Referencing for Law (Nov 2013)
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Referencing for Law (Nov 2013)

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Referencing of Law: Introduction to OSCOLA

Referencing of Law: Introduction to OSCOLA

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Referencing for Law (Nov 2013) Referencing for Law (Nov 2013) Presentation Transcript

  • Referencing for Law: Introduction to OSCOLA Jackie Hanes Learning & Teaching Services Librarian October 2013 www.le.ac.uk
  • What is referencing? • Proper acknowledgement of another person’s work or ideas, by the way of in-text citations and an end-text reference list.
  • Why should I reference? • Good academic practice • Evidence to support your arguments • Enable others to follow your work • Avoid plagiarism!
  • What is plagiarism? • “Literary theft … the action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc., and passing it off as one's own”.1 • Plagiarism is a breach of the university’s regulations governing student discipline, and can result in failure of an assessment, module or degree. • 1. Oxford English Dictionary < http://www.oed.com >
  • When should I reference? • Direct quotation of books/articles • Paraphrasing books/articles • Refer to legislation or case law
  • What does a reference include? • Bibliographic information:– Author/Editor – Title – Edition – Publisher – Date – Page – Internet address
  • Which one is correct? • Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide (9th edn) Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. • Richard Pears and Graham Shields, Cite them right: the essential referencing guide, 9th edn (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013) • Richard Pears and Graham Shields, Cite them right: the essential referencing guide (9th edn, Palgrave Macmillan 2013)
  • What are referencing styles? • Rules that tell you how to reference:– What info to include in a reference – What order the info should be in – How the text should be formatted • Your department will have a preferred referencing style, and will provide their own referencing guidance in your student handbook • Always follow your department referencing style!
  • http://www.law.ox.ac.uk/publications/oscola.php
  • OSCOLA page 3 Footnotes • OSCOLA is a footnote referencing style: – Insert a numbered footnote in your essay – Add your reference to the footnote at the bottom of the page
  • How to create footnotes in Word • In Microsoft Word, type your sentence • Position the cursor at end of the sentence • Click on the References menu • Click on the Insert Footnote icon
  • OSCOLA page 10 Bibliography 1. Primary sources – legislation – case law – arranged alphabetically by title 2. Secondary sources – books and book chapters – journal articles – Other resources – arranged alphabetically by author
  • Order of author’s name Footnotes: • Firstname Surname Bibliography: • Surname Initial
  • OSCOLA page 34 Books • Author(s) or editor(s) • Title of the Book – Capitalise first letter of all major words • Edition • Publisher • Date of publication
  • Book example Footnote: • Lisa Webley, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013) Bibliography: • Webley L, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013)
  • Now reference this book …
  • Answer Footnote: • Emily Finch and Stefan Fafinski, Legal Skills (4th edn Oxford University Press 2013) Bibliography: • Finch E and Fafinski S, Legal Skills (4th edn Oxford University Press 2013)
  • OSCOLA page 35 Book chapters • Author(s) of chapter • ‘Title of chapter’ • Editor(s) of book • Title of the Book • Edition • Publisher • Date of publication
  • Chapter example Footnote: • Philip Handler, ‘Legal History’ in Dawn Watkins and Mandy Burton (eds), Research Methods in Law (Routledge 2013) Bibliography: • Handler P, ‘Legal History’ in Dawn Watkins and Mandy Burton (eds), Research Methods in Law (Routledge 2013)
  • Now reference this book chapter …
  • Answer Footnote: • Lucia Zedner, ‘The Pursuit of Security’ in Tim Hope and Richard Sparks, Crime, Risk and Insecurity (Routledge 2000) Bibliography: • Zedner L, ‘The Pursuit of Security’ in Tim Hope and Richard Sparks, Crime, Risk and Insecurity (Routledge 2000)
  • OSCOLA page 37 Journal articles • Author(s) • ‘Title of Article’ • Date • Volume • Abbreviation of Journal • Page
  • Journal example Footnote: • Graham Virgo, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221 Bibliography: • Virgo G, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221
  • Now reference this journal …
  • Answer Footnote: • Jacob Rowbottom, ‘To rant, vent and converse: protecting low level digital speech’ (2012) 71 CLJ 355 Bibliography: • Rowbottom J, ‘To rant, vent and converse: protecting low level digital speech’ (2012) 71 CLJ 355
  • OSCOLA page 42 Newspaper articles • Author(s) • ‘Title of Article’ • Title of Newspaper • Place of Publication • Date (Day Month Year) • Page
  • Newspaper example Footnote: • Nick Britten and Andrew Hough, ‘It’s him: Richard III rises from the grave’ Daily Telegraph (London, 5 February 2013) 11 Bibliography: • Britten N and Hough A, ‘It’s him: Richard III rises from the grave’ Daily Telegraph (London, 5 February 2013) 11
  • Now reference this newspaper …
  • Answer Footnote: • Marc Abrahams, ‘Improbable research: Crazy judges court disaster’ The Guardian (London, 27 February 2007) 12 Bibliography: • Abrahams M, ‘Improbable research: Crazy judges court disaster’ The Guardian (London, 27 February 2007) 12
  • OSCOLA page 42 Websites • Author(s) • ‘Title of Webpage’ • Title of Website • Date (day month year) • URL • Accessed date (day month year)
  • Website example Footnote: • David Hart, ‘Freedom of expression – nakedness in a public place’ (UK Human Rights Blog, 31 October 2013) < http://ukhumanrightsblog.com > accessed 15 November 2013 Bibliography: • Hart D, ‘Freedom of expression – nakedness in a public place’ (UK Human Rights Blog, 31 October 2013) < http://ukhumanrightsblog.com > accessed 15 November 2013
  • Now reference this website …
  • Answer Footnote: • Kayleigh Williams, ‘Work Experience: What’s Available?’ (The Student Lawyer, 7 November 2013) < http://thestudentlawyer.com/ > accessed 15 November 2013 Bibliography: • Williams K, ‘Work Experience: What’s Available?’ (The Student Lawyer, 7 November 2013) < http://thestudentlawyer.com/ > accessed 15 November 2013
  • OSCOLA page 33 Notes on authors • Multiple authors: – 1 author = Author1 – 2 authors = Author1 and Author2 – 3+ authors = Author1 and others • Corporate authors: – If organisation claims responsibility for the work, then cite as a corporate author
  • OSCOLA page 33 Notes on ebooks and ejournals • Electronic books, journal and newspaper articles can be cited as per the hard-copy: • “If you source a publication online which is also available in hard copy, cite the hard copy version”
  • OSCOLA page 33 Notes on page numbers • Include page numbers for direct quotations: Book: • Emily Finch and Stefan Fafinski, Legal Skills (4th edn Oxford University Press 2013) 25 Journal: • Graham Virgo, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221, 225
  • OSCOLA page 37 Note on ([Brackets]) • OSCOLA uses (round) and [square] brackets • Does the journal/case have a volume number? • Can you find it without knowing the year? – Yes – then the year is in (round) brackets – No – then the year is in [square] brackets
  • Legislation I Acts of Parliament: • Short Title Year • Human Rights Act 1998 Old Acts of Parliament: • Short Title Year (Regnal Year Chapter) • Crown Debts Act 1801 (41 Geo 3 c 90)
  • OSCOLA page 23 Now reference this Act …
  • Answer Footnote: • Higher Education Act 2004 Bibliography: • Higher Education Act 2004
  • OSCOLA page 26 Legislation II Statutory Instrument • Title Year, SI Year/Number • Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004 (Victims’ Code of Practice) Order 2013, SI 2013/2907
  • Now reference this Order …
  • Answer Footnote: • Channel Tunnel (Safety) Order 2007, SI 2007/3531 Bibliography: • Channel Tunnel (Safety) Order 2007, SI 2007/3531
  • OSCOLA page 24 Notes on sections • You can pinpoint to part of legislation:part/parts pt/pts section/sections s/ss paragraph/paragraphs para/paras schedule/schedules sch/schs regulation/regulations reg/regs rule/rules r/rr article/articles art/arts
  • OSCOLA page 13 Case law Cases reported after 2001: • Case Name Neutral Citation, Citation • Campbell v MGM [2004] UKHL 22, [2004] 2 AC 457 Cases reported before 2001: • Case Name Citation (Court) • Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562 (HL)
  • OSCOLA page 16 Neutral citations • Official vendor/media neutral citations • Identify case by year, court and number • http://www.bailii.org/bailii/citation.html Court Neutral Citation Supreme Court [Year] SC number Court of Appeal (Crim) [Year] EWCA Crim number Court of Appeal (Civ) [Year] EWCA Civ number High Court (x Division) [Year] EWHC (x Div) number
  • Now reference this case …
  • Answer Footnote: • McManus and others v Beckham [2002] EWCA Civ 939; [2002] 1 WLR 2982 Bibliography: • McManus and others v Beckham [2002] EWCA Civ 939; [2002] 1 WLR 2982
  • OSCOLA page 19 Note on pages You can pinpoint to part of the law report:Page in a law report: • Case Name Citation, # Paragraph in a judgment: • Case Name Citation [#]
  • OSCOLA page 28 EU legislation Treaties: • Title Year OJ Issue/Page • Treaty of Lisbon 2007 OJ C306/01 Regulations/Directives: • Type Number Title [Year] OJ Issue/Page • Council Regulation (EU) 1153/2013 of 15 November 2013 amending Regulation (EC) No 147/2003 concerning restrictive measures in respect of Somalia [2013] OJ L306/01
  • OSCOLA page 30 EU case law • Court of Justice: • Case Number Case Name [Year] Abbrev. Page • Case C-615/11P European Commission v Ryanair Ltd [2013] 3 CMLR 39
  • OSCOLA pages 5 & 34 Notes on short forms • Only provide full citation once - second and subsequent citations can be shortened: • “In subsequent citations of books and articles, cite only the author’s surname and provide a cross-reference to the footnote with the full citation”
  • Using short forms First citation: • 1 Emily Finch and Stefan Fafinski, Legal Skills (4th edn Oxford University Press 2013) Later citations: • 5 Finch and Fafinski (n1)
  • OSCOLA page 7 Notes on ibid • If citing the same book or article in the next footnote, you can also use the abbreviation ibid, meaning ‘in the same place’
  • Using ibid First citation: • 1 Emily Finch and Stefan Fafinski, Legal Skills (4th edn Oxford University Press 2013) Next citation: • 2 ibid
  • Recommended book on referencing
  • Recommended book on OSCOLA
  • Recommended tutorial on OSCOLA • Citing the Law – Link available from law subject page – https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/citingreferences/oscola/tutorial/
  • Bibliographic software • EndNote is bibliographic software that can help you with referencing: – Collect and organise your references – Add references in your referencing style – Create bibliographies in your referencing style • It is particularly useful for longer documents, for example dissertations and theses • You must understand OSCOLA to use EndNote
  • Questions • If you have questions about how to cite specific resources in the OSCOLA style, please email me on liblass@le.ac.uk