Purpose of presentation – address identified faculty concerns regarding how to motivate students for collaborative learning.First, let’s identify the term motivation.
Teacher’s have little control in changing these inherent individual characteristics that drive student behaviors.It is important to note that the differences in these two characteristics play a part in learner motivation. It is also important to note that these same differences vary when comparing the online classroom to the traditional f/f classroom.With this increased awareness, teachers can act accordingly to improve motivation that effects online collaboration.
Let’s explore some factors that affect student perception of online courses and how these factors may contribute to motivation.
All courses should be built on a theoretical foundation. This foundation considers the online learner audience and those factors that motivate each one to learn. An andragogical foundation (vs. pedagogical) focuses on adult learning needs. We will look at this in the next slide; however, this is a complete presentation in itself and we will consider a few aspects of this content here. Interestingly, most courses are built on a pedagogical ideology (Aragon, 2003; Knowles, 2005; Merriam, 2008) that focuses on the child and adolescent learner, and is not applicable to the adult learning environment. Adult learning theory must be applied when teaching the adult learner.
Online learning authorities contend that differences in learning are apparent when comparing adults to children (Albon & Jewels, 2009; Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2005). Let’s briefly look at these theoretical differences.An excerpt from previous learning (Holvoet, 2011) can be applied here (see next slide).
Age determines the extent of learner perceptions and influencing factors that create optimal learning. Cyril O. Houle, and later Allen Tough (cited in Knowles, et al., 2005) investigates learner characteristics. Learning characteristics of children:The need to know—learners only need to know what they must learn. There is no application to real-life situations (just a grade).The learner’s self-concept—is the same as the teacher’s concept; i.e. “that of a dependent personality.”The role of the learner’s experience—learner has little experience other than what teacher provides in the classroom setting.Readiness to learn—learners are ready to learn what the teacher tells them, to get a grade and get promoted.Orientation to learning—learners have a subject-centered orientation to learning that is organized to the logical sequence of the subject matter.Motivation—learners are motivated by external motivators, e.g. teacher’s approval or parental pressures. (Knowles, et al., 2005, pp. 62-63)Learning characteristics of adults:The need to know—learners needs to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it. This is one of two adult learning characteristics that has significant implications for adult education.The learner’s self-concept—learners self-concept is that of being responsible for own decisions, and for own lives. They want to be seen as being self directed. They resent other’s wills being imposed on them. Any activity labeled “education” or “training”, adults revert back to “prior conditioning from previous school experiences, put on their dunce hats of dependency, fold their arms, sit back, and say ‘teach me’;” thereby creating an internal conflict of their own self-concept. This conflict causes an impulse to “flee from the situation;” thereby increasing drop-out rate in adult education.The role of the learner’s experience—learners have a great quantity and different quality of experiences, secondary to their length of live. The richest resources for learning lay within the learner themselves. This along may generate both positive and negative aspects for learning. Reflecting of habits, biases, values, and attitudes enhance the learning process.Readiness to learn—”adults become ready to learn those things they need to know and be able to do in order to cope effectively with their real-life situations.” Developmental stages affect the learning process: Readiness to learn can be induced through models of performance, counseling, simulation, and more.Orientation to learning—adult learners are “life-centered (or task-centered or problem-centered) in their orientation to learning;” thus, interest is provided in learning tasks, skills, knowledge, only if it helps in performing tasks or dealing with real-life situations.Motivation –external motivators to learning are helpful (better jobs, promotions, increase pay, etc.); however the most potent motivators are internal pressures (desire for increased job satisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, etc.) Motivation is the second of two major adult learning characteristics in adult education that has significant implications in adult learning. (Knowles, et al., 2005, pp. 64-68) Aragon (2003) contends that even though we are aware of pedagogical- and andragogical-learning differences, we have managed to move the traditional learning setting into the online learning environment and continue the same style of teaching. He uses the terminology “talking from the teaching head and merely passing information to students” (pp. 32-33). Challenges for Online LearningReflection and dialogue: In reviewing learner characteristics… Reflect on your teaching style in relation to pedagogical- and andragogical-characteristics of learning? Consider these different learning expectations and determine where your learners are in relation to the definitions. How, or would you alter your teaching style, knowing there are differences in learning at different levels of maturity? List those things you would change; and those you would keep the same, in your teaching practice. Knowles, et al. (2005) stress that regardless of adult learning characteristics, when placed in a learning environment, the adult learner tends to revert to what is best known—assuming a passive learner-role, and being told what he or she needs to know—thereby creating an internal dissidence with each one’s self-concept. In that same context, Aragon (2003) lists traditional (and pedagogical) face-to-face forms of instruction that have purposely moved to the online environment that includes: “Recorded lectures, online readings, homework assignments, and online tests” (p. 33). Aragon (2003) asserts that for online learning to be effective, the instructional designer and the course instructor MUST seek a new paradigm of instruction. Challenges for Online LearningReflection and dialogue: In reviewing teacher methodologies for learning assignments… Reflect on your delivery of course instruction and learning assignments: Are these methods the best for online instruction? Are these methods the best for adult learners? Discuss different ways that learning can be enhanced in your area of expertise within an adult online nursing program.
Once the online course’s theoretical foundation is established a collaborative learning environment can be constructed using additional tools that engage the online learner. Thus, by making these changes the teacher can effectively motivate the learner and alter collaborative behaviors. Let’s look at several factors that motivate the online learner and establish effective collaboration.
Community and social presence are two significant components of online learning. Each has been a topic of research and influences the building of online communities and developing a sense of social presence (Blau, Mor, & Neuthab, 2009; Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009; Kassel, 2011; Schutt, Allen & Laumakis, 2009). Each component contributes to the student’s online learning motivation that further leads to a higher level of engagement and collaboration. Let’s look at each component separately.
Online education experts (Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009; Palloff & Pratt, 2007) identify specific instructional strategies that facilitate learning.
Online education experts (Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009; Palloff & Pratt, 2005) identify specific instructional strategies that facilitate learner participation in small group projects. Each results in an enhanced sense of community, increased skill acquisition, and better learning outcomes. (Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009, p. 1)
Blau, Mor and Neuthab’s (2009) research review establishes that if learners perceive social presence as positive in the online environment, then learning (student participation and student satisfaction) is also perceived positively. Unlike the traditional classroom, online social presence must be purposeful. Other authorities (Schutt, Allen & Laumakis, 2009) assert that care must be taken with different types of learning media which might detract from building social presence
While identifying the main issues of concern in effective online learning environments, a number of other concerns cannot go unnoticed.
A number of factors affect motivation and collaboration in the online learning environment. You are encouraged to take time and reflect on your own teaching practices as you work to enhance student learning.
Online Collaborative Issues How to Motivate Students June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 1
Motivation Teacher’s Expressed Concern Definition – “the act of giving somebody a reason or incentive to do something” (Merriam-Webster, 2011). Additional considerations that affect motivation June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 2
Considerations for online learning: Factors that affect student motivation. June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 4
Learning Foundation Pedagogy vs. Andragogy Important Considerations June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 5
Pedagogical vs. Andragogical Differences Differences in learning are apparent when comparing adults to children (Albon & Jewels, 2009; Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2005). Holvoet (2011) explores adult and child learning differences when exploring learning theory outlined next. June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 6
Teaching Considerations:Comparing Children and Adults June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 7
How does motivation and theoretical frameworks affect collaboration? Let’s tie these factors into the issue of collaboration in the online learning environment. June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 8
Collaboration Collaboration leads to community(Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009). Community is built on social presence (Blau, Mor, & Neuthab, 2009; Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009; Kassel, 2011; Schutt, Allen & Laumakis, 2009). June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 9
Community andSocial Presence Community and social presence are two significant components of online learning. June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 10
Smaller groups enhance discussion (Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009).
Effective course design attributes to student interaction with peers and course facilitator(Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009; Palloff & Pratt, 2007).
Instructor skill in managing online course activity (Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009). June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 11
Building Community—Benefits include: Development of critical thinking skills, Co-creation of knowledge and meaning, Reflection, Transformative learning. (Palloff & Pratt, 2005, p. 4) June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 12
Social Presence Defined as the ability to project oneself as real(Blau, Mor & Neuthab, 2009) Social presence in online classrooms is not the same as online interaction (Blau, Mor & Neuthab, 2009; Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009) Various types of learning media might detract from building social presence (Schutt, Allen & Laumakis, 2009). June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 13
Social Presence Responsibilities Both teacher and student play an active role that make up social presence. Behaviors include: contact between students and faculty; prompt instructor feedback; and cooperation among students when learning takes place online (Johnson & Card, 2007, p. 15). June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 14
Social Presence – a Teacher’s View Teaching Presence in Online Learning with Dr. Mark Kassel(Kassel, 2011). June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 15
Other topics of consideration include: Comfort level in using technology Assessing faculty and student technology requirements (Billings & Connors, n.d). Participation (Albon & Jewels, 2009). Reflective practice for instructors (Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009); and Reflective practice for students (Cercone, 2008). Building student confidence and skills (Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009; Palloff & Pratt, 2007). Instructor as mediator (Albon & Jewels, 2009). June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 16
Other Concerns Additional concerns – a reflection. June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 17
June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 18 References Albon, R., & Jewels, T. (2009). Beyond “read and discuss”: Promoting dynamic online interaction and humanness using mediated learning experience. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 22(3), 310-325. Aragon, S. (Ed.) (2003). Facilitating learning in online environments: New directions for adult and continuing education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Billings, D., & Connors, H. (n.d.). Best Practices in Online Learning. National League of Nursing Living Books. Retrieved on May 5, 2011 from http://www.electronicvision.com/nln/chapter02/index.htm Blau, I., Mor, N., & Neuthab, T. (2009). Open the windows of communication: Promoting interpersonal and group interactions using blogs in higher education. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning & Learning Objects, 5, 233-246. Brindley, J., Walti, C., & Blaschke, L. (2009). Creating effective collaborative learning groups in an online environment. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning,10(3), 1-18. Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design. AACE Journal, 16(2), 137-159. Holvoet, J. (2011). Teaching considerations: Comparing children and adults; Learner Characteristics. Northcentral University, EL7006. Kassel, M. (Apr 7, 2011). Teaching presence in online learning. You Tube. Retrieved May 16, 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9izxQXDgkNA&NR=1 Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (2005). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Burlington, MA. Elsevier. Merriam, S. (2008). Adult learning theory for the twenty-first century. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. doi: 10.1002/ace.309. Retrieved from www.interscience.wiley.com Merriam-Webster. (2011). Online dictionary. An Encyclopedia Britannica Company. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2007). Building online learning communities: Effective strategies for the virtual classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2005). Collaborating online: Learning together in community. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Shroff, R., & Vogel, D. (2009). Assessing the factors deemed to support individual student intrinsic motivation in technology support online and face-to-face discussions. Journal of Information Technology Education, 8, 59-85. Schutt, M., Allen, B.., & Laumakis, M. (2009). The effects of instructor immediacy behaviors in online learning environments. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 10(2), 135-148.