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  • 1. ITIL®
  • 2. ITIL® !  Name !  Role and Responsibility !  Why do you want to attend this training? !  Any previous experience in ITIL(r) !  One Good service & One Bad Service
  • 3. ITIL® Module 1: Introduction to Service Management Lifecycle Principles of Service Management, Processes, The ITIL(R) Service Lifecycle Module 2: Service Strategy Concepts and Models, Processes Module 3: Service Design Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes Module 4: Service Transition Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes Module 5: Service Operations Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes and Functions Module 6: Continual Service Improvement Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes Module 7 : Summary and Exam Preparation Review of Key Concepts and Practice Exam
  • 4. ITIL® Day   Time   Topic   1  9.00  AM  -­‐  9.30  AM   Introduc2on   1  9.30.00  AM  -­‐  10.30  AM   ITIL(R)    History  &    ITIL(R)    Basics   1  10.30  AM  -­‐  10.45  AM   Tea  Break   1  10:45  AM  -­‐  12:45  PM   Service  Strategy     1  12:45  PM  -­‐  1.30  PM   Lunch  Break   1  1:30  PM  -­‐  3:30  PM   Service  Strategy   1  3:45  PM  -­‐  4.00  PM   Tea  Break   1  4:00  PM  -­‐  6:30  PM   Service  Design   2  9.00  AM  -­‐  9.30  AM   Re-­‐cap  of  Day1   2  9.30.00  AM  -­‐  10.30  AM   Service  Trans2on   2  10.30  AM  -­‐  10.45  AM   Tea  Break   2  10:45  AM  -­‐  12:45  PM   Service  Trans2on   2  12:45  PM  -­‐  1.30  PM   Lunch  Break   2  1:30  PM  -­‐  3:30  PM   Service  Opera2ons   2  3:45  PM  -­‐  4.00  PM   Tea  Break   2  4:00  PM  -­‐  5:00  PM   Service  Opera2ons   2  5.00  PM  -­‐  6.00  PM   CSI   2  6:00  PM  -­‐  6.30  PM     Re-­‐cap     2  6.30  PM  -­‐  7.30  PM   Exam
  • 5. ITIL® !  History of ITIL(r) !  ITIL(R) V3 Qualification Scheme: Credits System !  ITIL(R) Foundation !  ITIL(R) Service Life Cycle !  Basic Concepts of ITIL(r) !  Quiz
  • 6. ITIL® Originally created in late 80s by the UK government Now truly global and applicable to all IT Services Focus on process and roles rather than organisation Version 1 in 1991- focused on UK Government Version 2 in 2000 - Industry wide and took into account changes in technology ◦  Version 3 in June 2007 – Life Cycle Approach ◦  In 2010 Minister for the Cabinet Office announced the Best Management Practice functions had moved into the Cabinet Office. ◦  In 2014, the owner ship of ITIL transfer to Axelos from Cabinet Office. ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  ◦  !  ITSMF(IT Service Management Forum) ◦  The driver behind all things ITIL(R) taken over from OGC. ◦  Global "  USA, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil - Americas "  Australia, India, Singapore - Asia Pacific "  Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, UK - EMEA
  • 7. ITIL®
  • 8. ITIL® Type Online, Multiple choice, 40 questions. The questions are selected from the full ITIL(R) Foundation in IT Service Management examination question bank. Duration Maximum 60 minutes. Candidates sitting the examination in a language other than their native language have a maximum of 75 minutes Supervised Yes. Open Book No Pass Score 65% (26 out of 40) Where ? ATC( Accredited Training Centers) & Prometric. JAGSAR International is an Global ATC & AEC directly from AXELOS and operates Globally.
  • 9. ITIL®
  • 10. ITIL® !  Service & Service Owner !  Service Management !  Process & Process Owner !  Function !  Roles !  Metrics, Interfaces !  RACI !  PDCA !  Compliance & Governance
  • 11. #  #  #  Service #  A service is a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs and risks. Service Owner (vs. Service Manager) #  Role which is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT Service. #  Activities #  Initiation & Transition, Ongoing Maintenance & Support #  Monitoring & Reporting, Identifying improvement areas in Service #  Accountable for Service, Primary customer contact for the service Service Management #  A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services. ITIL®
  • 12. !  !  Process ITIL® ◦  A set of activities which are carried out in a given manner to achieve the desired objective ◦  A process is "  Measurable "  Yields desired result "  Delivers result to customers "  Responds to specific events or requirements Process Owner (vis-a-vis Process Manager) ◦  Role responsible for ensuring that a Process is Fit for Purpose. The Process Owner’s responsibilities include sponsorship, Design, Change Management and continual improvement of the Process and its Metrics. This Role is often assigned to the same person who carries out the Process Manager Role, but the two Roles may be separate in larger Organizations'.
  • 13. ITIL®
  • 14. #  #  #  #  ITIL® Function #  A Group of people & their tools used to carry out one or more processes or activities. For example Service Desk. #  Self contained Units, structuring of organization, Provide Stability #  Functions usually carryout a specialized task #  Different functions coordinate within themselves via processes Roles (vs. Designation) #  A set of authorities, responsibilities & activities assigned to individual or personnel Metrics or KPIs #  A measurement unit which imparts an ability to “Judge” the performance of a service Interfaces #  The overlaps or linkages between two or more processes #  Processes exchange data (input or output) via these linkages
  • 15. ITIL®
  • 16. ITIL®
  • 17. ITIL® #  #  #  Compliance is adherence to a Standard or Set of Guidelines or proper consistent practices Corporate Governance means to promote corporate Fairness, Transparency & Accountability IT Governance is an integral part of enterprise/corporate governance & it ensures that organization’s IT is in alignment with Strategies & Objectives
  • 18. ITIL®
  • 19. ITIL® The ITIL(R) V3 core is best described as? A. An Operations Lifecycle
 B. An IT Management Lifecycle
 C. A Service Lifecycle
 D. An Infrastructure Lifecycle Answer:  C
  • 20. ITIL® Which of the following statements defines Functions? 1. They design all the services within organization. 
 2. They are self-contained units with their own capabilities and resources 
 3. They are always the primary contact for the customer 
 4. They are costlier to implement compared to processes A. 3 
 B. 2 
 C. 4 
 D. 1 Answer:  B    
  • 21. ITIL® Which of the following statements are correct about Functions? 1. They provide structure and stability to organizations 
 2. They are self-contained units with their own capabilities and resources 
 3. They rely on processes for cross-functional coordination and control 
 4. They are costlier to implement compared to processes A. 1, 2 and 3only 
 B. 1, 2 and 4 only 
 C. All of the above 
 D. None of the above Ans.  A
  • 22. ITIL® Which of the following is NOT one of the ITIL(R) core publications? A. Service Optimization 
 B. Service Transition 
 C. Service Design 
 D. Service Strategy Ans.  A  
  • 23. ITIL® A Process owner is responsible for which of the following? A. Setting up functions B. Designing and documenting a Process 
 C. Responsible for all the processes in the organization 
 D. Accountable for ITIL(R) processes Answer:  B
  • 24. ITIL® Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a process? A.  It is measurable B.  Delivers specific results C.  Responds to specific events D.  A method of structuring an organization Answer:  D
  • 25. ITIL® What is the RACI model used for? A. Documenting the roles and relationships of stakeholders in a process or activity 
 B. Defining requirements for a new service or process 
 C. Analyzing the business impact of an Incident 
 D. Creating a balanced scorecard showing the overall status of Service Management Answer:  A
  • 26. ITIL® Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 1. Only one person can be responsible for an activity 
 2. Only one person can be accountable for an activity A. All of the above 
 B. 1 only 
 C. 2 only 
 D. None of the above Answer:  C  
  • 27. ITIL® Goals !  Objectives !  Scope !  Value creation !  Key principles !  Processes !  Quiz !
  • 28. ITIL® !  The main goal is to encourage Service Providers to stop and think about why something is to be done before thinking of how - that is, to think and act in a strategic manner.
  • 29. ITIL® !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  What services should we offer and to whom? How do we differentiate ourselves from competing alternatives? How do we truly create value for our customers and stakeholders? How can we make a case for strategic investments? How can Financial Management provide visibility and control over value creation? How should we define service quality? How do we choose between different paths for improving service quality? How do we efficiently allocate resources across a portfolio of services? How do we resolve conflicting demands for shared resources?
  • 30. ITIL® The scope of Service Strategy includes: !  Development of markets, internal and external !  Service assets !  Service Catalogue !  Implementation of strategy !  Financial Management, Demand Management, Service Portfolio Management and organizational development !  Strategic risks.
  • 31. ITIL® Value : The value of a service is therefore determined by what the customer prefers (preferences), what the customer perceives (perceptions) and what the customer actually gets (business outcome) Value creation : Resources and capabilities are types of asset. Organizations use them to create value in the form of goods and services.
  • 32. ITIL® Business case : A business case is a justification for a significant item of expenditure. It includes information about costs, benefits, options, issues, risks and possible problems. The business case should articulate the reason for undertaking a service or process improvement initiative. As far as possible, data and evidence should be provided relating to the costs and expected benefits of undertaking process improvement. In developing a business case, the focus should not only be on Return on Investment (ROI) but also on the business value that Service Improvement brings to an organization and its customers (Value on Investment – VOI).
  • 33. ITIL®
  • 34. ITIL® Risk !  Risk analysis !  Risk management !
  • 35. ITIL® "  Strategy management for IT services "  Demand management "  Service portfolio management "  Business relationship management "  Financial management for IT services
  • 36. ITIL®
  • 37. ITIL® The purpose of a service strategy is to articulate how a service provider will enable an organization to achieve its business outcomes; The objectives of strategy management for IT services are to: !  Analyse the internal and external environments in which the service provider exists, to identify opportunities that will benefit the organization. !  Identify constraints that might prevent the achievement of business outcomes, the delivery of services or the management of services; and define how those constraints could be removed or their effects reduced. !  Agree the service provider’s perspective and review regularly to ensure continued relevance. This will result in a clear statement of the vision and mission of the service provider.
  • 38. ITIL® The scope of strategy management is how a business strategy is used to develop a set of tactics and operations . The IT strategy is derived from the business strategy, but it also provides validation of the business strategy. The IT strategy can determine whether a strategic objective is technologically possible, and what level of investment would be required to meet that objective. The business is then able to decide on whether the objective should be included and at what priority.
  • 39. ITIL® !  Cost savings, since investments and expenditure are matched to achievement of validated business objectives, rather than unsubstantiated demands !  Increased levels of investment for key projects or service improvements !  Shifting investment priorities. The service provider will be able to de-focus attention from one service, and re-focus on another, ensuring that its efforts and budget are spent on the areas with the highest level of business impact.
  • 40. ITIL® STRATEGY: how a service provider will use services to achieve the business outcomes of its customers, thereby enabling the service provider (whether internal or external) to meet its objectives The four Ps of strategy: Perspective Positions Plans Patterns
  • 41. ITIL® !  Utility –Functionality offered by a Product or Service to meet a particular need. Utility is often summarised as "what it does". ◦  Fit for purpose Warranty –A promise or guarantee that a product or Service will meet its agreed Requirements. The requirements could be availability, capacity, continuity and security. ◦  Fit for use !
  • 42. ITIL® !  !  !  Type I Service Provider ◦  An Internal Service Provider that is embedded within a Business Unit. There may be several Type I Service Providers within an Organisation ◦  Each BU has it’s own service providers (e.g. HR, Finance etc.) Type II Service Provider ◦  An Internal Service Provider that provides shared IT Services to more than one Business Unit. ◦  Each BU uses services from single SSU (e.g. CSS) Type III Service Provider ◦  A Service Provider that provides IT Services to External Customers. ◦  BUs take services from different, authorized external vendors NOTE – In today’s world, most of the organizations prefer to use mixture of all types
  • 43. ITIL® !  Delivery model is a graphical representation of components that help organizations deliver services to customers ◦  Insourcing: Using internal providers only ◦  Outsourcing: Using external vendors ◦  Cosourcing: Combination of insourcing & outsourcing ◦  Partnership or multisourcing: A formal agreement between 2 or more organization to work together. AND/OR using 2 or more vendors to work together & usually interdependent on each other’s work ◦  BPO: Appointing external vendors to manage Business Function ◦  ASP: Application Service Provider to provide shared services (e.g. networks) ◦  KPO: Appointing external vendors to manage domain based processes/expertise
  • 44. ITIL® !  !  !  !  !  Forecasts and findings from external research are validated at the end of the planning period and found to be accurate within 5%. Number of corrective actions taken to remove constraints, and the result of those actions on the achievement of strategic objectives. Vision and mission statements have been defined and all staff members have been trained on what they mean in terms of their roles and jobs within the organization. Number of strategic objectives that are not met Number of changes to internal and external environments identified, compared with the number of changes made to strategy documents.
  • 45. ITIL®
  • 46. ITIL® The purpose of service portfolio management is to ensure that the service provider has the right mix of services to balance the investment in IT with the ability to meet business outcomes. The objectives of service portfolio management are to: #  Provide a process and mechanisms to enable an organization to investigate and decide on which services to provide, based on an analysis of the potential return and acceptable level of risk. #  Maintain the definitive portfolio of services provided, articulating the business needs each service meets and the business outcomes it supports. #  Provide a mechanism for the organization to evaluate how services enable it to achieve its strategy, and to respond to changes in its internal or external environments. #  Control which services are offered, under what conditions and at what level of investment.
  • 47. ITIL® The scope of service portfolio management is all services a service provider plans to deliver, those currently delivered and those that have been withdrawn from service. The primary concern of service portfolio management is whether the service provider is able to generate value from the services. Service portfolio management will therefore track investments in services and compare them to the desired business outcomes
  • 48. ITIL® #  Service portfolio management enables the business to make sound decisions about investments. Services cannot be implemented because they are a good idea or because they are an industry standard. They are implemented only if there is a good business case demonstrating a clear return on investment. Service portfolio management does this by comparing the outcomes that are expected by the customer with the investment required to build and deliver the service. #  Customers are able to understand exactly what the service provider will deliver to them and under what conditions, enabling them to make decisions about whether the service is a good or bad investment, and to evaluate additional opportunities that the service will open. In this way service portfolio management can also be a tool for innovation for the organization.
  • 49. ITIL® Service  Portfolio   New  Services   Services  in   pipeline   Existing  Services   Requirements  Gathering,     Analysis,  Approval,  Charter,   Developed,  Release,  Operational    Service  Catalog   Retired  Services   Stopped  services
  • 50. ITIL®
  • 51. ITIL® !  How Accurate & Up-to-Date Portfolio is !  Is the information contained relevant from Market perspective !  Is it in alignment with customer needs
  • 52. ITIL®
  • 53. ITIL® The purpose of financial management for IT services is to secure the appropriate level of funding to design, develop and deliver services that meet the strategy of the organization The objectives of financial management for IT services include: !  Defining and maintaining a framework to identify, manage and communicate the cost of providing services. !  Evaluating the financial impact of new or changed strategies on the service provider. !  Securing funding to manage the provision of services. !  Facilitating good stewardship of service and customer assets to ensure the organization meets its objectives. This should be done together with service asset and configuration management and knowledge management.
  • 54. ITIL® Financial management is normally a well- established and wellunderstood part of any organization. Professional accountants manage dedicated finance departments, which set financial policies, budgeting procedures, financial reporting standards, accounting practices and revenue generation or cost recovery rules.
  • 55. ITIL® !  !  !  !  !  !  Enhanced decision-making Speed of change Service portfolio management Financial compliance and control Operational control Value capture and creation.
  • 56. ITIL® Budgeting  This  is  the  process  of  predicting  and  controlling  the  income  and   expenditure  of  money  within  the  organization.  Budgeting  consists  of  a   periodic  negotiation  cycle  to  set  budgets  (usually  annual)  and  the  monthly   monitoring  of  the  current  budgets.   Accounting  This  is  the  process  that  enables  the  IT  organization  to  account   fully  for  the  way  its  money  is  spent  (particularly  the  ability  to  identify  costs  by   customer,  by  service  and  by  activity).  It  usually  involves  accounting  systems,   including  ledgers,  charts  of  accounts,  journals  etc.  and  should  be  overseen  by   someone  trained  in  accountancy.   Charging  This  is  the  process  required  to  bill  customers  for  the  services   supplied  to  them.  This  requires  sound  IT  accounting  practices  and  systems.   Funding:   Funding  is  the  sourcing  and  allocation  of  money  for  a  specific  purpose  or   project
  • 57. ITIL® #  Percentage of CIs with incorrect financial data
 #  Percentage of cost predictions that are incorrect
 #  Percentage of change management decisions where cost impact is omitted
 #  Staff time spent on costing activities
 #  Software/hardware overheads in collecting data for cost management
 #  Actual costs against budgeted costs
 #  Software license fees vs. available licenses
 #  Performance of suppliers
  • 58. ITIL®
  • 59. ITIL® The purpose of demand management is to understand, anticipate and influence customer demand for services and to work with capacity management to ensure the service provider has capacity to meet this demand . The objectives of demand management are to: #  Identify and analyse patterns of business activity to understand the levels of demand that will be placed on a service #  Define and analyse user profiles to understand the typical profiles of demand for services from different types of user #  Ensure that services are designed to meet the patterns of business activity and the ability to meet business outcomes #  Work with capacity management to ensure that adequate resources are available at the appropriate levels of capacity to meet the demand for services, thus maintaining a balance between the cost of service and the value that it achieves
  • 60. ITIL® The scope of the demand management process is to identify and analyse the patterns of business activity that initiate demand for services, and to identify and analyse how different types of user influence the demand for services. Demand management activities should include: !  Identifying and analyzing patterns of business activity associated with services !  Identifying user profiles and analyzing their service usage patterns
  • 61. ITIL® The main value of demand management is to achieve a balance between the cost of a service and the value of the business outcomes it supports. The other service strategy processes define the linkage between (and the investment required for) business outcomes, services, resources and capabilities. Demand management refines the understanding of how, when and to what level these elements interact. This enables executives to evaluate the real investment required to achieve business outcomes at varying levels of activity.
  • 62. ITIL® Patterns of Business Activity: •  A Workload profile of one or more Business Activities. Patterns of Business Activity are used to help the IT Service Provider understand and plan for different levels of Business Activity. •  Represents change in pattern of customers demands as provided by the customer •  Important to track as it helps the organization identify improvements in existing services or identify future opportunities •  PBA will help us understand changing business needs User Profile •  A pattern of User demand for IT Services. Each User Profile includes one or more Patterns of Business Activity. –  Users means people or even processes/functions etc. –  Is usually associated with one or more PBA
  • 63. ITIL® !  !  A detailed description of an IT Service that is available to be delivered to Customers. A Service Package includes a Service Level Package and one or more Core Services and Supporting Services. SLP has a defined level of Utility & Warranty for a given SP. Each SLP is designed to meet the needs of a particular Pattern of Business Activity. ◦  E.g. Providing 100 servers is a SP deal but some of them could be under Gold SLP and some could be under Silver SLP.
  • 64. ITIL®
  • 65. ITIL® !  !  !  !  !  Patterns of business activity are defined for each relevant service.
 Documented user profiles exist and each contains a demand profile for the services used by that type of user
 Capacity plans include details of patterns of business activity and corresponding workloads.
 Techniques to manage demand have been documented in capacity plans and, where appropriate, in service level agreements.
 Differential charging (as an example of one such technique) has resulted in a more even demand on the service over time.
  • 66. ITIL®
  • 67. ITIL® The purpose of the business relationship management process is two-fold: !  To establish and maintain a business relationship between the service provider and the customer based on understanding the customer and their business needs. !  To identify customer needs and ensure that the service provider is able to meet these needs as business needs change over time and between circumstances. The main objectives of business relationship management include: !  Ensure that the service provider understands the customer’s perspective of service, and is therefore able to prioritize its services and service assets appropriately !  Ensure high levels of customer satisfaction, indicating that the service provider is meeting the customer’s requirements
  • 68. ITIL® !  !  !  For internal service providers business relationship management is typically executed between a senior representative from IT (larger organizations may have dedicated BRMs) and senior managers (customers) from the business units. Here the emphasis is on aligning the objectives of the business with the activity of the service provider. In external service providers business relationship management is often executed by a separate and dedicated function of BRMs or account managers – each one dedicated to a customer, or group of smaller customers. The emphasis here is on maximizing contract value through customer satisfaction. Business relationship management focuses on understanding how services meet customer requirements.
  • 69. ITIL® The value of business relationship management is in the ability of the service provider to articulate and meet the business needs of its customers. Business relationship management creates a forum for ongoing, structured communication with its customers. This enables business relationship management to achieve better alignment and integration of services in the future, as well as to achieve the current business outcomes. The focus on customer satisfaction enables the service provider and customer alike to gauge how effectively the business objectives are being met.
  • 70. ITIL® Customer portfolio : The customer portfolio is a database or structured document used to record all customers of the IT service provider Customer agreement portfolio : The customer agreement portfolio is a database or structured document used to manage service contracts or agreements between an IT service provider and its customers. Customer satisfaction : Customer satisfaction is the most important point. People uses Voice of Customer as one of the tool for this. Service requirements : Throughout the service lifecycle business relationship management is involved in defining and clarifying requirements for service
  • 71. ITIL® !  !  !  !  Business outcomes and customer requirements are documented and signed off by the customer as input into service portfolio management and service design processes. Customer satisfaction and customer retention rates are consistently high.
 Every new service has a comprehensive set of requirements defined by business managers and staff, and these have been signed off by both business and IT leadership at the strategy, design and transition stages.
 The service provider is consistently rated above a defined minimum level in a structured customer satisfaction survey. ver time.
  • 72. ITIL®
  • 73. ITIL® “Warranty of a service” means which of the following? A. The service is fit for purpose
 B. There will be no failures in applications and infrastructure associated with the service
 C. All service-related problems are fixed free of charge for a certain period of time
 D. Customers are assured of certain levels of availability, capacity, continuity and security Answer  -­‐    D
  • 74. ITIL® Which of the following statements CORRECTLY defines Insourcing and Outsourcing delivery model options? A. Insourcing relies on internal resources; outsourcing relies on external organization(s) resources
 B. Insourcing relies on external organization(s) resources; outsourcing relies on internal resources
 C. Insourcing relies on co-sourcing; outsourcing relies on partnerships
 D. Insourcing relies on knowledge process outsourcing; outsourcing relies on application service provisioning Answer  -­‐    A
  • 75. ITIL® Which of the following statements is CORRECT about patterns of demand generated by the customer’s business? A. They are driven by patterns of business activity 
 B. It is impossible to predict how they behave 
 C. It is impossible to influence demand patterns 
 D. They are driven by the delivery schedule generated by capacity management Answer  -­‐    A
  • 76. ITIL® A Service Level Package is best described as? A. A definite level of utility and warranty associated with a core service package 
 B. A description of customer requirements used to negotiate a Service Level Agreement 
 C. A description of the value that the customer wants and for which they are willing to pay 
 D. A document showing the Service Levels achieved during an agreed reporting period Answer  -­‐    A
  • 77. ITIL® Which of the following questions is NOT answered by Service Portfolio Management? A. How should our resources and capabilities be allocated?
 B. What opportunities are there in the market?
 C. Why should a customer buy these services?
 D. What are the pricing or chargeback models? Answer  -­‐  B
  • 78. ITIL® The MAIN purpose of the Service Portfolio is to describe services in terms of? A.  B.  C.  D.  Service Level Requirements Functionality Business Value IT Assets Answer  -­‐  C
  • 79. ITIL® Service Investment Analysis helps an IT organization to A.  Identify the capital costs to be recovered from customers B.  Justify all incurred costs C.  Derive a value indication for the total lifecycle of a service D.  Specify the exact cost of services Answer  -­‐  C
  • 80. ITIL®
  • 81. ITIL® Goals !  Objectives !  Scope !  Key principles !  Processes !  Quiz !
  • 82. ITIL® The main goal is the design of a new or changed service for introduction into the live environment.
  • 83. ITIL® !  !  !  !  !  !  !  • To design services to satisfy business objectives • To design processes for the design, transition, operation and improvement of IT services • To identify and manage risks • To design secure and resilient IT infrastructures, environments, applications and data/information resources and capability • To design measurement methods and metrics for assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of Service Design • To produce and maintain IT plans, processes, policies, standards, architectures, frameworks and documents for the design of quality IT solutions • To develop the skills and capability within IT.?
  • 84. ITIL® There are five individual aspects in the scope of Service Design: !  The design of new or changed services !  The design of the Service Portfolio, including the Service Catalogue !  The design of the technology architecture and management systems !  The design of the processes, roles, responsibilities and skills required !  The design of measurement methods and metrics.
  • 85. ITIL® The four Ps :
  • 86. ITIL® A Service Design Package is a document defining all aspects of an IT service and its requirements through each stage of its lifecycle.
  • 88. ITIL®
  • 89. ITIL® The purpose of the design coordination process is to ensure the goals and objectives of the service design stage are met by providing and maintaining a single point of coordination and control for all activities and processes within this stage of the service lifecycle. The main objectives of the design coordination process are to: #  Ensure the consistent design of appropriate services, service management information systems, architectures, technology, processes, information and metrics to meet current and evolving business outcomes and requirements #  Coordinate all design activities across projects, changes, suppliers and support teams, and manage schedules, resources and conflicts where required #  Plan and coordinate the resources and capabilities required to design new or changed services #  Produce service design packages (SDPs) based on service charters and change requests
  • 90. ITIL® The scope of the design coordination process includes all design activity, particularly all new or changed service solutions that are being designed for transition into (or out of, in the case of a service retirement) the live environment. The design coordination process includes: !  Assisting and supporting each project or other change through all the service design activities and processes !  Maintaining policies, guidelines, standards, budgets, models, resources and capabilities for service design activities and processes !  Coordinating, prioritizing and scheduling of all service design resources to satisfy conflicting demands from all projects and changes !  Planning and forecasting the resources needed for the future demand for service design activities
  • 91. ITIL® The main value of the design coordination process to the business is the production of a set of consistent quality solution designs and SDPs that will provide the desired business outcomes. #  Through the work of design coordination organizations can: #  Achieve the intended business value of services through design at acceptable risk and cost levels #  Minimize rework and unplanned labour costs associated with reworking design issues during later service lifecycle stages #  Support the achievement of higher customer and user satisfaction and improved confidence in IT and in the services received
  • 92. ITIL® Design coordination activities themselves fall into two categories: !  Activities relating to the overall service design lifecycle stage These activities include the development, deployment and continual improvement of appropriate service design practices, as well as the coordination of actual design activity across projects and changes. These activities may be performed by design coordination process manager(s). !  Activities relating to each individual design These activities focus on ensuring that each individual design effort and SDP, whether part of a project or simply associated with a change, conforms with defined practices, and that they produce a design that will support the required business outcomes. These activities may be performed by a project manager or other individual with direct responsibility for the project or change, with the assistance and guidance of the design coordination process manager(s).
  • 93. ITIL® !  !  !  !  !  Reduction in the number of subsequent revisions of the content of SDPs. Increased satisfaction with the service design activities, within project and change staff . Reduced number of issues caused by conflict for service design resources. Reduced number and percentage of emergency change requests submitted by projects. Percentage increase in the number of transitioned services that consistently achieve the agreed service level targets.
  • 94. ITIL®
  • 95. ITIL® The purpose of the service catalogue management process is to provide and maintain a single source of consistent information on all operational services and those being prepared to be run operationally, and to ensure that it is widely available to those who are authorized to access it. The objectives of the service catalogue management process are to: #  Manage the information contained within the service catalogue #  Ensure that the service catalogue is accurate and reflects the current details, status, interfaces and dependencies of all services that are being run, or being prepared to run, in the live environment, according to the defined policies #  Ensure that the service catalogue is made available to those approved to access it in a manner that supports their effective and efficient use of service catalogue information #  Ensure that the service catalogue supports the evolving needs of all other service management processes for service catalogue information, including all interface and dependency information.
  • 96. ITIL® The scope of the service catalogue management process is to provide and maintain accurate information on all services that are being transitioned or have been transitioned to the live environment. The services presented in the service catalogue may be listed individually or, more typically, some or all of the services may be presented in the form of service packages. The service catalogue management process covers: #  Contribution to the definition of services and service packages #  Development and maintenance of service and service package descriptions appropriate for the service catalogue #  Production and maintenance of an accurate service catalogue #  Interfaces, dependencies and consistency between the service catalogue and the overall service portfolio
  • 97. ITIL® The service catalogue provides a central source of information on the IT services delivered by the service provider organization. #  Ensure a common understanding of IT services and improved relationships between the customer and service provider by utilizing the service catalogue as a marketing and communication tool. #  Improve service provider focus on customer outcomes by correlating internal service provider activities and service assets to business processes and outcomes. #  Improve efficiency and effectiveness of other service management processes by leveraging the information contained in or connected to the service catalogue
  • 98. ITIL® What is Service Catalog? A single source of information for all the current service offerings Includes Operational & in Transition Services E.g. Menu Card in a Hotel Service Catalog vs. Service Portfolio Service catalog is a part of Service Portfolio Service Portfolio depicts the services in their Business Value Terms i.e. Why customer would buy it from us Service Catalog depicts what service you would like to offer to customer (which will be based on customer needs) Service Portfolio is not usually available to be viewed by Customer or public whereas Service Catalog may be
  • 99. ITIL® Customer-facing services IT services that are seen by the customer. These are typically services that support the customer’s business units/business processes, directly facilitating some outcome or outcomes desired by the customer. Supporting services IT services that support or ‘underpin’ the customer-facing services. These are typically invisible to the customer, but essential to the delivery of customerfacing IT services.
  • 100. ITIL® !  !  !  !  Percentage reduction in the number of variances detected between the information contained within the service catalogue and the ‘real-world’ situation Percentage increase in completeness of the customer-facing views of the service catalogue against operational services Increase in measured business user access to intranet-based service catalogue Percentage increase in completeness of supporting services against the IT components that make up those services
  • 101. ITIL®
  • 102. ITIL® The purpose of the SLM process is to ensure that all current and planned IT services are delivered to agreed achievable targets. The objectives of SLM are to: !  Define, document, agree, monitor, measure, report and review the level of IT services provided and instigate corrective measures whenever appropriate !  Provide and improve the relationship and communication with the business and customers in conjunction with business relationship management !  Ensure that specific and measurable targets are developed for all IT services !  Monitor and improve customer satisfaction with the quality of service delivered
  • 103. ITIL® The SLM process should include: !  Cooperation with the business relationship management process: this includes development of relationships with the business as needed to achieve the SLM process objectives !  Negotiation and agreement of future service level requirements and targets, and the documentation and management of SLRs for all proposed new or changed services !  Negotiation and agreement of current service level requirements and targets, and the documentation and management of SLAs for all operational services !  Development and management of appropriate OLAs to ensure that targets are aligned with SLA targets !  Review of all supplier agreements and underpinning contracts with supplier management to ensure that targets are aligned with SLA targets
  • 104. ITIL® SLM provides a consistent interface to the business for all servicelevel-related issues. It provides the business with the agreed service targets and the required management information to ensure that those targets have been met. Where targets are breached, SLM provides feedback on the cause of the breach and details of the actions taken to prevent the breach from recurring. Thus SLM provides a reliable communication channel and a trusted relationship with the appropriate customers and business representatives at a tactical level.
  • 105. ITIL® Service Level Requirements (SLR) Service Level Agreements (SLA) Operational Level Agreements (OLA) Underpinning Contracts (UC)
  • 106. ITIL®
  • 107. ITIL® #  Percentage reduction in SLA targets threatened #  Percentage increase in customer perception and satisfaction of SLA achievements, via service reviews and customer satisfaction survey responses. #  Percentage reduction in SLA breaches caused because of third-party support contracts (underpinning contracts) . #  Percentage reduction in SLA breaches caused because of internal OLAs. #  Total number and percentage increase in fully documented SLAs in place #  Percentage increase in SLAs agreed against operational services being run. #  Percentage reduction in the costs associated with service provision
  • 108. ITIL®
  • 109. ITIL® The purpose of the availability management process is to ensure that the level of availability delivered in all IT services meets the agreed availability needs and/or service level targets in a cost-effective and timely manner The objectives of availability management are to: #  Produce and maintain an appropriate and up-to-date availability plan that reflects the current and future needs of the business #  Provide advice and guidance to all other areas of the business and IT on all availability-related issues #  Ensure that service availability achievements meet all their agreed targets by managing services and resources-related availability performance #  Assist with the diagnosis and resolution of availability-related incidents and problems #  Assess the impact of all changes on the availability plan and the availability of all services and resources
  • 110. ITIL® The scope of the availability management process covers the design, implementation, measurement, management and improvement of IT service and component availability. Availability management needs to understand the service and component availability requirements from the business perspective in terms of the: !  Current business processes, their operation and requirements !  Future business plans and requirements !  Service targets and the current IT service operation and delivery !  IT infrastructure, data, applications and environment and their performance !  Business impacts and priorities in relation to the services and their usage
  • 111. ITIL® The availability management process ensures that the availability of systems and services matches the evolving agreed needs of the business. The role of IT within the business is now pivotal. The availability and reliability of IT services can directly influence customer satisfaction and the reputation of the business. This is why availability management is essential in ensuring IT delivers the levels of service availability required by the business to satisfy its business objectives and deliver the quality of service demanded by its customers.
  • 112. ITIL® Availability Reliability Maintainability Serviceability Vital Business Function (VBF) High Availability Fault Tolerance
  • 113. ITIL® #  Percentage reduction in the unavailability of services and components #  Percentage increase in the reliability of services and components #  Effective review and follow-up of all SLA, OLA and underpinning contract breaches relating to availability and reliability #  Percentage improvement in overall endto-end availability of service #  Percentage reduction in the number and impact of service breaks #  Improvement in the MTBF
  • 114. ITIL®
  • 115. ITIL® The purpose of the capacity management process is to ensure that the capacity of IT services and the IT infrastructure meets the agreed capacity- and performance-related requirements in a cost-effective and timely manner. Capacity management is concerned with meeting both the current and future capacity and performance needs of the business. The objectives of capacity management are to: !  Produce and maintain an appropriate and up-to-date capacity plan, which reflects the current and future needs of the business !  Provide advice and guidance to all other areas of the business and IT on all capacity- and performance-related issues !  Ensure that service performance achievements meet all of their agreed targets by managing the performance and capacity of both services and resources !  Assist with the diagnosis and resolution of performance- and capacity-related incidents and problems
  • 116. ITIL® The capacity management process should be the focal point for all IT performance and capacity issues. Capacity management considers all resources required to deliver the IT service, and plans for short-, medium- and long-term business requirements. The capacity management process should include: !  Monitoring patterns of business activity through performance, utilization and throughput of IT services and the supporting infrastructure, environmental, data and applications components and the production of regular and ad hoc reports on service and component capacity and performance !  Undertaking tuning activities to make the most efficient use of existing IT resources !  Understanding the agreed current and future demands being made by the customer for IT resources, and producing forecasts for future requirements
  • 117. ITIL® A well-executed capacity management process will benefit the business by: !  Improving the performance and availability of IT services the business needs by helping to reduce capacity- and performance-related incidents and problems !  Ensuring required capacity and performance are provided in the most cost-effective manner !  Contributing to improved customer satisfaction and user productivity by ensuring that all capacity- and performancerelated service levels are met !  Supporting the efficient and effective design and transition of new or changed services through proactive capacity management activities
  • 118. ITIL® Business Capacity Management, Service Capacity Management & Component Capacity Management Capacity Management Information System Capacity Plan Performance Management, Modeling, Application Sizing
  • 119. ITIL® #  #  #  Business Capacity Management #  Prepare trend analysis, forecast model and develop the Capacity Plan in order to understand future business needs #  Modeling to estimate the best alternative for Capacity deployment Service Capacity Management #  Understand the functioning of the IT services, resource usage and variations to ensure that appropriate service agreements can be designed #  Report on Service profile of the use of services, manage demand for service Component Capacity Management #  The Process responsible for understanding the Capacity, Utilisation, and Performance of Configuration Items. #  Data is collected, recorded and analysed for use in the Capacity Plan #  Optimize use of the current IT resource components such as bandwidth, network capacity etc.
  • 120. ITIL®
  • 121. ITIL® – Production of workload forecasts on time – Percentage accuracy of forecasts of business trends – Timely incorporation of business plans into the capacity plan – Reduction in the number of variances from the business plans and capacity plans – Increased ability to monitor performance and throughput of all services and components – Timely justification and implementation of new technology in line with business requirements (time, cost and functionality)
  • 122. ITIL®
  • 123. ITIL® The purpose of the IT service continuity management process is to support the overall business continuity management (BCM) process by ensuring that, by managing the risks that could seriously affect IT services, the IT service provider can always provide minimum agreed business continuity-related service levels. The objectives of ITSCM are to: !  Produce and maintain a set of IT service continuity plans that support the overall business continuity plans of the organization !  Complete regular BIA exercises to ensure that all continuity plans are maintained in line with changing business impacts and requirements !  Conduct regular risk assessment and management exercises to manage IT services within an agreed level of business risk in conjunction with the business and the availability management and information security management processes !  Provide advice and guidance to all other areas of the business and IT on all continuity-related issues
  • 124. ITIL® The ITSCM process includes: !  The agreement of the scope of the ITSCM process and the policies adopted !  BIA to quantify the impact loss of IT service would have on the business !  Risk assessment and management – the risk identification and risk assessment to identify potential threats to continuity and the likelihood of the threats becoming reality. This also includes taking measures to manage the identified threats where this can be cost- justified. The approach to managing these threats will form the core of the ITSCM strategy and plans
  • 125. ITIL® ITSCM provides an invaluable role in supporting the BCM process. In many organizations, ITSCM is used to raise awareness of continuity requirements and is often used to justify and implement a BCM process and business continuity plans. ITSCM should be driven by business risk as identified by BCM, and ensure that the recovery arrangements for IT services are aligned to identified business impacts, risks and needs.
  • 126. ITIL® #  Business  Con2nuity  Strategy   #  Life  Cycle  Approach  to  ITSCM   #  Assessment  of  Changes  for  impact  on  ITSCM   #  Dormant  Contracts   #  Nego2ated/Compromised  SLAs     #  Regular  Tes2ng  –  Ongoing  as  a  part  of  Lifecycle  approach
  • 127. ITIL®
  • 128. ITIL® #  Immediate  recovery  –  hot  standby  (<24  hrs)  :  this  is  an  alterna2ve  site,  already  running  cri2cal  systems,  to  be   used  when  the  main  site  is  inaccessible  or  unusable.   #  Intermediate  recovery  –  warm  standby  (24-­‐72  hrs)  :  this  is  similar  to  Immediate  Recovery  except  that  cri2cal   systems  need  to  be  recovered  and  run.  This  usually  takes  between  24  and  72  hours.   #  Gradual  recovery  –  cold  standby  (>72  hrs)  :  an  empty  facility,  with  u2li2es,  support  staff  and  telecommunica2ons   equipment,  that  is  ready  to  accommodate  new  computer  equipment.
  • 129. ITIL® #  Increase in success of regular audits of the ITSCM plans to ensure that, at all times, the agreed recovery requirements of the business can be achieved. #  Regular successful validation that all service recovery targets are agreed and documented in SLAs and are achievable within the ITSCM plans. #  Regular and comprehensive testing of ITSCM plans achieved consistently. #  Regular reviews are undertaken, at least annually, of the business and IT continuity plans with the business areas. #  Regular successful validation that IT negotiates and manages all necessary ITSCM contracts with third parties. #  Overall reduction in the risk and impact of possible failure of IT services
  • 130. ITIL®
  • 131. ITIL® The purpose of the information security management process is to align IT security with business security and ensure that the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the organization’s assets, information, data and IT services always matches the agreed needs of the business. The objective of information security management is to protect the interests of those relying on information, and the systems and communications that deliver the information, from harm resulting from failures of confidentiality, integrity and availability.
  • 132. ITIL® The information security management process should include: !  Business security policy and plans !  Current business operation and its security requirements !  Future business plans and requirements !  Legislative and regulatory requirements !  Obligations and responsibilities with regard to security contained within SLAs !  The business and IT risks and their management.
  • 133. ITIL® Information security management ensures that an information security policy is maintained and enforced that fulfils the needs of the business security policy and the requirements of corporate governance. It raises awareness of the need for security within all IT services and assets throughout the organization, ensuring that the policy is appropriate for the needs of the organization
  • 134. ITIL® #  Confiden2ality     #  Informa2on  is  accessible  to  only  those  who  are  authorized  to  view  it   #  Integrity     #  Informa2on,  especially  while  being  communicated,  is  protected  against  unauthorized   modifica2on     #  Availability   #  Informa2on  is  invulnerable  to  a_acks  or  is  recoverable  in  secured  way  i.e.  it  is  available  (only   to  authorized)  when  it  should  be   Informa2on  Security  Policy   A  policy  of  an  organiza2on  which  ensures  the  compliance  to  Informa2on  Security  Objec2ves  &   specific  security  policies.   Security  Analysis  &  Controls   To  Analyze  the  threats  to  organiza2on’s  data/Informa2on  &  to  eliminate/minimize  the  same   To  provide  security  controls  (checkpoints)  at  various  levels  so  as  to  reduce  the  impact  of  security   breaches
  • 135. ITIL® #  Percentage decrease in security breaches reported to the service desk. #  Percentage decrease in the impact of security breaches and incidents #  Percentage increase in SLA conformance to security clauses #  Increase in the acceptance and conformance of security procedures #  Increased support and commitment of senior management #  Increased awareness of the security policy and its contents, throughout the organization
  • 136. ITIL®
  • 137. ITIL® The purpose of the supplier management process is to obtain value for money from suppliers and to provide seamless quality of IT service to the business by ensuring that all contracts and agreements with suppliers support the needs of the business and that all suppliers meet their contractual commitments. The main objectives of the supplier management process are to: !  Obtain value for money from suppliers and contracts !  Ensure that contracts with suppliers are aligned to business needs, and support and align with agreed targets in SLRs and SLAs, in conjunction with SLM !  Manage relationships with suppliers !  Manage supplier performance
  • 138. ITIL® The supplier management process should include: !  Implementation and enforcement of the supplier policy !  Maintenance of an SCMIS !  Supplier and contract categorization and risk assessment !  Supplier and contract evaluation and selection !  Development, negotiation and agreement of contracts !  Contract review, renewal and termination
  • 139. ITIL® The main objectives of the supplier management process are to provide value for money from suppliers and contracts and to ensure that all targets in underpinning supplier contracts and agreements are aligned to business needs and agreed targets within SLAs. This is to ensure the delivery to the business of end-to-end, seamless, quality IT services that are aligned to the business’s expectation
  • 140. ITIL®
  • 141. ITIL®
  • 142. ITIL® #  Increase in the number of suppliers meeting the targets within the contract #  Reduction in the number of breaches of contractual targets #  Increase in the number of service and contractual reviews held with suppliers #  Increase in the number of supplier and contractual targets aligned with SLA and SLR targets #  Reduction in the number of service breaches caused by suppliers #  Reduction in the number of threatened service breaches caused by suppliers
  • 143. ITIL®
  • 144. ITIL® “Which of the following is NOT a process within the Service Design publication? A. Service Portfolio Management B. Service Catalogue Management C. Service Level Management D. Supplier Management Answer  -­‐    A
  • 145. ITIL® Which of the following statements regarding Maintainability is/are correct? 1 Maintainability is concerned with how quickly and effectively a service, a service component or an individual CI can be restored to its normal working status following a failure 2 Maintainability is the measure of how long a service or service component can perform its agreed function without interruption 3  Maintainability is a measure of compliance to a contract by a supplier A.  1 Only B.  1 and 3 Only C.  2 Only D.  All the Above Answer  -­‐    A
  • 146. ITIL® Which of the following statements most accurately describes the overall goal of Information Security Management? A. To protect the interests of customers and users by protecting systems from harm caused by failure of availability, confidentiality or integrity
 B. To align IT security with business security requirements and to ensure that information security is effectively managed in all Service Management activities
 C. To produce and maintain an overall Information Security Policy that defines the organisation's stance and attitude on all security matters
 D. To develop an effective Information Security Management System that supports the business objectives and Information Security Policies Answer  -­‐    B
  • 147. ITIL® Which of the following statements is INCORRECT regarding Service Catalogue Management (SCM)? A. SCM is responsible for ensuring agreed details of all services currently being provided, or those being prepared for transition to the live environment, are included in a Service Catalogue
 B. SCM is responsible for ensuring customers are provided with informative data relating to the services being provided in the live environment, and that this information is current and relevant
 C. SCM is responsible for ensuring details of all pipeline services are included in the Service Catalogue
 D. SCM is responsible for ensuring service attributes, as agreed by the Service Level Manager and Service Portfolio Manager, are documented in the Service Catalogue and are kept under strict change control Answer  -­‐    C
  • 148. ITIL® Which of the following statements about Supplier Management is INCORRECT? A. Supplier Management negotiates internal and external agreements to support the delivery of services 
 B. Supplier Management ensures that suppliers meet business expectations 
 C. Supplier Management maintains information in a Supplier and Contracts Database 
 D. Supplier Management should be involved in all stages of the service lifecycle, from Strategy through Design and Transition to Operations and Improvement Answer - A
  • 149. ITIL® Which of the following items can be located in SCD? A. Services in Pipeline B. OLAs C. Contractor agreement details 
 D. IT services details Answer - C
  • 150. ITIL® Which of the following best describes Operation Level Agreements (OLA) A.  B.  An Operation section within Service Level Agreements Agreements between Customer, Service Provider & it’s vendor C.  Agreements between 2 vendors D.  Agreements with internal IT departments Answer - D
  • 151. ITIL® Which of the following represents Dormant Contract? A. A contract signed by Senior Managers and all IT staff
 B. A contract with customer for bringing up IT services as soon as they are down
 C. Contract which becomes active only during disaster/ triggers
 D. Contract used by Information Security Management staff only Answer - C
  • 152. ITIL®
  • 153. ITIL® Goals !  Objectives !  Scope !  Key principles !  Processes !  Quiz !
  • 154. ITIL® The main goals of Service Transition are: #  • To enable the business change project or customer to integrate a release into their business processes and services #  • To reduce Known Errors and minimize the risks from transitioning the new or changed services into production #  • To ensure that the service can be used in accordance with the requirements and constraints specified within the service requirements. The objectives of Service Transition are: #  • To plan and manage the resources to successfully establish a new or changed service into production within the predicted cost, quality and time estimates #  • To ensure there is minimal unpredicted impact on the production services, operations and support organization
  • 155. ITIL® The scope of Service Transition includes the management and coordination of the processes, systems and functions to package, build, test and deploy a release into production and establish the service specified in the customer and stakeholder requirements. The following activities are excluded from the scope of Service Transition best practices: !  • Minor modifications to the production services and environment, e.g. replacement of a failed PC or registration of a new user !  • On-going Continual Service Improvements that do not significantly impact on the services or Service Provider’s capability to deliver the services.
  • 156. ITIL® Define and implement a formal policy for service transition !  Implement all changes to services through service transition !  Adopt a common framework and standards !  Maximize re-use of established processes and systems !  Align service transition plans with the business needs !
  • 157. ITIL® !  Transition planning and support !  Change management !  Service asset and configuration management !  Release and deployment management !  Service validation and testing !  Change evaluation !  Knowledge management.
  • 158. ITIL®
  • 159. ITIL® The purpose of the transition planning and support process is to provide overall planning for service transitions and to coordinate the resources that they require. The objectives of transition planning and support are to: #  Plan and coordinate the resources to ensure that the requirements of service strategy encoded in service design are effectively realized in service operation. #  Coordinate activities across projects, suppliers and service teams where required. #  Establish new or changed services into supported environments within the predicted cost, quality and time estimates. #  Establish new or modified management information systems and tools, technology and management architectures, service management processes, and measurement methods and metrics to meet requirements established during the service design stage of the lifecycle.
  • 160. ITIL® The scope of transition planning and support includes: !  Maintaining policies, standards and models for service transition activities and processes !  Guiding each major change or new service through all the service transition processes !  Coordinating the efforts needed to enable multiple transitions to be managed at the same time !  Prioritizing conflicting requirements for service transition resources !  Planning the budget and resources needed to fulfil future requirements for service transition
  • 161. ITIL® Effective transition planning and support can significantly improve a service provider’s ability to handle high volumes of change and releases across its customer base. An integrated approach to planning improves the alignment of the service transition plans with the customer, supplier and business change project plans
  • 162. ITIL® #  The release policy should include the following: #  The unique identification, numbering and naming conventions for different types of release together with a description. #  The roles and responsibilities at each stage in the release and deployment process. #  The expected frequency for each type of release. #  The approach for accepting and grouping changes into a release. #  The mechanism to automate the build installation and release distribution processes to improve reuse repeatability and efficiency. #  How the configuration baseline for the release is captured and verified against the actual release contents e.g. hardware, software, documentation and knowledge. #  Exit and entry criteria and authority for acceptance of the release into each service transition stage.
  • 163. ITIL® #  Plan  and  coordinate  resources   #  Ensure  that  the  requirements  of  Service  Strategy  encoded  in  Service  Design   are  effec2vely  realized  in  Service  Opera2ons.   #  Iden2fy,  manage  and  control  the  risks  of  failure  and  disrup2on  across   transi2on  ac2vi2es.   #  Improve  a  service  provider’s  ability  to  handle  high  volumes  of  change  and   releases  across  its  customer  base.
  • 164. ITIL® ◦  Increase in the number of releases implemented that meet the customer’s agreed requirements in terms of cost, quality, scope and release schedule (expressed as a percentage of all releases). ◦  Reduced variation of actual versus predicted scope, quality, cost and time. ◦  Increased customer and user satisfaction with plans and communication. ◦  Reduced business disruption due to better alignment between service transition plans and business activities ◦  Reduction in number of issues, risks and delays.
  • 165. ITIL®
  • 166. ITIL® The purpose of the change management process is to control the lifecycle of all changes, enabling beneficial changes to be made with minimum disruption to IT services. The objectives of change management are to: !  Respond to the customer’s changing business requirements while maximizing value and reducing incidents, disruption and re-work. !  Respond to the business and IT requests for change that will align the services with the business needs. !  Ensure that changes are recorded and evaluated, and that authorized changes are prioritized, planned, tested, implemented, documented and reviewed in a controlled manner.
  • 167. ITIL® The scope should include changes to all architectures, processes, tools, metrics and documentation, as well as changes to IT services and other configuration items. All changes must be recorded and managed in a controlled way. The scope of change management covers changes to all configuration items across the whole service lifecycle, whether these CIs are physical assets such as servers or networks, virtual assets such as virtual servers or virtual storage, or other types of asset such as agreements or contracts. Each organization should define the changes that lie outside the scope of its change management process. Typically these might include: #  Changes with significantly wider impacts than service changes, e.g. departmental organization, policies and business operations – these changes would produce RFCs to generate consequential service changes. #  Changes at an operational level such as repair to printers or other routine service components
  • 168. ITIL® !  !  !  !  !  !  Reducing failed changes and therefore service disruption, defects and re-work Reducing the number of unauthorized changes, leading to reduced service disruption and reduced time to resolve change-related incidents Delivering change promptly to meet business timescales Tracking changes through the service lifecycle and to the assets of its customers Contributing to better estimates of the quality, time and cost of change Assessing the risks associated with the transition of services (introduction or disposal)
  • 169. ITIL® Types of change request : Standard change A pre-authorized change that is low risk, relatively common and follows a procedure or work instruction. Emergency change A change that must be implemented as soon as possible, for example to resolve a major incident or implement a security patch. Normal change Any service change that is not a standard change or an emergency change.
  • 170. ITIL® #  #  #  #  #  #  #  #  Request for Change (RFCs) Change Classification & Prioritization Forward Schedule of Changes (FSC) Projected Service Availability (PSA) Projected Service Outage (PSO) Back-Out Plan Change Advisory Board (CAB) CAB/Emergency Committee
  • 171. ITIL® Change Management Process Flow Request For Change (RFC) Problem Management Customer or other teams Line Manager Approval Change Manager CAB Meeting ITSCM, Capacity, BRM, ISM, SLM, R&D, Customer etc. FSC/PSA Implement Change Failure Back out Plan Update CMDB & Change Records Success Post Change Review Customer Sign Off
  • 172. ITIL® #  Increase in the percentage of changes that meet the customer’s agreed requirements, e.g. quality/ cost/time #  The benefits of change (expressed as ‘value of improvements made’ + ‘negative impacts prevented or terminated’) exceed the costs of change #  Reduction in the backlog of change requests #  Average time to implement meets SLA targets, based on urgency/priority/change type #  Increase in accuracy of predictions for time, quality, cost, risk, resource and commercial impact #  Increase in scores in survey of stakeholder satisfaction for the change management process
  • 173. ITIL®
  • 174. ITIL® The purpose of the SACM process is to ensure that the assets required to deliver services are properly controlled, and that accurate and reliable information about those assets is available when and where it is needed. This information includes details of how the assets have been configured and the relationships between assets. The objectives of SACM are to: #  Ensure that assets under the control of the IT organization are identified, controlled and properly cared for throughout their lifecycle. #  Identify, control, record, report, audit and verify services and other configuration items (CIs), including versions, baselines, constituent components, their attributes and relationships. #  Account for, manage and protect the integrity of CIs through the service lifecycle by working with change management to ensure that only authorized components are used and only authorized changes are made.
  • 175. ITIL® The scope of SACM includes management of the complete lifecycle of every CI. !  Service asset and configuration management ensures that CIs are identified, baselined and maintained and that changes to them are controlled. It also ensures that releases into controlled environments and operational use are done on the basis of formal authorization. It provides a configuration model of the services and service assets by recording the relationships between configuration items. SACM may cover non-IT assets, work products used to develop the services and CIs required to support the service that would not be classified as assets by other parts of the business. !  The scope includes interfaces to internal and external service providers where there are assets and configuration items that need to be controlled
  • 176. ITIL® !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  IT staff to understand the configuration and relationships of services and the configuration items that provide them Better forecasting and planning of changes Successful assessment, planning and delivery of changes and releases Resolution of incidents and problems within the service level targets Delivery of service levels and warranties Better adherence to standards, legal and regulatory obligations (fewer nonconformances) More business opportunities as the service provider is able to demonstrate control of assets and services Traceability of changes from requirements
  • 177. ITIL® A service asset is any resource or capability that could contribute to the delivery of a service. Examples of service assets include a virtual server, a physical server, a software licence, a piece of information stored in a service management system, or some knowledge in the head of a senior manager. A configuration item (CI) is a service asset that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT service. All CIs are service assets, but many service assets are not configuration items. Examples of configuration items are a server or a software licence. Every CI must be under the control of change management. A configuration record is a set of attributes and relationships about a CI. Configuration records are stored in a configuration management database (CMDB) and managed with a configuration management system (CMS). It is important to note that CIs are not stored in a CMDB; configuration records describe CIs that are stored in the CMDB.
  • 178. ITIL® !  Definitive Media Library !  Configuration Management System ◦  One or more locations in which the definitive and approved versions of all software Configuration Items are securely stored. The DML may also contain associated CIs such as licenses and documentation. The DML is a single logical storage area even if there are multiple locations. All software in the DML is under the control of Change and Release Management and is recorded in the Configuration Management System. Only software from the DML is acceptable for use in a Release. ◦  It is a system which controls & maintains the record if all CIs in a structured manner in 1 or more databases known as CMDB ◦  Stores Attributes of CIs, Relationship between CIs ◦  Consists of Multiple layers like Integration, Presentation etc. Presentation Layer /User Interface NOTE – CMDB can use Database technology, it can even be an Excel File Knowledge & Logic processing Data/Source information gathering CMDB1 Services CMDB2 H/W CMDB3 Policies
  • 179. ITIL®
  • 180. ITIL® #  Improved accuracy in budgets and charges for the assets utilized by each customer or business unit #  Increase in re-use and redistribution of under-utilized resources and assets #  Reduction in the use of unauthorized hardware and software, non-standard and variant builds that increase complexity, support costs and risk to the business services #  Reduced number of exceptions reported during configuration audits #  Percentage improvement in maintenance scheduling over the life of an asset (not too much, not too late) #  Improved speed for incident management to identify faulty CIs and restore service #  Reduction in the average time and cost of diagnosing and resolving incidents and problems (by type) #  Improved ratio of used licences against paid-for licences #  Improvement in time to identify poor- performing and poorquality assets
  • 181. ITIL®
  • 182. ITIL® The purpose of the release and deployment management process is to plan, schedule and control the build, test and deployment of releases, and to deliver new functionality required by the business while protecting the integrity of existing services. The objectives of release and deployment management are to: #  Define and agree release and deployment management plans with customers and stakeholders #  Create and test release packages that consist of related configuration items that are compatible with each other #  Ensure that the integrity of a release package and its constituent components is maintained throughout the transition activities, and that all release packages are stored in a DML and recorded accurately in the CMS #  Deploy release packages from the DML to the live environment following an agreed plan and schedule #  Ensure that all release packages can be tracked, installed, tested, verified and/or uninstalled or backed out if appropriate
  • 183. ITIL® The scope of release and deployment management includes the processes, systems and functions to package, build, test and deploy a release into live use, establish the service specified in the service design package, and formally hand the service over to the service operation functions. The scope includes all configuration items required to implement a release, for example: !  Physical assets such as a server or network !  Virtual assets such as a virtual server or virtual storage !  Applications and software !  Training for users and IT staff !  Services, including all related contracts and agreements.
  • 184. ITIL® !  !  !  !  Delivering change, faster and at optimum cost and minimized risk Assuring that customers and users can use the new or changed service in a way that supports the business goals Improving consistency in implementation approach across the business change, service teams, suppliers and customers Contributing to meeting auditable requirements for traceability through service transition.
  • 185. ITIL® !  !  !  !  !  Release Release Units Release Identification Types of Release Release Methods
  • 186. ITIL® #  Increased number and percentage of releases that make use of a common framework of standards, reusable processes and supporting documentation #  Increased number and percentage of releases that meet customer expectations for cost, time and quality #  Reduced number of CMS and DML audit failures related to releases #  Reduced number of deployments from sources other than the DML #  Reduced number of incidents due to incorrect components being deployed #  Number of incidents against the service (low and reducing)
  • 187. ITIL®
  • 188. ITIL® The purpose of the service validation and testing process is to ensure that a new or changed IT service matches its design specification and will meet the needs of the business. The objectives of service validation and testing are to: !  Provide confidence that a release will create a new or changed service that delivers the expected outcomes and value for the customers within the projected costs, capacity and constraints !  Quality assure a release, its constituent service components, the resultant service and service capability delivered by a release !  Validate that a service is ‘fit for purpose’ – it will deliver the required utility !  Provide assurance that a service is ‘fit for use’ – it will deliver the agreed warranty
  • 189. ITIL® Service validation and testing can be applied throughout the service lifecycle to quality assure any aspect of a service and the service providers’ capability, resources and capacity to deliver a service and/or service release successfully. When validating and testing an end-to-end service, the interfaces to suppliers, customers and partners are important. Service provider interface definitions define the boundaries of the service to be tested, e.g. process interfaces and organizational interfaces.
  • 190. ITIL® Service failures can harm the service provider’s business and the customer’s assets and result in outcomes such as loss of reputation, loss of money, loss of time, injury and death. Key values to the business and customers from service testing and validation are, firstly, confidence that a new or changed service will deliver the value and outcomes required of it and, secondly, an understanding of the risks
  • 191. ITIL® ! Types of testing. ! Test models ! Test strategy ! V-Model Testing
  • 192. ITIL®
  • 193. ITIL® ◦  Roles and responsibilities for impact assessment and test activities have been agreed and documented ◦  Increase in the number of new or changed services for which all roles and responsibilities for customers, users and service provider personnel have been agreed and documented ◦  Increase in the percentage of impact assessments and test activities where the documented roles have been correctly involved ◦  Increase in satisfaction ratings in stakeholder survey of the service validation and testing process ◦  Reduction in the impact of incidents and errors for newly transitioned services
  • 194. ITIL®
  • 195. ITIL® The purpose of the change evaluation process is to provide a consistent and standardized means of determining the performance of a service change in the context of likely impacts on business outcomes, and on existing and proposed services and IT infrastructure. The actual performance of a change is assessed against its predicted performance. Risks and issues related to the change are identified and managed. The objectives of change evaluation are to: !  Set stakeholder expectations correctly and provide effective and accurate information to change management to make sure that changes which adversely affect service capability and introduce risk are not transitioned unchecked !  Evaluate the intended effects of a service change and as much of the unintended effects as is reasonably practical given capacity, resource and organizational constraints
  • 196. ITIL® Every change must be authorized by a suitable change authority at various points in its lifecycle; for example before build and test, before it is checked in to the DML and before it is deployed to the live environment. Evaluation is required before each of these authorizations, to provide the change authority with advice and guidance
  • 197. ITIL® Change evaluation is, by its very nature, concerned with value. Specifically effective change evaluation will establish the use made of resources in terms of delivered benefit, and this information will allow a more accurate focus on value in future service development and change management. There is a great deal of intelligence that continual service improvement can take from change evaluation to inform future improvements to the process of change and the predictions and measurement of service change performance.
  • 198. ITIL® Evalua0on  plan  :   Evalua2on  of  a  change  should  be  carried  out  from  a  number  of  different  perspec2ves   to  ensure  that  unintended  effects  of  the  change  are  understood,  as  well  as  intended   effects.   Generally  speaking  we  would  expect  the  intended  effects  of  a  change  to  be   beneficial.  The  unintended  effects  are  harder  to  predict,  ocen  not  seen  even  acer   the  service  change  is  implemented  and  frequently  ignored.  Addi2onally,  unintended   effects  will  not  always  be  beneficial,  for  example  in  terms  of  impact  on  other   services,  impact  on  customers  and  users  of  the  service,  and  network  overloading.   Evalua0on  report  :   # Risk  profile       #Devia2ons   # A  qualifica2on  statement  (if  appropriate)   # A  valida2on  statement  (if  appropriate)       #A  recommenda2on
  • 199. ITIL® #  Reduced number of incidents for new or changed services due to failure to deliver expected utility or warranty. #  Increased stakeholder satisfaction with new or changed services as measured in customer surveys #  Increased percentage of evaluations delivered by agreed times. #  Reduced number of changes that have to be backed out due to unexpected errors or failures. #  Reduced number of failed changes. #  Increased change management personnel satisfaction with the change evaluation process as measured in regular surveys.
  • 200. ITIL®
  • 201. ITIL® The purpose of the knowledge management process is to share perspectives, ideas, experience and information; to ensure that these are available in the right place at the right time to enable informed decisions; and to improve efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge. The objectives of knowledge management are to: #  Improve the quality of management decisionmaking by ensuring that reliable and secure knowledge, information and data is available throughout the service lifecycle #  Enable the service provider to be more efficient and improve quality of service, increase satisfaction and reduce the cost of service by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge #  Ensure that staff have a clear and common understanding of the value that their services provide to customers and the ways in which benefits are realized from the use of those services
  • 202. ITIL® Knowledge management is a whole lifecycle-wide process in that it is relevant to all lifecycle stages and hence is referenced throughout ITIL(R) from the perspective of each publication. It is dealt with to some degree within other ITIL(R) publications, but this section sets out the basic concept, from a service transition focus.
  • 203. ITIL® Successful management of data, information and knowledge will deliver: !  Conformance with legal and other requirements, e.g. company policy, codes of professional conduct !  Documented requirements for retention of each category of data, information and knowledge !  Defined forms of data, knowledge and information in a fashion that is easily usable by the organization !  Data, information and knowledge that is current, complete and valid !  Data, information and knowledge to the people who need it when they need it
  • 204. ITIL®
  • 205. ITIL® ◦  Increased number of accesses to the SKMS by managers ◦  Increased percentage of SKMS searches by managers that receive a rating of ‘good’ ◦  Increased number of times that material is re-used in documentation such as procedures, test design and service desk scripts ◦  Increased number of accesses to the SKMS by service operation teams ◦  Reduced transfer of issues to other people and more resolution at lower staff levels ◦  Increased percentage of incidents solved by use of known errors
  • 206. ITIL®
  • 207. ITIL® Service Transition adds value to the business by improving: a. the management of the technology that is used to deliver and support services b. the success rate of changes and releases for the business c. the design of the IT processes d. the organizational competency for Continual Service Improvement. Answer  -­‐    B
  • 208. ITIL® Which of the following is NOT a Change type? a. Normal Change b. Emergency Change c. Known Change d. Standard Change Answers Answer  -­‐    B
  • 209. ITIL® Which of the following statements about the Service V-model are CORRECT? 1. Using a model such as the V-model builds in service validation and testing early in the Service Lifecycle. 2. The left-hand side of the V-model represents the specification of the service requirements down to the detailed Service Design. 3. The right-hand side of the V-model focuses on the validation activities that are performed against the specifications defined on the left-hand side. 4. Customers who sign off the agreed service requirements will also sign off the Service Acceptance Criteria and test plan: a. 1 only b. 2 and 3 only c. 1, 2 and 3 only d. All of the above. Answer  -­‐    C
  • 210. ITIL® Consider the following activities from the Change Management process. 1 Review the Change 2 Assess and evaluate the Change 3 Authorize the Change 4 Coordinate Change implementation 5 Review Request for Change. Which of the following options describes the CORRECT order of the activities? a. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 b. 1, 3, 4, 2, 5 c. 5, 3, 2, 4, 1 d. 5, 3, 4, 2, 1 Answer  -­‐    D
  • 211. ITIL® Which of the following statements about the Configuration Management System are CORRECT? 1 It will hold details of all of the components of the IT infrastructure as well as the relationships between these components. 2 At the data level, it consists of one and only one physical Configuration Management Database. 3 The Service Knowledge Management System includes the Configuration Management System. 4 It is maintained by Service Asset and Configuration Management. a. 1 only b. 2 and 3 only c. 1, 3 and 4 only d. All of the above.   Answer - C
  • 212. ITIL® How does Problem Management work with Change Management? A.  By installing changes to fix problems B.  By issuing RFCs for permanent solutions C.  By working with users to change their IT configurations D.  By negotiating with Incident Management for changes in IT for Problem resolution Answer - B
  • 213. ITIL® Which of the following are objectives of the Release and Deployment Management process? 1. To ensure there are clear release and deployment plans
 2. To ensure that skills and knowledge are transferred to operations and support staff
 3. To ensure there is minimal unpredicted impact on production services
 4. To provide cost justifiable IT capacity that is matched to the needs of the business A. 1, 2 and 3 only
 B. All of the above
 C. 1 and 3 only
 D. 1, 3 and 4 only Answer - A
  • 214. ITIL® What does the Service V model represent? A. A strategy for the successful completion of all Service Management projects 
 B. The path to Service Delivery and Service Support for efficient and effective utilization of resources 
 C. Levels of Configuration and testing required to deliver a Service Capability 
 D. The business perspective as perceived by the customer and the user of services Answer - C
  • 215. ITIL® What is the main reason for establishing a baseline? A. To standardize operation 
 B. For knowing the cost of services provided 
 C. For roles and responsibility to be clear 
 D. For later comparison Answer - D
  • 216. ITIL®
  • 217. ITIL® Goals !  Objectives !  Scope !  Key principles !  Processes !  Quiz !
  • 218. ITIL® The main goal is to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery and support of services and to maintain stability while at the same time allowing for changes and improvement. The objectives of Service Operation are: !  • To coordinate and carry out the activities and processes required to deliver and manage services at agreed levels to the business users and customers !  • To manage the technology that is used to deliver and support services.
  • 219. ITIL® Service Operation includes the execution of all ongoing activities required to deliver and support services. The scope of Service Operation includes: !  The services themselves – any activity that forms part of a service is included in Service Operation, whether it is performed by the Service Provider, an external supplier or the user or customer of that service. !  Service Management processes – the ongoing management and execution of many Service Management processes are performed in Service Operation, even though a number of ITIL(R) processes originate at the Service Design or Service Transition stage of the Service Lifecycle, they are in use continually in Service Operation. !  Technology – all services require some form of technology to deliver them. Managing this technology is not a separate issue, but an integral part of the management of the services themselves. !  People – regardless of what services, processes and technology are managed, they are all about people.
  • 220. ITIL® Keeping the balance #  IT Services vs. Technology (External Business View vs. Internal IT view) #  Stability vs. Responsiveness #  Quality of Service vs. Cost of Service #  Reactive vs. proactive
  • 221. ITIL® Event management !  Incident management !  Request fulfillment !  Problem management !  Access management. !
  • 222. ITIL®
  • 223. ITIL® The purpose of event management is to manage events throughout their lifecycle. This lifecycle of activities to detect events, make sense of them and determine the appropriate control action is coordinated by the event management process. The objectives of the event management process are to: !  Detect all changes of state that have significance for the management of a CI or IT service !  Determine the appropriate control action for events and ensure these are communicated to the appropriate functions !  Provide the trigger, or entry point, for the execution of many service operation processes and operations management activities !  Provide the means to compare actual operating performance and behaviour against design standards and SLAs
  • 224. ITIL® Event management can be applied to any aspect of service management that needs to be controlled and which can be automated. This includes: !  Configuration items (CIs): ◦  Some CIs will be included because they need to stay in a constant state (e.g. a switch on a network needs to stay on and event management tools confirm this by monitoring responses to ‘pings’) ◦  Some CIs will be included because their status needs to change frequently and event management can be used to automate this and update the configuration management system (CMS) (e.g. the updating of a file server) !  Environmental conditions (e.g. fire and smoke detection) !  Software licence monitoring for usage to ensure optimum/ legal licence utilization and allocation !  Security (e.g. intrusion detection)
  • 225. ITIL® !  !  !  Event management provides mechanisms for early detection of incidents. In many cases it is possible for the incident to be detected and assigned to the appropriate group for action before any actual service outage occurs. Event management makes it possible for some types of automated activity to be monitored by exception – thus removing the need for expensive and resource-intensive realtime monitoring, while reducing downtime. When integrated into other service management processes (such as, for example, availability or capacity management), event management can signal status changes or exceptions that allow the appropriate person or team to perform early response, thus improving the performance of the process. This, in turn, will allow the business to benefit from more effective and more efficient service management overall.
  • 226. ITIL® #  Event   #   A  change  of  state  which  has  significance  for  the  management   of  a  Configura2on  Item  or  IT  Service.     #  The  term  Event  is  also  used  to  mean  an  Alert  or  no2fica2on   created  by  any  IT  Service,  Configura2on  Item  or  Monitoring   tool.  Events  typically  require  IT  Opera2ons  personnel  to  take   ac2ons,  and  ocen  lead  to  Incidents  being  logged.     #  e.g.  A  mirrored  Raid  Disk  has  failed.   #  Event  Management   #   A  process  of  managing  the  events  throughout  their  lifecycle   #   Typically  done  by  IT  Opera2on  Staff
  • 227. ITIL® Information An event which is only meant to provide information E.g. Backup job completed Usage To check status of activity, device To get statistics Warning Event meant as a proactive measure to indicate that a service or device is reaching a threshold E.g. Network traffic reaching a congestion point Exception Event which indicates that a service or a device is behaving abnormally (against a defined behavior) E.g. a server is down
  • 229. ITIL® –  Number and ratio of events compared with the number of incidents –  Number and percentage of events that required human intervention and whether this was performed –  Number and percentage of events that required human intervention and whether this was performed –  Number and percentage of events that resulted in incidents or changes –  Number and percentage of events caused by existing problems or known errors (this may result in a change to the priority of work on that problem or known error)
  • 230. ITIL®
  • 231. ITIL® The purpose of incident management is to restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimize the adverse impact on business operations, thus ensuring that agreed levels of service quality are maintained. ‘Normal service operation’ is defined as an operational state where services and CIs are performing within their agreed service and operational levels. The objectives of the incident management process are to: #  Ensure that standardized methods and procedures are used for efficient and prompt response, analysis, documentation, ongoing management and reporting of incidents #  Increase visibility and communication of incidents to business and IT support staff #  Enhance business perception of IT through use of a professional approach in quickly resolving and communicating incidents when they occur
  • 232. ITIL® Incident management includes any event which disrupts, or which could disrupt, a service. This includes events which are communicated directly by users, either through the service desk or through an interface from event management to incident management tools.
  • 233. ITIL® The value of incident management includes: #  The ability to reduce unplanned labour and costs for both the business and IT support staff caused by incidents. #  The ability to detect and resolve incidents which results in lower downtime to the business, which in turn means higher availability of the service. This means that the business is able to exploit the functionality of the service as designed. #  The ability to align IT activity to real-time business priorities. This is because incident management includes the capability to identify business priorities and dynamically allocate resources as necessary. #  The ability to identify potential improvements to services. This happens as a result of understanding what constitutes an incident and also from being in contact with the activities of business operational staff.
  • 234. ITIL® Incident An unplanned interruption to an IT Service or a reduction in the Quality of an IT Service. Failure of a Configuration Item that has not yet impacted Service is also an Incident. For example Failure of one disk from a mirror set. Priority:
  • 235. ITIL®
  • 236. ITIL® !  Functional Escalation ! Transferring an Incident to a technical team with a higher level of expertise to assist in an Escalation. !  Hierarchical Escalation !  Informing or involving more senior levels of management to assist in an Escalation.
  • 237. ITIL® Incident Models • A way of predefining the steps that should be taken to handle a process (In this case a process for dealing a particular type of incident) in an agreed way. •  The incident model should include: • The steps that should be taken to handle the incident • The chronological order these steps should be taken in with any dependences or co-processing defined • Responsibilities : who should do what Major Incidents • The highest Category of Impact for an Incident. A Major Incident results in significant disruption to the Business. • Major Incident is NOT a Problem
  • 238. ITIL® ◦  Mean elapsed time to achieve incident resolution or circumvention, broken down by impact code ◦  Breakdown of incidents at each stage (e.g. logged, work in progress, closed etc.) ◦  Percentage of incidents closed by the service desk without reference to other levels of support (often referred to as ‘first point of contact’) ◦  Number and percentage of incidents resolved remotely, without the need for a visit ◦  Number of incidents resolved without impact to the business (e.g. incident was raised by event management and resolved before it could impact the business) ◦  Total numbers of incidents (as a control measure) ◦  Size of current incident backlog for each IT service
  • 239. ITIL®
  • 240. ITIL® Request fulfillment is the process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all service requests from the users. The objectives of the request fulfillment process are to: !  Maintain user and customer satisfaction through efficient and professional handling of all service requests !  Provide a channel for users to request and receive standard services for which a predefined authorization and qualification process exists !  Provide information to users and customers about the availability of services and the procedure for obtaining them !  Source and deliver the components of requested standard services (e.g. licenses and software media) !  Assist with general information, complaints or comments.
  • 241. ITIL® The process needed to fulfill a request will vary depending upon exactly what is being requested, but can usually be broken down into a set of activities that have to be performed. For each request, these activities should be documented into a request model and stored in the SKMS. !  Some organizations will be comfortable letting the service requests be handled through their incident management process (and tools) – with service requests being handled as a particular type of ‘incident’ (using a high-level categorization system to identify those ‘incidents’ that are in fact service requests). Note, however, that there is a significant difference here – an incident is usually an unplanned event, whereas a service request is usually something that can and should be planned!
  • 242. ITIL® !  !  !  The ability to provide quick and effective access to standard services that business staff can use to improve their productivity or the quality of business services and products. The ability to effectively reduce the bureaucracy involved in requesting and receiving access to existing or new services, thus also reducing the cost of providing these services. The ability to increase the level of control over requested services through a centralized fulfilment function. This in turn can help reduce costs through centralized negotiation with suppliers, and can also help to reduce the cost of support.
  • 243. ITIL® #  Service  Request   #  A  request  from  a  User  for  informa2on  or  advice,  or  for  a  Standard   change.  For  Example,  To  reset  a  password,  or  to  provide  standard  IT   services  for  a  new  user.   #  Typical process flow would be #  User initiates request #  Request is accepted (or rejected as per process) by Service Desk #  Necessary Approvals (if not pre-approved) are sought by SD #  SD may also order the components (h/w or s/w) if out of stock #  When approvals and components are ready, SD delivers the service to user #  Service request is closed by SD
  • 244. ITIL® #  The mean elapsed time for handling each type of service request #  The number and percentage of service requests completed within agreed target times #  Breakdown of service requests at each stage (e.g. logged, work in progress, closed etc.) #  Percentage of service requests closed by the service desk without reference to other levels of support (often referred to as ‘first point of contact’) #  Number and percentage of service requests resolved remotely or through automation, without the need for a visit #  Total numbers of requests (as a control measure) #  The average cost per type of service request #  Percentage of service requests fulfilled that were appropriately authorized #  Number of incidents related to security threats from request fulfillment activities
  • 245. ITIL®
  • 246. ITIL® The purpose of problem management is to manage the lifecycle of all problems from first identification through further investigation, documentation and eventual removal. Problem management seeks to minimize the adverse impact of incidents and problems on the business that are caused by underlying errors within the IT Infrastructure, and to proactively prevent recurrence of incidents related to these errors. In order to achieve this, problem management seeks to get to the root cause of incidents, document and communicate known errors and initiate actions to improve or correct the situation. Objectives !  The objectives of the problem management process are to: !  Prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening !  Eliminate recurring incidents !  Minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented.
  • 247. ITIL® The problem management process has both reactive and proactive aspects: !  Reactive problem management is concerned with solving problems in response to one or more incidents. !  Proactive problem management is concerned with identifying and solving problems and known errors before further incidents related to them can occur again. !  While reactive problem management activities are performed in reaction to specific incident situations, proactive problem management activities take place as ongoing activities targeted to improve the overall availability and end user satisfaction with IT services. Examples of proactive problem management activities might include conducting periodic scheduled reviews of incident records to find patterns and trends in reported symptoms that may indicate the presence of underlying errors in the infrastructure.
  • 248. ITIL® The value of problem management includes: !  Higher availability of IT services by reducing the number and duration of incidents that those services may incur. Problem management works together with incident management and change management to ensure that IT service availability and quality are increased. When incidents are resolved, information about the resolution is recorded. Over time, this information is used to speed up the resolution time and identify permanent solutions, reducing the number and resolution time of incidents. !  Higher productivity of IT staff by reducing unplanned labour caused by incidents and creating the ability to resolve incidents more quickly through recorded known errors and workarounds. !  Reduced expenditure on workarounds or fixes that do not work.
  • 249. ITIL® #  Problem #  The unknown root cause of one or more incidents #  Problem Model #  A model/ set of guidelines to deal with the problems which can not be prevented #  Workaround #  A temporary solution / Quick Fix which enables to user to continue using the service even though the root cause is not identified/removed #  Usually Problem Team suggests workaround & Incident team implements it
  • 250. ITIL® !  !  Known Error ◦  A Problem for which the root cause is identified and a temporary Work-around has been made available ◦  A Known Error is resolved by eliminating the root cause permanently (E.g. via RFC) Known Error Database ◦  The purpose of this database is to maintain a record of all the previous incidents, problems & known errors
  • 251. ITIL® PROBLEM MANAGEMENT TYPES Reactive Problem Management : #  The Reactive Problem Management activities help in identifying the root causes of the Incidents. #  Then, these help in suggesting permanent solutions so that these Incidents do not recur. Proactive Problem Management : #  The Proactive Problem Management activities aim at preventing Incidents before they occur. This activity helps identify weaknesses in the IT infrastructure and suggests methods to eliminate these
  • 252. ITIL®
  • 253. ITIL® Problem Management Techniques !  Pain Value Analysis !  Ishikawa Diagrams !  Kepner and Tregoe Analysis !  Major Problem Reviews
  • 254. ITIL® ◦  The number of known errors added to the KEDB ◦  The percentage accuracy of the KEDB (from audits of the database) ◦  Percentage of incidents closed by the service desk without reference to other levels of support (often referred to as ‘first point of contact’) ◦  Average incident resolution time for those incidents linked to problem records ◦  Total numbers of problems (as a control measure) ◦  Size of current problem backlog for each IT service ◦  Number of repeat incidents for each IT service ◦  The number of major problems (opened and closed and backlog) ◦  The percentage of major problem reviews successfully performed ◦  The percentage of major problem reviews completed successfully and on time
  • 255. ITIL®
  • 256. ITIL® The purpose of access management is to provide the right for users to be able to use a service or group of services. It is therefore the execution of policies and actions defined in information security management. The objectives of the access management process are to: !  Manage access to services based on policies and actions defined in information security management (see ITIL(R) Service Design) !  Efficiently respond to requests for granting access to services, changing access rights or restricting access, ensuring that the rights being provided or changed are properly granted !  Oversee access to services and ensure rights being provided are not improperly used.
  • 257. ITIL® !  !  Access management is effectively the execution of the policies in information security management, in that it enables the organization to manage the confidentiality, availability and integrity of the organization’s data and intellectual property. Access management ensures that users are given the right to use a service, but it does not ensure that this access is available at all agreed times – this is provided by availability management.
  • 258. ITIL® !  !  !  !  Ensuring that controlled access to services will allow the organization to maintain effective confidentiality of its information Ensuring that employees have the right level of access to execute their jobs effectively Reducing errors made in data entry or in the use of a critical service by an unskilled user (e.g. production control systems) Providing capabilities to audit use of services and to trace the abuse of services
  • 259. ITIL® #  Access #  Level & Extent of functionality that users can enjoy #  Identity #  Unique Information about the user which confirms his status within the organization #  Rights #  Actual settings which ensure that users get the required access to a service or a group of services #  e.g.-read, write, execute, change or delete. #  Service & Service Groups #  Set of services to which users can get the access in one go For e.g.-all IS users require Internet access by default #  Directory Services #  A specific type of tool to help manage the Access or Rights
  • 260. ITIL® !  !  !  Request Access ◦  Users can request access via, RFC or Service Request via Request Fulfillment or Helpdesk Menu Verify User Identity ◦  Access Management Team ensures that users are who they say are & they have legitimate requirement for service Provide Rights ◦  Access team provides the rights to users as per Policies of the organization
  • 261. ITIL® !  !  !  Monitor Identity Status ◦  Monitor users identity status, their change of roles, expiry of valid account etc. Log & Track the Access ◦  Ensure the Accesses are logged & data is maintained as per organizations policies Revoke or Restrict Access ◦  Revoke/Restrict or modify the rights as per user status & as directed by policies
  • 262. ITIL® ◦  Percentage of incidents that involved inappropriate security access or attempts at access to services ◦  Number of audit findings that discovered incorrect access settings for users that have changed roles or left the company ◦  Number of incidents requiring a reset of access rights ◦  Number of incidents caused by incorrect access settings. ◦  Percentage of requests for access (service request, RFC etc.) that were provided within established SLAs and OLAs. ◦  Average duration of access-related incidents (from time of discovery to escalation).
  • 263. ITIL®
  • 264. ITIL®
  • 265. ITIL® Very little justification is needed today for a service desk, as many organizations have become convinced that this is by far the best approach for dealing with first-line IT support issues. One only needs ask the question ‘What is the alternative?’ to make a compelling case for the service desk concept. Where further justification is needed, the following benefits should be considered: !  Improved customer service, perception and satisfaction !  Increased accessibility through a single point of contact, communication and information !  Better quality and faster turnaround of customer or user requests !  Improved teamwork and communication !  Enhanced focus and a proactive approach to service provision !  A reduced negative business impact !  Better managed infrastructure and control
  • 266. ITIL® Specific responsibilities will include: !  Logging all relevant incident/service request details, allocating categorization and prioritization codes !  Providing first-line investigation and diagnosis !  Resolving incidents/service requests when first contacted whenever possible !  Escalating incidents/service requests that they cannot resolve within agreed timescales !  Keeping users informed of progress !  Closing all resolved incidents, requests and other calls !  Conducting customer/user satisfaction call-backs/surveys as agreed
  • 267. ITIL® #  Central Service Desk #  Local or Distributed Local Service Desk #  Virtual Service Desk #  Follow the Sun Model #  Specialized Service Desk
  • 268. ITIL® #  Communica2on   #  Interpersonal  Skills   #  Business  /  IT  Understanding   #  Professionalism   #  Customer  Focus     #  Subject  Knowledge  (for  a  Specialist  Service  Desk)
  • 269. ITIL® ACTIVITIES OF SERVICE DESK #  Receive  &  Log  the  calls  from  End  Users,  events  etc.   #  Provide  Preliminary  level  of  diagnosis  as  applicable   #  Categorize  the  incident  as  possible   #  Assign  to  relevant  Incident  Team   #  Follow  up  with  Incident  Team     #  Update  status  regularly  &  communicate  to  user  as  applicable   #  Keep  an  eye  on  agreed  SLAs   #  Escalate  as  &  when  appropriate   #  Confirm  with  user  before  closing  the  incident   #  Provide  Service  Desk  Metrics  Reports  to  Service  Desk  Manager
  • 270. ITIL® #  #  #  #  #  #  The percentage of calls resolved during the first contact with the service desk, i.e. while the user is still on the telephone to report the call. The percentage of calls resolved by the service desk staff themselves, without having to seek deeper support from other groups. Average time to resolve an incident (when resolved at first line). Average time to escalate an incident (where first-line resolution is not possible). Average service desk cost of handling an incident. Percentage of customer or user updates conducted within target times, as defined in SLA targets. #  Average time to review and close a resolved call. #  The number of calls broken down by time of day and day of week, combined with the average calltime metric, is critical in determining the number of staff required.
  • 271. ITIL®
  • 272. ITIL® Technical management plays a dual role: !  It is the custodian of technical knowledge and expertise related to managing the IT infrastructure. In this role, technical management ensures that the knowledge required to design, test, manage and improve IT services is identified, developed and refined. !  It provides the actual resources to support the service lifecycle. In this role technical management ensures that resources are effectively trained and deployed to design, build, transition, operate and improve the technology required to deliver and support IT services. !  By performing these two roles, technical management is able to ensure that the organization has access to the right type and level of human resources to manage technology and thus to meet business objectives. Defining the requirements for these roles starts in service strategy and is expanded in service design, validated in service transition and refined in CSI
  • 273. ITIL® The objectives of technical management are to help plan, implement and maintain a stable technical infrastructure to support the organization’s business processes through: !  Well designed and highly resilient, cost-effective technical topology !  The use of adequate technical skills to maintain the technical infrastructure in optimum condition !  Swift use of technical skills to speedily diagnose and resolve any technical failures that do occur.
  • 274. ITIL® Technical management is not normally provided by a single department or group. One or more technical support teams or departments will be needed to provide technical management and support for the IT infrastructure. ! Mainframe team or department. ! Server team or department. ! Storage team or department. ! Network support team or department. ! Virtualization team or department. ! Desktop team or department. ! Database team or department. ! Middleware team or department. !  Directory services team or department.
  • 275. ITIL® Technical  management  is  involved  in  two  types  of  ac2vity:   " Ac2vi2es  that  are  generic  to  the  technical  management  func2on  as  a  whole.  These   are  discussed  in  this  sec2on  as  they  enable  technical  management  to  execute  its  role.   " A  set  of  discrete  ac2vi2es  and  processes  that  are  performed  by  all  three  func2ons  of   technical,  applica2on  and  IT  opera2ons  management.     Generic  technical  management  ac2vi2es  are  highlighted  as  follows:   ! Iden2fying  the  knowledge  and  exper2se  required  to  manage  and  operate  the  IT   infrastructure  and  to  deliver  IT  services.  This  process  starts  during  the  service  strategy   stage,  is  expanded  in  detail  in  service  design  and  is  executed  in  service  opera2on.   Ongoing  assessment  and  upda2ng  of  these  skills  is  done  during  CSI.   ! Documen2ng  the  skills  that  exist  in  the  organiza2on,  as  well  as  those  skills  that  need   to  be  developed.  This  will  include  the  development  of  skills  inventories  and  the   performance  of  training  needs  analyses.   ! Ini2a2ng  training  programmes  to  develop  and  refine  the  skills  in  the  appropriate   technical  resources  and  maintaining  training  records  for  all  technical  resources.
  • 276. ITIL® Measurement of agreed outputs These could include: !  Contribution to achievement of services to the business. Although many of the technical management teams will not be in direct contact with the business, the technology they manage impacts the business. Metrics should reflect both negative (incidents traced to their team) and positive (system performance and availability) contributions. !  Transaction rates and availability for critical business transactions. !  Service desk training
  • 277. ITIL®
  • 278. ITIL® The role of IT operations management is to execute the ongoing activities and procedures required to manage and maintain the IT infrastructure so as to deliver and support IT services at the agreed levels. IT operations control: Console management/operations bridge, which refers to defining central observation and monitoring capability and then using those consoles to exercise event management, monitoring and control activities !  Job scheduling, or the management of routine batch jobs or scripts !  Backup and restore on behalf of all technical and application management teams and departments and often on behalf of users !  Print and output management for the collation and distribution of all centralized printing or electronic output !  Performance of maintenance activities on behalf of technical or application management teams or departments. !
  • 279. ITIL® Facilities management !  Facilities management refers to the management of the physical IT environment, typically a data centre or computer rooms and recovery sites together with all the power and cooling equipment. Facilities management also includes the coordination of large-scale consolidation projects, e.g. data centre consolidation or server consolidation projects.
  • 280. ITIL® The objectives of IT operations management include: !  Maintenance of the status quo to achieve stability of the organization’s day-to-day processes and activities !  Regular scrutiny and improvements to achieve improved service at reduced costs, while maintaining stability !  Swift application of operational skills to diagnose and resolve any IT operations failures that occur.
  • 281. ITIL® In  many  cases,  staff  from  technical  and  applica2on  management  groups  form   part  of  this  func2on.   This  means  that  some  technical  and  applica2on  management  departments  or   groups  will  manage  and  execute  their  own  opera2onal  ac2vi2es.  Others  will   delegate  these  ac2vi2es  to  a  dedicated  IT  opera2ons  department.   There  is  no  single  method  for  assigning  ac2vi2es,  as  it  depends  on  the  maturity   and  stability  of  the  infrastructure  being  managed.  For  example,  technical  and   applica2on  management  areas  that  are  fairly  new  and  unstable  tend  to  manage   their  own  opera2ons.  Groups  where  the  technology  or  applica2on  is  stable,   mature  and  well  understood  tend  to  have  standardized  their  opera2ons  more   and  will  therefore  feel  more  comfortable  delega2ng  these  ac2vi2es.
  • 282. ITIL® !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  Percentage of scheduled jobs completed successfully on time Number of exceptions to scheduled activities and jobs Number of data or system restores required Equipment installation statistics, including number of items installed by type, successful installations etc. Metrics related to facilities management are extensive, but typically include: Costs versus budget related to maintenance, construction, security, shipping etc. Incidents related to the building, e.g. repairs needed to the facility Reports on access to the facility
  • 283. ITIL®
  • 284. ITIL® Application management is to applications what technical management is to the IT infrastructure. Application management activities are performed in all applications, whether purchased or developed in-house. One of the key decisions that they contribute to is the decision of whether to buy an application or build it (this is discussed in detail in ITIL(R) Service Design). Once that decision is made, application management will have several roles: !  It is the custodian of technical knowledge and expertise related to managing applications. In this role application management, working together with technical management, ensures that the knowledge required to design, test, manage and improve IT services is identified, developed and refined. !  It provides the actual resources to support the service lifecycle. In this role, application management ensures that resources are effectively trained and deployed to design, build, transition, operate and improve the technology required to deliver and support IT services.
  • 285. ITIL® The objectives of application management are to support the organization’s business processes by helping to identify functional and manageability requirements for application software, and then to assist in the design and deployment of those applications and the ongoing support and improvement of those applications. !  These objectives are achieved through: !  Applications that are well designed, resilient and costeffective !  Ensuring that the required functionality is available to achieve the required business outcome !  The organization of adequate technical skills to maintain operational applications in optimum condition !  How will manageability requirements be specified and agreed (e.g. designing application and transaction monitoring)? These are sometimes forgotten when the operational teams or departments are not represented in the project.
  • 286. ITIL® Financial  applica2ons  –  in  larger  organiza2ons  where  a  number  of  different   applica2ons  are  used  for  different  aspects  of  financial  management,  there  may   be  several  departments,  groups  or  teams  managing  these  applica2ons,  e.g.   debtors  and  creditors,  age  analysis,  general  ledger  etc.   Messaging  and  collabora2on  applica2ons   Human  resources  applica2ons   Manufacturing  support  applica2ons   Sales  force  automa2on   Sales  order  processing  applica2ons   Call  centre  and  marke2ng  applica2ons
  • 287. ITIL® Measurement of agreed outputs These could include: !  Percentage of users able to access the application and its functionality !  Percentage of reports and files that are transmitted accurately and on time to the users !  Percentage availability for critical business transactions !  Number of capacity and performance-related incidents compared to business transaction volumes.
  • 288. ITIL®
  • 289. ITIL® Which of the following statements BEST describes the objective of Service Operation? a. To design services to satisfy business objectives. b. To ensure that the service can be used in accordance with the requirements and constraints specified within the service requirements. c. To achieve effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery and support of services. d. To transform Service Management into a strategic asset. Answer  -­‐    C
  • 290. ITIL® Which of the following statements is the CORRECT definition of a Known Error? a. An action taken to repair the root cause of an Incident or Problem. b. A Problem that has a documented root cause or a Workaround. C. The unknown cause of one or more Incidents. d. A Problem that has a documented root cause and a Workaround. Answer  -­‐    D
  • 291. ITIL® Which of the following balances has to be dealt with by Service Operation? a. Supply versus demand b. Push versus pull c. Stability versus responsiveness d. Cost versus resources Answer  -­‐    C
  • 292. ITIL® Which of the following activities is NOT an activity in the Incident Management process? a. Incident Identification b. Incident Verification c. Incident Categorization d. Incident Prioritization Answer  -­‐    B
  • 293. ITIL® Which of the following activities is the Incident Manager responsible for? 1. Producing management information. 2. Monitoring the effectiveness of Incident Management and making recommendations for improvement. 3. Managing the work of Incident support staff (first-line and second-line). 4. Managing major Incidents. a. 1 only b. 2 and 3 only c. 1, 2 and 4 only d. All of the above.   Answer - D
  • 294. ITIL® Which of the following is an objective for Problem Management? a. To define, document, agree, monitor, measure, report and review the level of IT services provided. b. To minimize the impact of Incidents that cannot be prevented. c. To restore normal Service Operation as quickly as possible and minimize the adverse impact on business operations. d. To act as a basis for automating routine Operations Management activities. Answer - B
  • 295. ITIL® Which of the following are examples of Event types? 1. Informational 2. Warning 3. Major 4. Exception. a. 2 only b. 2and 4 only c. 1, 2 and 4 only d. All of the above. Answer - C
  • 296. ITIL® Which of the following options are typical ways of structuring and locating a Service Desk? 1. Local Service Desk 2. Centralized Service Desk 3. Virtual Service Desk 4. Follow-the-Sun a. 1 only b. 1 and 2 only c. 1, 2 and 3 only d. All of the above. Answer - D
  • 297. ITIL® Which of the following is NOT a responsibility of a Service Desk? a. Providing first-line investigation and diagnosis. b. Closing all resolved Incidents. c. Resolving those Incidents it is able to resolve. d. Closing all resolved Known Errors. Answer - D
  • 298. ITIL® Which of the following is NOT described as a function but as a process in Service Operation? a. Event Management b. Applications Management c. IT Operations Management d. Technical Management. Answer - A
  • 299. ITIL®
  • 300. ITIL® Goals !  Objectives !  Scope !  Key principles !  Processes !  Quiz !
  • 301. ITIL® The primary goal of CSI is to continually align and realign IT services to the changing business needs by identifying and implementing improvements to IT services that support business processes. In effect, CSI is about looking for ways to improve process effectiveness and efficiency as well as cost effectiveness. The objectives of CSI include: !  • To review, analyse and make recommendations on improvement opportunities in each lifecycle phase !  • To review and analyse Service Level Achievement results !  • To identify and implement individual activities in order to improve service quality and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of enabling Service Management processes !  • To improve cost effectiveness of delivering services without sacrificing customer satisfaction.
  • 302. ITIL® CSI needs to address three main areas: !  The overall health of Service Management as a discipline !  The continual alignment of the portfolio of services with the current and future business needs !  The maturity of the enabling processes for each service in a continual Service Lifecycle model.
  • 303. ITIL® !  CSI Model:
  • 304. ITIL®
  • 305. ITIL® An important starting point for highlighting improvement is to establish baselines as markers or starting points for later comparison. Baselines are also used to establish an initial data point to determine if a service or process needs to be improved. If a baseline is not initially established, the first measurement efforts will become the baseline. This is why it is essential to collect data at the outset, even if the integrity of the data is in question. It is better to have data to question than to have no data at all.
  • 306. ITIL® #  Technology based Metrics #  Typically used for applications, components etc. #  E.g. Performance, Downtime #  Process based Metrics #  Focused on Customer, Processes #  E.g. KPI, CSF #  Service based Metrics #  End to End services #  Focused on Supplier #  E.g. Gold/bronze package service
  • 307. ITIL® A significant amount of data is collated and monitored by IT in the daily delivery of quality service to the business. !  The business likes to see a historical representation of the past period’s performance that portrays their experience. !  IT needs to build an actionable approach to reporting, i.e. this is what happened, this is what we did, this is how we will ensure it doesn’t impact you again, and this is how we are working to improve the delivery of IT services generally. SLAM Chart !  (Continual Service Improvement) A Service Level Agreement Monitoring Chart is used to help monitor and report achievements against Service Level Targets. !  A SLAM Chart is typically color coded to show whether each agreed Service Level Target has been met, missed, or nearly missed during each of the previous 12 months. !
  • 309. ITIL® The purpose of the seven-step improvement process is to define and manage the steps needed to identify, define, gather, process, analyse, present and implement improvements. The objectives of the seven-step improvement process are to: #  Identify opportunities for improving services, processes, tools etc. #  Reduce the cost of providing services and ensuring that IT services enable the required business outcomes to be achieved. A clear objective will be cost reduction, but this is not the only criterion. If service delivery or quality reduces as a result the overall impact may be neutral or even negative. #  Identify what needs to be measured, analyzed and reported to establish improvement opportunities. #  Continually review service achievements to ensure they remain matched to business requirements; continually align and re-align service provision with outcome requirements. #  Understand what to measure, why it is being measured and carefully define the successful outcome.
  • 310. ITIL® The seven-step improvement process includes analysis of the performance and capabilities of services, processes throughout the lifecycle, partners and technology. It includes the continual alignment of the portfolio of IT services with the current and future business needs as well as the maturity of the enabling IT processes for each service. It also includes making best use of the technology that the organization has and looks to exploit new technology as it becomes available where there is a business case for doing so. Also within the scope are the organizational structure, the capabilities of the personnel, and asking whether people are working in appropriate functions and roles, and if they have the required skills.
  • 311. ITIL® !  The value of the seven-step improvement process is that by monitoring and analysing the delivery of services it will ensure the current and future business outcome requirements can be met. The seven-step improvement process enables continual assessment of the current situation against business needs and identifies opportunities to improve service provision for customers.
  • 312. ITIL®
  • 313. ITIL® – Percentage improvement in defects; for example, 3% reduction in failed changes; 10% reduction in security breaches – Percentage decrease in overall cost of service provision; for example, 2.5% reduction in the average cost of handling an incident; 5% reduction in the cost of processing a particular type of transaction – A 3% increase in customer satisfaction with the service desk; 2% increase in customer satisfaction with the warranty offered by the payroll service.
  • 314. ITIL®
  • 315. ITIL® Which of the following is NOT an activity in the Deming PDCA cycle? a. Plan b. Do c. Check d. Align Answer  -­‐    D
  • 316. ITIL® What are the reasons to monitor and measure? 1. To validate – monitoring and measuring to validate previous decisions. 2. To direct – monitoring and measuring to set direction for activities in order to meet set targets. 3. To justify – monitoring and measuring to justify, with factual evidence or proof, that a course of action is required. 4. To intervene – monitoring and measuring to identify a point of intervention, including subsequent changes and corrective actions. a. 1 only b. 1 and 2 only c. 1, 2 and 4 only d. All of the above. Answer  -­‐    D
  • 317. ITIL® Which of the following is an objective for the 7-Step Improvement Process? a. To provide operational visibility, insight and superior decision making. b. To design processes for the design, transition, operation and improvement of IT services. c. To identify goals and objectives in order to properly identify what should be measured. d. To minimize the impact of Incidents that cannot be prevented. Answer  -­‐    C
  • 318. ITIL® Which of the following are the three main types of metrics, as defined in Continual Service Improvement (CSI)? 1. Process Metrics 
 2. Supplier Metrics 
 3. Service Metrics 
 4. Technology Metrics 
 Answer 5. Business Metrics A. 1, 2 and 3 
 B. 2, 4 and 5 
 C. 1, 3 and 4 
 D. 1, 2 and 4 -C
  • 319. ITIL® Which of the following Roles is responsible for identifying opportunities for improvement? 1. Service Owner
 2. Continual Service Improvement (CSI) Manager
 3. Process Owner A. 1 and 2 only
 B. All of the above 
 C. 1 and 3 only D. 2 and 3 only Answer - B
  • 320. ITIL® The 7 Step Improvement Process can most accurately be described as? A. The Seven P’s of Continual Service Improvement (CSI)
 B. A service improvement methodology based on the Deming Cycle
 C. A set of roles and responsibilities for managing service improvements
 D. A process for defining what is to be measured, gathering the data, processing the data and using it to take corrective action Answer - D
  • 321. ITIL®