US DOE Clean Cities
Waste-to-Wheels: Building for Success
Erik Neandross
Gladstein Neandross and Associates
Promise and Ch...
Biogas: Medium Btu, Methane-Rich Gas
Generally Produced by Anaerobic Digestion
Biomethane: Pipeline quality natural gas pr...
Biogas Produced in Landfills =
Landfill Gas (LFG)
• US EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) tracks landfill gas to...
Biogas Produced in Wastewater
Treatment (WWT) Plants = Digester Gas
• USEPA/USDOE Combined Heat & Power (CHP) partnership ...
Biogas Produced from Animal
Waste = Digester Gas
• USEPA/USDA/USDOE AgSTAR program tracks energy projects at commercial li...
From “Waste” to Wheels, Biogas Must Be
Upgraded to Renewable Natural Gas
NATURAL GAS PIPELINE
PipelineFOOD WASTE Adapted f...
Upgrading Biogas to RNG Adds
Complexity and Cost
Biogas Requires More Purification than Natural Gas from
Most Fossil Sourc...
Lack of Vehicles and Infrastructure Have
Constrained Market Penetration
Potential markets for RNG
– Like fossil natural ga...
Yet as a Vehicle Fuel, RNG Has
Significant Benefits
RNG Has Significant Carbon Benefits Beyond Conventional NG
 Depends o...
Biomethane Potential
 1998 DOE Study: “Biogas For Transportation Use: A 1998 Perspective,”
 In the U.S., feasible to cap...
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GNA - Promise + Challenges of RNG as a Vehicle Fuel

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Great overview of RNG looking at entire U.S. and resources and opportunities.

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Transcript of "GNA - Promise + Challenges of RNG as a Vehicle Fuel"

  1. 1. US DOE Clean Cities Waste-to-Wheels: Building for Success Erik Neandross Gladstein Neandross and Associates Promise and Challenge of Renewable Natural Gas as a Vehicle Fuel Clean Cities / 1 Gladstein Neandross and Associates December 1, 2010 Natural Gas as a Vehicle Fuel
  2. 2. Biogas: Medium Btu, Methane-Rich Gas Generally Produced by Anaerobic Digestion Biomethane: Pipeline quality natural gas produced by purifying biogas  LandfillsLandfills  Animal waste  Wastewater  Food waste  Industrial waste sources Clean Cities / 2
  3. 3. Biogas Produced in Landfills = Landfill Gas (LFG) • US EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) tracks landfill gas to energy (LFGE) • ~1754 “active” landfills in US: ~1040 candidate LFGE sites• ~1754 active landfills in US: ~1040 candidate LFGE sites • Operational LFGE sites are well dispersed geographically • Rule of thumb: one ton landfilled MSW generate 200 SCF LFG per year • Recovered LFG is typically ~50% methane (500-600 BTU/SCF) G t t t it ti l dfill• Greatest opportunity: active landfills close to markets with > 2 million tons in place in place • Majority projects in US produce electricity (72%) • A handful of transportation projects are operational or under construction Clean Cities / 3 Operating LFGE Projects (Oct 2010)
  4. 4. Biogas Produced in Wastewater Treatment (WWT) Plants = Digester Gas • USEPA/USDOE Combined Heat & Power (CHP) partnership tracks WWT projects th t di t t d l t i it it h tithat use digester gas to produce electricity or onsite heating • 16,000 wastewater treatment (WWT) plants in US • Like landfills, WWT sites tend to be near population centers Rules of thumb: 100 gal of wastewater generate 1 SCF of digester gas per day;• Rules of thumb: 100 gal of wastewater generate 1 SCF of digester gas per day; 100 gal of wastewater generated per person/day • Recovered WWTP digester gas is typically 60+% methane (550-600 BTU/SCF) • 544 WWTPs > 5 million gallons/day have digesters • 76 of those use digester gas for onsite and/or offsite energy needs • WWTP digesters can co-digest wastes from other sources: e.g., food waste, industrial waste, etc. • One project uses recovered gas for transportation (Flint) Clean Cities / 4
  5. 5. Biogas Produced from Animal Waste = Digester Gas • USEPA/USDA/USDOE AgSTAR program tracks energy projects at commercial livestock farms • 7000+ large-scale dairy, poultry, beef and swine farms in US • Many states have potential sites (dairy in Midwest, Northeast and West; swine in South and Northeast, poultry in South and Midwest) • Rule of Thumb: 1 lb of manure generate 1 SCF of digester gas per dayg g p y • Digester gas is typically 55-65% methane (600 BTU/SCF) • As of Nov. 2010, AgSTAR estimates 160 it h di t i l160 sites have digesters in place • Most use recovered gas to generate electricity; several inject gas to pipeline • One project currently uses recoveredOne project currently uses recovered gas for transportation (Hillarides); another is under development with Clean Cities support Operating Anaerobic Digester Projects (Nov 2010) Clean Cities / 5
  6. 6. From “Waste” to Wheels, Biogas Must Be Upgraded to Renewable Natural Gas NATURAL GAS PIPELINE PipelineFOOD WASTE Adapted from K. Sorchek, Xebec,Inc. Biogas USA, Oct. 2010. R bl N t l G (RNG) Bi th Clean Cities / 6 Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) = Biomethane
  7. 7. Upgrading Biogas to RNG Adds Complexity and Cost Biogas Requires More Purification than Natural Gas from Most Fossil Sources Parameter Unit EU LFG EU AD- Biogas NA NG NNA NG Pipeline NG in US Source (Persson 2006) (Segeler 1965)  All gas requires purification  Biogas purification reduces H2S, oxygen, Source (Persson 2006) (Segeler 1965) LHV: avg. range Btu/ft3 406 584 1081 835–1336 1145 627–1717 1049 945–1121 CH4: avg. range vol % 45 36–65 63 53–70 51.5 84.7–98.8 77.0 22.8–98.0 89.4 72.8–95.2 reduces H2S, oxygen, CO2, N2 and various contaminants  Biogas purification on smaller scale (thus CO2: avg. range vol % 40 15–50 47 30–47 0.55 0–6.0 4.1 0–29.0 0.7 0–2.0 N2: avg. range vol % 15 5–40 0.2 – 4.03 0–29.4 1.7 0–12.1 2.9 0–17.1 O : avg 1 0 0 06 0 1 0 0 smaller scale (thus more costly) than fossil NG  Combustion engines ( hi l ) d ’ O2: avg. range vol % 1 0–5 0 – 0.06 0–0.4 0.1 0–1.4 0.0 0–0.4 H2S: avg. range ppmv <100 0–100 <1000 0-10000 100 0–3100 400 0–5200 – NH3 ppm 5 <100 – – – (vehicles, gensets) don’t need pipeline grade NG, but do need >90% CH4 & siloxane removal Clean Cities / 7
  8. 8. Lack of Vehicles and Infrastructure Have Constrained Market Penetration Potential markets for RNG – Like fossil natural gas, nearby fleets seeking price stability (long-term fixed price contracts) • Refuse trucks (garbage, recycling ande use uc s (ga bage, ecyc g a d transfer trucks) • Milk trucks • Other local users (taxi, municipal )vehicles, etc.) – LNG production plant for more regional fleet use G tiliti di t t t ( i– Gas utilities, distant customers (via pipeline injection) RNG projects often can produce more Clean Cities / 8 p j p fuel than available fleets can consume
  9. 9. Yet as a Vehicle Fuel, RNG Has Significant Benefits RNG Has Significant Carbon Benefits Beyond Conventional NG  Depends on reference case (flaring versus venting)  Flaring is good, reducing impact of carbon by factor of 8  Energy recovery is better (renewable energy qualifies for state Renewable Portfolio Standards) Clean Cities / 9 Renewable Portfolio Standards)  RNG is better still, reducing greenhouse gases by 75-90%, or more.
  10. 10. Biomethane Potential  1998 DOE Study: “Biogas For Transportation Use: A 1998 Perspective,”  In the U.S., feasible to capture and use about 1.25 quadrillion BtuIn the U.S., feasible to capture and use about 1.25 quadrillion Btu from landfills, animal waste and sewage alone  This is equivalent to 6 percent of all natural gas used in the U.S.  If all used in transportation it would displace 10 billion If all used in transportation, it would displace 10 billion gallons of gasoline per year.  Potential for cellulosic biomethane is almost unlimited E ( i ll S d ) i l di h Europe (especially Sweden) is leading the way:  Sweden’s goal: to displace all natural gas use with biomethane and all diesel with renewable fuels, including biomethane  European studies conclude that cellulosic biomethane production is far more energy efficient and less costly than any other cellulosic energy - today Clean Cities / 10
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