Online Collaborative Issues How to Motivate Students June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 1
Motivation Teacher’s Expressed Concern Definition – “the act of giving somebody a reason or incentive to do something” (Merriam-Webster, 2011). Additional considerations that affect motivation June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 2
Considerations for online learning: Factors that affect student motivation. June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 4
Learning Foundation Pedagogy vs. Andragogy Important Considerations June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 5
Pedagogical vs. Andragogical Differences Differences in learning are apparent when comparing adults to children (Albon & Jewels, 2009; Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2005). Holvoet (2011) explores adult and child learning differences when exploring learning theory outlined next. June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 6
Teaching Considerations:Comparing Children and Adults June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 7
How does motivation and theoretical frameworks affect collaboration? Let’s tie these factors into the issue of collaboration in the online learning environment. June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 8
Collaboration Collaboration leads to community(Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009). Community is built on social presence (Blau, Mor, & Neuthab, 2009; Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009; Kassel, 2011; Schutt, Allen & Laumakis, 2009). June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 9
Community andSocial Presence Community and social presence are two significant components of online learning. June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 10
Community building strategies:
Smaller groups enhance discussion (Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009).
Effective course design attributes to student interaction with peers and course facilitator(Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009; Palloff & Pratt, 2007).
Instructor skill in managing online course activity (Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009). June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 11
Building Community—Benefits include: Development of critical thinking skills, Co-creation of knowledge and meaning, Reflection, Transformative learning. (Palloff & Pratt, 2005, p. 4) June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 12
Social Presence Defined as the ability to project oneself as real(Blau, Mor & Neuthab, 2009) Social presence in online classrooms is not the same as online interaction (Blau, Mor & Neuthab, 2009; Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009) Various types of learning media might detract from building social presence (Schutt, Allen & Laumakis, 2009). June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 13
Social Presence Responsibilities Both teacher and student play an active role that make up social presence. Behaviors include: contact between students and faculty; prompt instructor feedback; and cooperation among students when learning takes place online (Johnson & Card, 2007, p. 15). June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 14
Social Presence – a Teacher’s View Teaching Presence in Online Learning with Dr. Mark Kassel(Kassel, 2011). June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 15
Other topics of consideration include: Comfort level in using technology Assessing faculty and student technology requirements (Billings & Connors, n.d). Participation (Albon & Jewels, 2009). Reflective practice for instructors (Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009); and Reflective practice for students (Cercone, 2008). Building student confidence and skills (Brindley, Walti & Blaschke, 2009; Palloff & Pratt, 2007). Instructor as mediator (Albon & Jewels, 2009). June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 16
Other Concerns Additional concerns – a reflection. June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 17
June 2011 HolvoetJEL7008-4 18 References Albon, R., & Jewels, T. (2009). Beyond “read and discuss”: Promoting dynamic online interaction and humanness using mediated learning experience. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 22(3), 310-325. Aragon, S. (Ed.) (2003). Facilitating learning in online environments: New directions for adult and continuing education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Billings, D., & Connors, H. (n.d.). Best Practices in Online Learning. National League of Nursing Living Books. Retrieved on May 5, 2011 from http://www.electronicvision.com/nln/chapter02/index.htm Blau, I., Mor, N., & Neuthab, T. (2009). Open the windows of communication: Promoting interpersonal and group interactions using blogs in higher education. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning & Learning Objects, 5, 233-246. Brindley, J., Walti, C., & Blaschke, L. (2009). Creating effective collaborative learning groups in an online environment. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning,10(3), 1-18. Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design. AACE Journal, 16(2), 137-159. Holvoet, J. (2011). Teaching considerations: Comparing children and adults; Learner Characteristics. Northcentral University, EL7006. Kassel, M. (Apr 7, 2011). Teaching presence in online learning. You Tube. Retrieved May 16, 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9izxQXDgkNA&NR=1 Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (2005). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Burlington, MA. Elsevier. Merriam, S. (2008). Adult learning theory for the twenty-first century. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. doi: 10.1002/ace.309. Retrieved from www.interscience.wiley.com Merriam-Webster. (2011). Online dictionary. An Encyclopedia Britannica Company. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2007). Building online learning communities: Effective strategies for the virtual classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2005). Collaborating online: Learning together in community. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Shroff, R., & Vogel, D. (2009). Assessing the factors deemed to support individual student intrinsic motivation in technology support online and face-to-face discussions. Journal of Information Technology Education, 8, 59-85. Schutt, M., Allen, B.., & Laumakis, M. (2009). The effects of instructor immediacy behaviors in online learning environments. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 10(2), 135-148.