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GNA - Promise + Challenges of RNG as a Vehicle Fuel



Great overview of RNG looking at entire U.S. and resources and opportunities.

Great overview of RNG looking at entire U.S. and resources and opportunities.



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GNA - Promise + Challenges of RNG as a Vehicle Fuel GNA - Promise + Challenges of RNG as a Vehicle Fuel Presentation Transcript

  • US DOE Clean CitiesWaste-to-Wheels: Building for SuccessPromise and Challenge of Renewable Erik Neandross Gladstein Neandross and AssociatesNatural Gas as a Vehicle Fuel December 1, 2010 Clean Cities / 1
  • Biogas: Medium Btu, Methane-Rich GasGenerally Produced by Anaerobic Digestion Biomethane: Pipeline quality natural gas produced by purifying biogas  Landfills  Animal waste  Wastewater  Food waste  Industrial waste sources Clean Cities / 2
  • Biogas Produced in Landfills =Landfill Gas (LFG)• US EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) tracks landfill gas to energy (LFGE)• ~1754 “active” landfills in US: ~1040 candidate LFGE sites active• Operational LFGE sites are well dispersed geographically• Rule of thumb: one ton landfilled MSW generate 200 SCF LFG per year• Recovered LFG is typically ~50% methane (500-600 BTU/SCF)• Greatest G t t opportunity: active landfills t it ti l dfill close to markets with > 2 million tons in place in place• Majority projects in US produce electricity (72%)• A handful of transportation projects are operational or under construction Operating LFGE Projects (Oct 2010) Clean Cities / 3
  • Biogas Produced in WastewaterTreatment (WWT) Plants = Digester Gas • USEPA/USDOE Combined Heat & Power (CHP) partnership tracks WWT projects that th t use di digester gas t produce electricity or onsite h ti t to d l t i it it heating • 16,000 wastewater treatment (WWT) plants in US • Like landfills, WWT sites tend to be near population centers • Rules of thumb: 100 gal of wastewater generate 1 SCF of digester gas per day; 100 gal of wastewater generated per person/day • Recovered WWTP digester gas is typically 60+% methane (550-600 BTU/SCF) • 544 WWTPs > 5 million gallons/day have digesters • 76 of those use digester gas for onsite and/or offsite energy needs • WWTP digesters can co-digest wastes from other sources: e.g., food waste, industrial waste, etc. • One project uses recovered gas for transportation (Flint) Clean Cities / 4
  • Biogas Produced from Animal Waste = Digester Gas• USEPA/USDA/USDOE AgSTAR program tracks energy projects at commercial livestock farms• 7000+ large-scale dairy, poultry, beef and swine farms in US• Many states have potential sites (dairy in Midwest, Northeast and West; swine in South and Northeast, poultry in South and Midwest)• Rule of Thumb: 1 lb of manure generate 1 SCF of digester g per day g gas p y• Digester gas is typically 55-65% methane (600 BTU/SCF)• As of Nov. 2010, AgSTAR estimates 160 sites h it have di digesters i place t in l• Most use recovered gas to generate electricity; several inject gas to pipeline• One project currently uses recovered gas for transportation (Hillarides); another is under development with Clean Cities support Operating Anaerobic Digester Projects (Nov 2010) Clean Cities / 5
  • From “Waste” to Wheels, Biogas Must BeUpgraded to Renewable Natural Gas NATURAL GAS PIPELINE FOOD WASTE Pipelinefrom K. Sorchek, Xebec,Inc. Biogas USA, Oct. 2010. Adapted Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) = Biomethane R bl N t lG Bi th Clean Cities / 6
  • Upgrading Biogas to RNG AddsComplexity and Cost Biogas Requires More Purification than Natural Gas from Most Fossil Sources All gas requires purification Parameter Unit EU LFG EU AD- NA NG NNA NG Pipeline Biogas NG in US Biogas purification reduces H2S, oxygen, Source (Persson 2006) (Segeler 1965) CO2, N2 and various LHV: avg. 1081 1145 1049 Btu/ft3 406 584 contaminants range 835–1336 627–1717 945–1121 Biogas purification on CH4: avg. range vol % 45 36–65 63 53–70 51.5 84.7–98.8 77.0 22.8–98.0 89.4 72.8–95.2 smaller scale (thus CO2: avg. 40 47 0.55 4.1 0.7 vol % more costly) than fossil range 15–50 30–47 0–6.0 0–29.0 0–2.0 NG N 2: avg. 15 0.2 4.03 1.7 2.9 vol % range 5–40 – 0–29.4 0–12.1 0–17.1 Combustion engines O2 : avg. avg 1 0 0.06 0 06 0.1 01 0.0 00 (vehicles, gensets) d ’ ( hi l ) don’t range vol % 0–5 – 0–0.4 0–1.4 0–0.4 need pipeline grade NG, H2S: avg. <100 <1000 100 400 ppmv – but do need >90% CH4 range 0–100 0-10000 0–3100 0–5200 & siloxane removal NH3 ppm 5 <100 – – –Clean Cities / 7
  • Lack of Vehicles and Infrastructure HaveConstrained Market Penetration Potential markets for RNG – Like fossil natural gas, nearby fleets seeking price stability (long-term fixed price contracts) • Refuse trucks (ga bage, recycling a d e use uc s (garbage, ecyc g and transfer trucks) • Milk trucks • Other local users (taxi, municipal vehicles, etc.) ) – LNG production plant for more regional fleet use – G utilities, di t t customers (via Gas tiliti distant t ( i pipeline injection) RNG projects often can produce more p j p fuel than available fleets can consumeClean Cities / 8
  • Yet as a Vehicle Fuel, RNG HasSignificant BenefitsRNG Has Significant Carbon Benefits Beyond Conventional NG  Depends on reference case (flaring versus venting)  Flaring is good, reducing impact of carbon by factor of 8  Energy recovery is better (renewable energy qualifies for state Renewable Portfolio Standards)  RNG is better still, reducing greenhouse gases by 75-90%, or more. Clean Cities / 9
  • Biomethane Potential 1998 DOE Study: “Biogas For Transportation Use: A 1998 Perspective,”  In the U.S., feasible to capture and use about 1.25 quadrillion Btu from landfills, animal waste and sewage alone  This is equivalent to 6 percent of all natural gas used in the U.S.  If all used in transportation it would displace 10 billion transportation, gallons of gasoline per year. Potential for cellulosic biomethane is almost unlimited  E Europe ( (especially S d ) i l di the way: i ll Sweden) is leading h  Sweden’s goal: to displace all natural gas use with biomethane and all diesel with renewable fuels, including biomethane  European studies conclude that cellulosic biomethane production is far more energy efficient and less costly than any other cellulosic energy - todayClean Cities / 10