Project Auditors LLCRequirements Quality•  Webinar given on January 24, 2013 to PMIRequirements Community of Practice byJo...
Project Auditors LLCThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without w...
Project Auditors LLCThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without w...
Project Auditors LLCThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without w...
Project Auditors LLCThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without w...
Project Auditors LLCWhy is the process of capturing and managingrequirements critical?This copyrighted material is the pro...
Project Auditors LLCCost of poor requirements•  2004 Study by the State of Indiana Dept ofTransportation–  The study also ...
Project Auditors LLCCost of poor requirementsThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may no...
Project Auditors LLCThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without w...
Project Auditors LLCRequirements Documents•  Business Requirements Document•  Statement of Work•  SpecificationsThis copyr...
Project Auditors LLCRequirements Documents•  Business Requirements Document•  Statement of Work•  Specifications•  Storybo...
Project Auditors LLCUse visualization tools•  Storyboards•  Building Information Modeling–  Use 4th Dimension: time to hel...
Project Auditors LLCNASA study on written requirementsquality1. Define the characteristics that should beexhibited by a Bu...
Project Auditors LLCDesirable Characteristics ofIndividual RequirementsUnambiguous – Onlyone possibleinterpretationCharact...
Project Auditors LLCWritten requirements•  Indicators of strength and weakness–  Individual Requirements•  Imperatives (sh...
Project Auditors LLCUsing Tables and Charts•  Identify each table and chart by a unique identifier.•  List each table and ...
Project Auditors LLCTool for Analyzing WrittenRequirements•  Based on NASA s ARM Tool–  http://www.solutionthree.com/sift-...
Project Auditors LLCRequirements Guidelines•  Terms & Definitions•  Requirements collection•  Management of changes•  Appr...
Project Auditors LLCWhy do requirements change?•  Reasons for changes related to design–  Design error–  Design omission– ...
Project Auditors LLCCan you verify requirements toimprove quality?Useful process BUTYou can not inspect in quality. Edward...
Project Auditors LLCSummary: Guidelines to promote ahigh level of quality in requirements•  Use simple, consistent definit...
Project Auditors LLCThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without w...
Project Auditors LLC23This copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without...
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2013 gumz webinar_requirements_quality_project_auditors

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Increasing Requirements Quality. Something from this presentation can be applied to increase requirements quality, no matter the type of project or industry: construction, IT, oil & gas, business process improvement. From a January 2013 webinar to PMI Requirements Community of Practice.

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2013 gumz webinar_requirements_quality_project_auditors

  1. 1. Project Auditors LLCRequirements Quality•  Webinar given on January 24, 2013 to PMIRequirements Community of Practice byJoy Gumz, Project Auditors LLCThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.1
  2. 2. Project Auditors LLCThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.Agenda•  Introductions•  The challenge to create quality requirements•  What does quality mean?•  Ways to increase requirements quality•  Summary•  Q & A2
  3. 3. Project Auditors LLCThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.Agenda•  Introductions•  The challenge to create quality requirements•  What does quality mean?•  Ways to increase requirements quality•  Summary•  Q & A3
  4. 4. Project Auditors LLCThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.What does quality mean?•  Do it right the first timeDIRTFT•  % rework <= target max %•  Setting a standard and meeting it•  Potential savings–  Lower percentage of rework–  Fewer changes–  Lower costs of external failure4
  5. 5. Project Auditors LLCThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.What does quality inrequirements mean?•  Requirements rework <= target maximum %•  Processes to collect and managerequirement follow organizational guidelines–  Consistent use of templates, models and tools•  Requirements meet criteria at individuallevel and for the requirements set•  Requirements reuse % > 05
  6. 6. Project Auditors LLCWhy is the process of capturing and managingrequirements critical?This copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.Source: Applications Executive Council Survey, April 2004 . Orange Park, Fla.6
  7. 7. Project Auditors LLCCost of poor requirements•  2004 Study by the State of Indiana Dept ofTransportation–  The study also found that the dominantcategory of reasons for change orders is errorsand omissions , a finding which is suggestive ofpossible shortcomings in current designpractices.–  2001: $17M cost overruns…..2004: $60M–  INDOT was average compared to other statesThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.7Source: An Analysis of Cost Overruns and Time Delays of INDOT Projects, 2004
  8. 8. Project Auditors LLCCost of poor requirementsThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.Relative cost to correct a requirements defect depending on when it was caughtSource: Grady, Robert B. 1999. An Economic Release Decision Model: Insights into Software Project Management. InProceedings of the Applications of Software Measurement Conference. Orange Park, Fla.8
  9. 9. Project Auditors LLCThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.Agenda•  Introductions•  The challenge to create quality requirements•  What does quality mean?•  Ways to increase requirements quality•  Summary•  Q & A9
  10. 10. Project Auditors LLCRequirements Documents•  Business Requirements Document•  Statement of Work•  SpecificationsThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.•  User scenarios–  A storyboard is one type•  Use cases•  User stories10
  11. 11. Project Auditors LLCRequirements Documents•  Business Requirements Document•  Statement of Work•  Specifications•  Storyboards•  User scenarios•  Use cases•  User storiesThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.TIP 1Choose the right document for the job- User storyboards, user scenarios oruse cases for new development- Use user stories for incrementalsoftware releases11Source: IBM Innovate Conference, 2010
  12. 12. Project Auditors LLCUse visualization tools•  Storyboards•  Building Information Modeling–  Use 4th Dimension: time to help visualizepotential problems during construction and/ormaintenance. 5th Dimension: cost. 6D: as built.•  Software tools–  Bentley, Autocad, Inventor, Blueprintsys.comThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.TIP 2: Help user visualize the end product by usingstoryboarding and/or simulation and visualization tools12
  13. 13. Project Auditors LLCNASA study on written requirementsquality1. Define the characteristics that should beexhibited by a Business Requirements Document2. Identify what could be measured3. Develop indicators of quality4. Develop a tool to perform the measurements5. Analyze the BRD documents in light of thereports generated by the tool6. Identify underlying problems and7. Develop recommended practices to preclude theproblemsSource: NASA Writing Requirements Guidelines, 200513This copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.
  14. 14. Project Auditors LLCDesirable Characteristics ofIndividual RequirementsUnambiguous – Onlyone possibleinterpretationCharacteristics of theCollectionCorrect – accuratelydescribes functionalityrequiredTestable – can beverified through test orinspectionNo design impact –states what is requiredbut not how to build itAchievable – ispractical within theconstraintsTraceable – must betraceable to and fromsource & ultimately toa business need.Complete – includes allthe requirements anddoes not need furtheramplificationConsistent –requirements may notconflictLogically grouped –essential for managingand, if needed,modifyingPrioritizedTIP 3: Keep these criteria in mind (e.g.checklist) when documenting requirements.Quality attributes14This copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.
  15. 15. Project Auditors LLCWritten requirements•  Indicators of strength and weakness–  Individual Requirements•  Imperatives (shall, must, will, should)•  Continuances (below, as follows, listed)•  Directives (figure, table, for example)•  Weak Phrases–  adequate, as a minimum, as applicable, easy, asappropriate, but not limited to, capability of, effective,if practical, normal•  Options Phrases (can, may, optionally)Source: NASA Writing Requirements Guidelines, 200515This copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.
  16. 16. Project Auditors LLCUsing Tables and Charts•  Identify each table and chart by a unique identifier.•  List each table and chart in the table of contents by title, uniqueidentifier and page number.•  Identify the purpose of the table or chart in the text immediatelypreceding it.•  Explain each aspect or element of the table or chart (columns,rows, symbols, blanks, etc.) from right to left then top to bottom.This copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.Source: NASA Writing Requirements Guidelines, 200516
  17. 17. Project Auditors LLCTool for Analyzing WrittenRequirements•  Based on NASA s ARM Tool–  http://www.solutionthree.com/sift-requirements-tool/–  More on NASA s guidelines•  http://www.projectauditors.com/Papers/writing_requirements_guidelines_NASA.pdf•  These LINKS Are Case SensitiveThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.ARM = Automated Requirements ManagementTIP 5: Use tool to analyze written requirements for quality relatedmetricsTIP 4: Improve written requirements and specs by using NASAguidelines17
  18. 18. Project Auditors LLCRequirements Guidelines•  Terms & Definitions•  Requirements collection•  Management of changes•  Approval process•  Templates•  Tools•  Quality checklistsThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.TIP 6Create organizationalguidelines that coverthese topics18
  19. 19. Project Auditors LLCWhy do requirements change?•  Reasons for changes related to design–  Design error–  Design omission–  Conflicting design information–  Late engineering change–  Field condition: reasonable for designer to check–  Field condition: unreasonable for designer to check–  Change required for constructability / operabilityThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.TIP 7: Log reason for changes to requirements, perform rootcause analysis and implement corrective action19
  20. 20. Project Auditors LLCCan you verify requirements toimprove quality?Useful process BUTYou can not inspect in quality. Edward DemingYou can validate them as you go through theproject to make sure1)  requirements have not changed or2)  something new has not come up20This copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.
  21. 21. Project Auditors LLCSummary: Guidelines to promote ahigh level of quality in requirements•  Use simple, consistent definitions for requirements described innatural language and use the business terminology that isprevalent in the enterprise•  Follow organizational guidelines that describe the collectiontechniques and the types of requirements to be collected thatwill be used consistently across projects- If no guidelines exist, the business analyst must select an appropriate setof techniques•  Produce a consistent set of models and templates to documentthe requirements•  Document dependencies and interrelationships amongrequirements.•  Use tools that promote better understanding of product such asvisualization and simulation•  Perform root cause analysis of changes to requirements andmake corrective actions21This copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.
  22. 22. Project Auditors LLCThis copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.Contact informationName: Joy Gumz, CPA, CISA, PMPEmail: jgumz@projectauditors.comPhone: +1.949.452.0578http://www.projectauditors.com22
  23. 23. Project Auditors LLC23This copyrighted material is the property of Project Auditors,LLC, and may not be reproduced without written permission.

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