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Diffusion of innovations presentation Diffusion of innovations presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Diffusion of Innovations: Email Rebecca Foster and Becca Levy
  • Diffusion
    • “The process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system.”
    • For example, the increasing popularity of email throughout the 1990s and 2000s
    • In the following slides, we discuss our interviews with six subjects about their adoption of the innovation of email
  • Adopter Categories
    • “The classifications of members of a social system on the basis of innovativeness.”
    • Innovators
    • Early adopters
    • Early majority
    • Later majority
    • Laggards
  • Subjects
    • Subject 1: father of three born in 1951, early adopter
    • Subject 2: mother of three born in 1953, later majority
    • Subject 3: mother of two born in 1946, extreme laggard (non-adopter)
    • Subject 4: father of three born in 1957, early majority
    • Subject 5: mother of three born in 1961, later majority
    • Subject 6: mother of two born in 1935, laggard
  • Characteristics of Innovations
    • Relative advantage
    • Compatibility
    • Complexity
    • Trailability
    • Observability
  • Relative Advantage
    • “ The degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supersedes.”
    • Email vs. snail mail: Email was perceived as a much faster and more efficient alternative to snail mail. It was able to convey information instantaneously and without cost, once the technology is obtained.
    • Email vs. phone: Both were instantaneous forms of communication, but email is cheaper and was more convenient for working around different schedules. Also, email provided a tangible record of conversation. Another point of comparison is the lack of tone of voice required when typing an email vs. talking on the phone; this could be construed as a positive or a negative.
    • In general, some feel email is a less personal form of communication.
    • Some have concerns over security/privacy issues associated with using email and the internet.
  • Relative Advantage Quotes
    • Subject 2: “No one hears your voice, so you can be as emotional or complacent as you wish. Also, the time frame is much more relaxed – I can read emails when I have the time.”
    • Subject 5 on tone disadvantages in email:
    • Subject 4 on email in the workplace:
    • Subject 6 on email and the elderly:
    • Subject 5 on benefits of using email:
    • Subject 4 on phone vs. email:
    • Subject 5 on phone vs. email (two quotes)
  • Compatibility
    • “ The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters.”
    • Email had mixed compatibility.
      • Email had the ability to convey the same messages that consumers had grown to expect in a method of communication, like snail mail or the phone.
      • Since email required such a big investment in vastly different technologies than most were used to (the computer), some found it incompatible with their lifestyle.
      • This also applies to people’s value of personal communication – some feel you do not get the same level of intimacy when communicating through email than when hearing a person’s voice.
      • Also, this affects people’s value of privacy because personal information is so easily attainable on the internet.
  • Compatibility Quotes
      • Subject 1: “Email is more efficient…it’s a real time saver. Rather than trade phone messages, you can shoot off an email and get a quicker response.”
    • Subject 4 on personal aspects (two quotes):
    • Subject 4 on security:
  • Complexity
    • “The degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and use.”
    • Initially, people perceived email as highly complex and requiring a large time commitment to learn.
  • Complexity Quotes
    • Subject 3: “I’m missing not being able to hear from a lot of people that I would like to hear from if I did have an email. But you need a structured class to learn and with my schedule I would have to miss work some of the time.”
    • Subject 5 on adjusting to using email:
  • Trialability
    • “ The degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis.”
    • Email had mixed trailability.
      • If one already had the technology, email was easy to try, without a commitment due to free email websites.
      • If one did not already have the technology, trying email required a big commitment.
  • Trialability Quotes
      • Subject 1: “I bought my first computer in 1983. In the early to mid 1990’s, I heard about email from my children who talked about AOL. I just loaded AOL on my computer and followed the directions. I was already computer literate so no one needed to show me how. AOL’s system was very intuitive.”
  • Observability
    • “ The degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others.”
    • Email had a high degree of observability.
      • As people saw their peers or their children talking about and using email, they were encouraged to hop on the bandwagon and start using email themselves.
  • Observability Quotes
    • Subject 2: “It was becoming the best, fastest, most popular way of communicating and if I didn’t want to be left out of the loop completely, I needed to learn it and do it.”
    • Subject 4 on his motive for getting email:
  • The Future
    • We also discussed where email will take us in the future and what life will be like for those who grow up with internet communication
    • Subject 4:
    • Subject 5:
    • Subject 6:
  • Citations
    • Rogers, E. M. (1994). Elements of diffusion. In Diffusion of Innovations (pp. 1-37). New York: Free Press.
    • Thanks to Mike Levy, Cheri Levy, Raquel Shapiro, Richard Foster, Nancy Foster, & Judy Basch for the interviews.