Council, 1996) for growing dairy heifers, but did not validate the adjustments because of the lack of data. Hoffman et al. (1994) have shown that season, type of housing, muddy conditions, length of hair, and body condition all affect average daily gain; and adjustments to energy requirements for gain were suggested, but effects on DMI were not evaluated. NUTRIENTS AND FEEDING MANAGEMENT RELATED TO DMI OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS Moisture Studies reviewed by Chase (1979) and included in the 1989 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (National Research Council, 1989) indicate a negative relationship between DMI and diets high in moisture content. A decrease in total DMI of 0.02 percent of body weight for each 1 percent increase in moisture content of the diet above 50 percent was indicated when fermented feeds were included in the ration. In a study using alfalfa silage to vary dietary DM, Kellems et al. (1991) found a trend of reduction in DMI with increasing moisture in the diet. Holter and Urban (1992) summarized data on 329 lactating Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Dry Matter Intake 7 source or sources of NDF in the diet as affected by particle size, digestibility, and rate of passage from the reticulorumen affect DMI. The use of NDF as a variable in DMI prediction models has been reviewed in two studies. Rayburn and Fox (1993) concluded that DMI prediction was most accurate and least biased when dietary NDF, particularly from forages, was included in a model with BW, FCM, and days in milk. However, in models for predicting DMI of lactating cows fed high energy diets ranging in NDF from 25 to 42 percent of DM, less than 1 percent of the variation in DMI was accounted for by dietary NDF (Roseler et al., 1997a). Forage to Concentrate Ratio FIGURE 1-3 Observed versus predicted dry matter intake of growing dairy heifers using beef calf equation from Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle (National Research Council, 1996). cows fed diets ranging from 30 to 70 percent DM and found that DMI was not decreased when dietary DM decreased to below 50 percent. Most high moisture feeds are fermented, and the decrease in DMI when they are fed is generally thought to result from fermentation end products and not water itself. When cows were given diets identical in composition except for the addition of water (78, 64, 52, or 40 percent DM in diets), DMI of cows increased linearly (P Ͻ 0.01) as percentage DM in the ration increased (Lahr et al., 1983). However, DMI was not affected by soaking grain mixes in water to achieve a dietary DM of 35, 45, or 60 percent (Robinson et al., 1990). Published reports on the relationship between dietary DM content and DMI are conflicting and no optimum DM content of the diet for maximum DMI is apparent. Neutral Detergent Fiber Mertens (1994) suggested that NDF be used to define the upper and lower bounds of DMI. At high NDF concentrations in diets, rumen fill limits DMI whereas, at low NDF concentrations energy intake feedback inhibitors limit DMI. Dado and Allen (1995) demonstrated the fill relationship in cows during early lactation: 35 percent NDF diets restrict DMI because of feed bulkiness and rumen fill, but DMI was not limited when 25 percent NDF diets were fed with or without inert bulk in the rumen. In a review on feed characteristics affecting DMI of lactating cattle, Allen (2000) summarized 15 studies and showed a general decline in DMI with increasing NDF concentrations in diets when diets exceeded 25 percent NDF. At any particular NDF concentration in the diet, however, a considerable range in DMI was observed suggesting the The ratio of forage to concentrate (F:C) in lactating dairy cow diets has been reported to affect DMI. Many of the study results are probably associated with the amount and digestibility of forage fiber and a propionate limiting effect on DMI as discussed by Allen (2000), rather than a specific ratio of forage to concentrate. In alfalfa or orchardgrass based diets, cows fed concentrate as 20 percent of the dietary DM produced less milk (P Ͻ 0.01) than cows fed diets that contained 40 or 60 percent concentrate (Weiss and Shockey, 1991). The DMI increased linearly (P Ͻ 0.01) with increasing concentrate in diets regardless of forage type. Digestible DM also increased linearly (P Ͻ 0.01) with increasing concentrate in the diet. Because intake of undigested DM was not affected by the amount of concentrate, rates of passage and digestion and physical characteristics of the feedstuffs are probable causes of differences in DMI. Llamas-Lamas and Combs (1991) fed diets with three ratios of forage (alfalfa silage) to concentrate (86:14, 71:29, and 56:44). DMI was greatest for the diet highest in concentrate but similar for the other two diets. Petit and Veira (1991) fed concentrate at either 1.3 or 1.8 percent of BW and alfalfa silage ad libitum (F:C, 63:37 and 54:46) to Holstein cows during early lactation. Both groups of cows ate similar amounts of silage, but cows consuming the highconcentrate diet gained weight, and animals consuming the low-concentrate diet lost weight. Similar results were observed by Johnson and Combs (1992): cows fed a 74 percent forage diet (2:1 alfalfa silage to corn silage) consumed 2.7 kg less DM per day than cows fed a diet containing 50 percent forage. In general, increasing concentrate in diets up to about 60 percent of the DM increased DMI. Fat Assuming that cows consume DM to meet their energy requirements (Baile and Forbes, 1974; Mertens, 1987; National Research Council, 1989), often less DM is consumed when fat replaces carbohydrates as an energy source Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html 8 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle in diets (Gagliostro and Chilliard, 1991). Fats may also decrease ruminal fermentation and digestibility of fiber (Palmquist and Jenkins, 1980; Chalupa et al., 1984, 1986) and so contribute to rumen fill and decrease the rate of passage. Allen (2000) also indicated fats may contribute to decreased DMI through actions on gut hormones, oxidation of fat in the liver and the general acceptability of fat sources by cattle. The response in DMI to the addition of fatty acids in lactating dairy cattle diets is dependent on the fatty acid content of the basal diet and source of added fatty acids (Allen, 2000). For the diets containing 5 to 6 percent total fatty acids, the addition of oilseeds and hydrogenated fatty acids to diets resulted in a quadratic effect on DMI with minimums occurring at 3 and 2.3 percent added fatty acids, respectively. Additions of tallow, grease, and calcium salts of palm fatty acids to diets resulted in a general negative linear decrease in DMI. Smith et al. (1993) reported ruminally active fats have a greater negative effect on DMI, ruminal fermentation, and digestibility of NDF when diets are high in corn silage than when they are high in alfalfa hay. Palmquist and Jenkins (1980) indicated that increased saturation of fatty acids usually reduces the negative ruminal effects associated with fats. However, Allen (2000) found that as the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in the fat source increased, DMI generally decreased. Most all of the studies that Allen (2000) cited fed the calcium salts of palm fatty acids. However, total digestible energy intake in many of the studies was not reduced, as digestibility of the calcium salts of palm fatty acids was high and greater than hydrogenated palm fatty acid comparisons. While the trend is for a reduction in DMI with the addition of fatty acids to diets (Allen, 2000; Chan et al., 1997; Elliot et al., 1996; Garcia-Bojalil et al., 1998; Jenkins and Jenny, 1989; Rodriguez et al., 1997), some studies (Pantoja et al., 1996; Skaar et al., 1989) have reported increases in DMI. Potential reasons for increased DMI with fat addition is a lower heat increment during periods of heat stress and/or a reduction in propionate inhibition on DMI when fat is substituted for grain (Allen, 2000). COW BEHAVIOR, MANAGEMENT, AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING FEED INTAKE Eating Habits and Cow Behavior Dado and Allen (1994) studied eating habits of lactating dairy cows housed in a tie-stall barn. Twelve Holstein cows ranging in milk production from 22 to 45 kg/d were monitored during the ninth week of lactation. The six highestproducing cows averaged 11 kg more milk per day and consumed about 6 kg more DM per day than the lowest- producing six cows. The time spent eating (average, 300 minutes/day) and the number of meals (average, 11/day) did not differ between the two groups, but the high-producing cows consumed more DM per meal than did the low-producing cows (2.3 vs. 1.7 kg). High-producing cows ruminate fewer times per day (13 vs. 14.5 times/day) but ruminate an average of 5 min more per rumination period than low-producing cows. Grouping cows according to their nutrient requirements can decrease the variation in DMI among cows within the group. The DMI shown in Figure 1-2 illustrates the difference between primiparous and multiparous cows in total DMI and pattern of DMI during lactation. Primiparous cows do not peak in DMI as early in lactation, but they are more persistent in DMI after peak than are multiparous cows. Thus, primiparous and multiparous cows should be grouped separately because of differences in DMI and social hierarchy. Primiparous cows are usually more timid and of lower social rank in the herd initially, but they gradually rise in social rank as more cows enter the herd or as older cows leave (Wierenga, 1990). Phelps and Drew (1992) reported an increase of 725 kg in milk over a 305day lactation for first-lactation animals when grouped separately instead of being mixed in with older cows. Behavior at the feed bunk is often affected by social dominance. Dominant cows, usually older and larger, tend to spend more time eating than do cows with a lower social rank in a competitive situation , such as when bunk space is restricted (Albright, 1993). Socially dominant animals, not necessarily the highest producers, tend to consume more feed at the bunk in these situations (Friend and Polan, 1974). In a situation of competition for feed, cows consume slightly more feed but do it in less time per day than when there is no competition and access to feed is ample (Olofsson, 1999). In 1993, Albright (1993) recommended at least 46 cm of bunk space per cow. Friend et al. (1977) evaluated bunk spaces of 50, 40, 30, 20, and 10 cm per cow, for early lactation cows with mature equivalent productions of 7,700 to 10,000 kg/year. Average time spent at the feed bunk (3.7 hours/day) did not decrease until only 10 cm of space per cow was available (Table 1-2). When there was 20 or 10 cm per cow, the correlation of dominance to duration of eating periods increased. The optimal or critical feed bunk space needed is probably not a constant number and will depend on competition between cows, the total number of cows having access to the feed space, and the availability of feed over a 24-hour period. For growing dairy heifers, feed-bunk space requirement varies with age. Longenbach et al. (1999) found that rapid growth in growing heifers fed a total mixed diet could be maintained in young heifers (4 to 8 months old) with 15 cm of bunk space. But, by the age of 17 to 21 months, Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html Dry Matter Intake TABLE 1-2 Effect of Bunk Space Per Cow on Feeding Behavior and Intake of Early Lactation Cowsa 9 at temperatures as low as 24° C with high humidity (Coppock, 1978). Feed Bunk Length Per Cow (cm) 50 Time at feed bunk, h Correlation of time with social dominance Percentage of time at feed bunk, % Daily feed intake, kg of DM 40 30 20 10 3.82 0.46 3.73 0.32 3.73 0.30 3.76 0.67 c 2.57 b 0.71d 21.5 26.9 34.6 51.9 70.6 17.5 17.6 17.8 16.9 15.7 a From Friend et al. (1977). b Differs from 50 cm feed bunk/cow. c Differs from zero (P Ͻ 0.05). d Differs from zero (P Ͻ 0.01). feed bunk space needed to be similar (47 cm) to that recommended for lactating cows. Cattle prefer mangers that allow them to eat off a smooth surface in a natural grazing position. Albright (1993) cited evidence showing cows eating with their heads down produce 17 percent more saliva than cows eating with their heads in a horizontal position. Feed-wasting activities associated with elevated bunks, such as feed tossing, are eliminated when cows eat with their heads down (Albright, 1993). Weather The thermal neutral zone of dairy cattle is about 5 to 20° C, but it varies among animals. Temperatures below or above the thermal neutral range alter intake and metabolic activity. Young (1983) stated ruminants adapt to chronic cold stress conditions by increasing thermal insulation, basal metabolic intensity, and DMI. Rumination activity, reticulo-rumen motility, and rate of passage are also increased (Young, 1983). However, in extreme cold, DMI does not increase at the same rate as metabolism, so animals are in a negative energy balance and shift energy use from productive purposes to heat production. A rise in ambient temperature above the thermal neutral zone decreases milk production because of reduced DMI. Holter et al. (1997) found pregnant multiparous middleto late-lactation Holstein cows decreased DMI more (22 percent) than primiparous cows (9 percent) at the same stage of lactation and pregnancy when subjected to heat stress. A decrease in DMI up to 55 percent of that eaten in the thermal neutral zone along with an increase of 7 to 25 percent in maintenance requirement has been reported for cows subjected to heat stress (National Research Council, 1981). Water consumption of cattle increases as ambient temperature increases up to 35° C, but further temperature increases decrease water consumption because of inactivity and low DMI. Similar effects as those observed under high temperature conditions can be seen in cattle Feeding Method—Total Mixed Ration vs. Individual Ingredient The goal of any feeding system or method is to provide the opportunity for cows to consume the amount of feed specified in a formulated diet. Considerations in the choosing of a feeding system should include housing facilities, equipment necessities, herd size, labor availability, and cost. Nutrients can be effectively supplied by feeding either a total mixed ration (TMR) or individual ingredients. A TMR allows for the mixing of all feed ingredients together based on a prescribed amount of each ingredient. When consumed as a TMR without sorting of ingredients, more even rumen fermentation and a better use of nutrients should occur than feeding of separate ingredients. Computerized or electronic feeders reduce the labor involved in individual-concentrate feeding and provide an opportunity to control and regulate concentrate feeding to cows through several small amount feedings each day. Limitations to feeding forages and concentrates separately are the forages as they are usually provided free-choice and the amount fed is usually unknown or individual cow amounts are calculated from a group average intake. Maltz et al. (1992) reported that cows fed a TMR or concentrate by computer feeders did not differ in milk production (32.7 vs. 32.7 kg/d) or differ much in DMI (19.7 vs. 20.4 kg/d) during the first 20 weeks of lactation. Allocation of concentrates through a computer feeder based on milk yield per unit of body weight was more successful in economizing on concentrate feeding without losses in milk production and management of body weight than allocation only by milk yield. Feeding Frequency It has been suggested that increasing the frequency of offering feed to cows increases milk production and results in fewer health problems. Gibson (1981) concluded in a review on feeding frequency that changing from one or two offerings of feed per day to four increased average daily gain of cattle by 16 percent and increased feed use by 19 percent. Improvements in gain or feed use were greatest when cattle were fed high-concentrate diets. In a review of 35 experiments on feeding frequency in lactating dairy cows, Gibson (1984) reported that increasing feedings to four or more times per day compared to once or twice increased milk fat percentage by an average of 7.3 percent and milk production 2.7 percent. Higher milk fat concentration with increased feeding frequency also was reported by Sniffen and Robinson (1984). The benefit of increased feeding frequency might be more stable and consistent Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001 http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9825.html 10 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle ruminal fermentation. When Robinson and McQueen (1994) fed a basal diet two times per day and then a protein supplement two or five times per day, production and composition of milk were not affected by the frequency of feeding protein supplement, but both pH and propionate concentration in the rumen were higher with five than with two feedings per day. Klusmeyer et al. (1990) reported that ruminal fermentation pattern and production of milk and milk components were not improved by increasing feedings from two to four times per day. Similar results were found with the feeding of concentrate two or six times per day as milk production, milk-component yield, DMI, or ruminal fermentation characteristics were not affected (Macleod et al., 1994). Fluctuations in diurnal patterns of ruminal metabolites probably have to affect microbial growth and fermentation adversely before a benefit of increasing feedings to more than two times per day will be seen. All of the studies reviewed for feeding frequency involved the actual offering of new feed to cattle and not the pushing in of existing feed to the manger. Whether the act of pushing feed in stimulates the same effects as the offering of new feed is unknown. In the study of Macleod et al. (1994), whenever fresh concentrate was offered to the cows fed concentrate six times per day, cows fed concentrate only twice per day would begin eating also, suggesting the act of feeding, or maybe pushing in feed, has a stimulating affect on eating. Sequence of Feeding Sniffen and Robinson (1984) hypothesized the following reasons for feeding forages as the first feed offered in the morning before concentrates. The feeding of highly fermentable carbohydrates to cows that have been without feed for over 6 hours could cause acidotic conditions in the rumen depressing feed intake and fiber digestion. Feeding forage(s) as the first feed in the morning before other feedstuffs would allow for the formation of a fiber mat in the rumen and provide buffering capacity in the rumen from both the forage and the increased salivation associated with forage consumption. Forages of medium to long chop length were advocated as they should prolong eating and thereby increase salivation and reduce particle passage from the rumen. However, evidence to support this hypothesis is lacking. In two studies (Macleod et al., 1994; Nocek, 1992) where legume forages were fed before concentrates, no effects on rumen fermentation characteristics, rumen pH or milk production were found. In both studies, feeding forage after concentrates resulted in a numerical increase in DMI compared to feeding forage before concentrate. Access to Feed Maximal DMI can only be achieved when cows have adequate time for eating. Data from Dado and Allen (1994) indicated early lactation cows (63 days in milk) producing 23 to 44 kg of milk per day fed a TMR ad libitum ate an average of 5 hours per day. Feed intake occurred during 9 to 13 (average of 11) eating bouts per day that averaged 29 minutes per bout. Mean DMI at each eating bout was about 10 percent of the total daily DMI, which ranged from 15 to 27 kg/day. Cows in this study (Dado and Allen, 1994) were housed in tie-stalls and had access to feed 22 of 24 hours per day. This study demonstrates there is a considerable difference in eating behavior between cows in a non-competitive feed environment and that the accessibility of feed must be considerably more than the 5 hours of actual eating time per day. Martinsson (1992) and Martinsson and Burstedt (1990) found that limiting the access of feed to 8 hours a day decreased milk production of cows averaging about 25 kg/day by 5 to 7 percent compared with cows that had free-choice access to feed. REFERENCES Albright, J.L. 1993. Feeding behavior of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 76:485– 498. Allen, M. S. 2000. Effects of diet on short-term regulation of feed intake by lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1598– 1624. Allen, M. S. 1996. Physical constrains on voluntary intake of forages by ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 74:3063– 3075. Baile, C. A., and J. M. Forbes. 1974. Control of feed intake and regulation of energy balance in ruminants. Physiol. Rev. 54:160– 214. Baile, C. A., and C. L. McLaughlin. 1987. Mechanisms controlling feed intake in ruminants: A review. J. Anim. Sci. 64:915– 922. Bauman, D. E. 1992. Bovine somatotropin: Review of an emerging animal technology. J. Dairy Sci. 75:3432– 3451. Baumont, R. 1996. 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