ETCFC presentation to the West Knox Sertoma Club, 7/14/09

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This is a presentation I gave to a Sertoma Club in Knoxville in July this year. It covers a lot, starting with our coalition and what we do, then going through basics and background on oil and oil …

This is a presentation I gave to a Sertoma Club in Knoxville in July this year. It covers a lot, starting with our coalition and what we do, then going through basics and background on oil and oil systems, to actions taking place in East Tennessee today to help us move away from oil alone in the transportation sector.

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  • Car pool, ride mass transit (school bus). Get cars with better fuel efficiency or just drive less—walk or ride your bike.
  • Some Experts think it may have already happened. The most optimistic prediction is in 2030—that’s only 22 years from now! The point is that this is your lifetime we are talking about. You could live to see life after the oil age. Next. Slide.
  • We are trying to get to the donuts of sugar. We have to break through the lignin and split apart the cellulose and hemicellulose chains to get to them. Once we have the little donuts of sugar we can ferment and distill them, just like with regular ethanol production, and turn them into ethanol!
  • Well suited to the Southeast Currently, ~6-8 tons/acre in TN Potential for 12+ tons/acre Warm season, native, perennial grass Tolerates poor soils, flooding, drought Highly resistant to many pests and plant diseases Low use of chemicals or fertilizers 1-2 year establishment Weed control critical in establishment Initial production practices similar to hay Working toward next generation harvest, storage, management improvements UT has long history of switchgrass production and market research
  • Switchgrass starts with a tiny little seed (smaller than a dime), but it grows into a very large grass, 6-10 ft tall. Also, switchgrass is wildlife friendly, providing an environment for animals such as deer and birds. In this last picture, we see harvested switchgrass that will be turned into a fuel as well as maturing switchgrass growing in the background. Overall, this process is much more earth friendly than corn ethanol—which is why there is a limit on corn ethanol in the nation’s alternative fuel plan. Cellulosic will mostly fill the rest of the requirement.
  • Collaboration with DuPont Dansico Cellulosic Ethanol, LLC Vonore location: Niles Ferry Industrial Park, Monroe County, 32 acres Optimized as precursor to commercial demonstration (~25 MGY) Long-term operation as an RD&D facility Genera developing switchgrass pelletization and utilization demonstrations Owned by Genera Energy, operated by DDCE Expect completion, ethanol production by end of 2009 Multiple feedstocks: first cob then switchgrass Flexibility in process design, operation 250 KGY capacity in pilot, separate process development unit (PDU)
  • 723 acres planted in 2008 2150 to be planted in 2009 3 year acreage-based agreements/contracts with farmers $450/acre per year plus seed and technical assistance

Transcript

  • 1. The ETCFC’s Focus – Smarter Transportation Fuels Use in East TN July 14, 2009 West Knoxville Sertoma Club <> Jonathan Overly, Executive Director East Tennessee Clean Fuels Coalition
  • 2. Today’s Agenda
    • 1. ETCFC – Who and What; Success stories
    • 2. Where East TN stands with public biofuel stations
    • 3. The Basics - AF 101 & Carbon Numbers
    • 4. Current Energy, Oil & Oil Systems Picture
    • 5. Energy In vs. Energy Out – The Fossil Energy Ratio (FER)
    • 6. Biofuels Snapshot, Algae
    • 7. Natural Gas Snapshot
    The ETCFC’s 2009 Founding Partners:
  • 3. We Are All Partners in American Change
    • “ I believe Sertoma is awake to the fact that our future is decided now, not later.  The future of Sertoma is the results of choices we make in these days.”
    • - Woody Hudson
  • 4. Who is the ETCFC?
    • Designated member of U.S. DOE Clean Cities Program
    • 7-yr old nonprofit in East TN
    • Focused on transp. sector change: diversify and use less !
    • Meetings; direct fleet & fuel supplier assistance; workshops; presentations to the commercial/industrial/ gov’t community and to schools; multiple newsletters
    • Who are our partners? Fuel suppliers, industry, cities and counties, utilities, universities, fuel producers, fed. agencies, other non- profits, state agencies, car companies, auto manufacturers
  • 5. Presenting to the Tennessee Trucking Association
  • 6. The Clean Cities map - 2008
  • 7. Success Stories – Example #1: East Tennessee Biodiesel Use
    • From humble beginnings in 2004, biodiesel use expanded fairly rapidly through 2007, with major peak in 2006 (pricing)
    • In 2006, our total life-cycle CO2 emissions reductions in East TN from fleets using biodiesel blends was a minimum of 6,400 tons CO2
  • 8. Success Story #2: Community Champion: Fleet Leader - Eastman
    • Started working with Eastman in 2003 to get them as regional leader using biodiesel; they started in 2004
    • BAE Systems followed soon thereafter, and since 2004 another 4 larger-sized fleets have started using biodiesel
    • Two farmers coops became suppliers and a couple of fuel suppliers have started offering the blend
    • We are in discussions with another ~10 fleets in the area about getting started
    (200 heavy-duty vehicles, 150 pieces of equipment, and 6 locomotives)
  • 9. Success Story #3: K-12 School Presentations
    • Presentations focus on relaying the basics and importance of alt fuels and fuel economy to the students
    • ’ 06-’07 = 700+ students reached
    • ’ 07-’08 = 1,700+ students reached
    • ’ 08-’09 = 3,600+ students reached
    • “ 1st Graders for Clean Fuels ” program works on all five of the senses through an interactive presentation
    • “ Clean Fuels Jeopardy!” a hit! Patricia Weaver started Fall ’08; been used ever since with variety of ages and classes
  • 10. Success Stories – Example #4: ET Cities & Towns – Leaders for Biodiesel (and smaller that have started biodiesel projects)
  • 11. Current ET Public Biodiesel/E85 Stations Biodiesel: 20 -- B99-1, B20-11, B5-8 E85: 12 (at least 3 more to open this year!)
  • 12. Question: In 1945, we were 0% dependent on foreign countries for oil; now we are 60+% dependent. ~ 60 years = 0 -> 60% reliance on others for oil ~ During WWII, when this country joined the Allies in the war effort, all the allies began using their oil for fuel. Which country is this ?
  • 13. Domestically Produced Alternative Fuels
    • Biodiesel-95%
    • Propane-95%
    • Electricity-100%
    • Ethanol-95%
    • Natural gas-90%
    Gasoline + Diesel = 40% vs.
  • 14. Alt Fuels Cannot Do It Alone! Fuel Efficiency Alternative Fuels Conservation Cleaner Air & Oil Independence Reduce Eliminate Replace
  • 15. The Carbon Basics
    • CO2 is the transportation sector’s primary global warming gas; thus, total GHG emissions will be slightly greater than the CO2 emissions totals
    • CO2 emissions are proportional to fuel consumption: 19.4 pounds CO2/gal gas ; 22.2 pounds CO2/gal diesel
    • CO2 emissions are inversely proportional to fuel economy
      • Each 1% decrease in fuel consumption results in a corresponding 1% decrease in CO2 emissions
    • Therefore, the #1 tool in your CO2-reducing toolkit is reducing your total petroleum consumption ; find regular or innovative ways to do so!
  • 16. The Life-cycle Carbon Numbers : Petro-fuels and Alternatives
    • Data from California Energy Commission (2007). Fuel Cycle Assessment: Well-to-Wheels Energy Inputs, Emissions, and Water Impacts. Part of the state plan to increase the use of non-petroleum transportation fuels. Appendix A.
    • Available at www.energy.ca.gov/2007publications/CEC-600-2007-004/CEC-600-2007-004-REV.PDF.
    Want to make petroleum last longer and be cheaper? Use alternative fuels . 74% 1.44 59% 195 E85-switchgrass 5% 5.23 18% 389 LPG (from oil proc.) Petroleum (MJ/mi) GHGs (gms/mi) 100% 0.02 30% 331 CNG 100% 0.01 74% 124 Electricity (NG) 16% 3.76 12% 331 B20-midwest soy --- 4.47 --- 375 Diesel 64% 2.01 53% 224 Plug-in HEV 26% 4.09 25% 353 HEV 73% 1.49 72% 132 E85-forest residue 71% 1.59 15% 402 E85-midwest corn --- 5.52 --- 473 Gasoline (RFG) % reduction Use % reduction Emissions Fuel
  • 17. Long-term U.S. Energy Data - Production
  • 18. Really Long-term U.S. Energy Data (Consumption) What does this growth curve look like if add up all these different forms of energy we are consuming?
  • 19. Really Long-term U.S. Energy Data (Consumption) Over the long haul, we are going to have to learn to do things differently, or we will be forced to .
  • 20. Global Oil Peak
      • Forecast Source
    • December 2005 Deffeyes (U.S.)
    • 2006-2007 Bakhitari (Iran)
    • 2007-2009 Simmons (U.S.)
    • After 2007 Skrebowski (U.K.)
    • 2010 Campbell (Ireland)
    • Before 2010 Goodstein (U.S.)
    • After 2010 World Energy Council
    • 2012 Weng (China)
    • 2016 Doug-Westwood (U.K.)
    • After 2020 CERA (U.S.)
    • 2030 or later EIA (U.S) / Exxon Mobil
    5 years 5-15 years > 20 years From Robert Hirsch’s presentation “Peaking of World Oil Production” at the National Clean Cities Congress & Expo ~ May 8, 2006 We don’t know exactly when, but it will be during your lifetime!
  • 21. Forget the oil peak for a minute: who do you want to give your money to today ?
  • 22. Who are we giving our fuel money to? 2007 Net Imports by Country & Totals
  • 23. Oil Systems #1 = Inefficient This is why improving fuel economy and using hybrids is important! U.S. Energy Flow Map – 2001
  • 24. Fuel Use Within Sectors Oil Systems #2 = Not diversified
  • 25. One Way to Look at Life-cycle Fossil Energy Efficiency Image from the U.S. DOE & Michael Wang of Argonne Nat’l Lab and his GREET Model.
  • 26. Fossil Energy In vs. Energy Out as Fuel: Basis Circle graphs courtesy of nationalgeographic.com What you get as output for every 1 unit of fossil energy input:
  • 27. Fossil Energy In vs. Energy Out as Fuel: Add  Gasoline & Diesel What you get as output for every 1 unit of fossil energy input:
  • 28. Fossil Energy In vs. Energy Out as Fuel: Add  Corn-based Ethanol What you get as output for every 1 unit of fossil energy input:
  • 29. Fossil Energy In vs. Energy Out as Fuel: Add  Today’s Biodiesel (3.2-3.5) What you get as output for every 1 unit of fossil energy input:
  • 30. Fossil Energy In vs. Energy Out as Fuel: Add  Sugar-based Ethanol What you get as output for every 1 unit of fossil energy input:
  • 31. Fossil Energy In vs. Energy Out as Fuel: Add  Cellulosic Ethanol What you get as output for every 1 unit of fossil energy input:
  • 32.
    • 14 public E85 stations open now; ~3 more on their way!
    • Over 60% of all public stations in ET now have E10
    • Tennessee Ethanol Plants
    • 1 open today = Tate & Lyle – Loudon County (75 MGY)
    • Just opened = EGP – Obion County (NW TN; 100 MGY)
    • Opening in 2009 = Genera Energy – Monroe County (small)
    • Pros
    • E10 can run in ANY gasoline vehicle (E20, E30, E40?)
    • E85 in flex-fuel vehicles; can vary the blend!
    • Cons
    • For E85, more power (octane rating of 105), but reduced fuel economy of around 20-25% (just need fuel to cost about 20% less)
    Ethanol – Summary
  • 33.
    • 20 public stations; about 40 ET fleets using biodiesel today
    • Production Plants in East Tennessee
    • Suns-Oil, LCC – southeastern TN
    • Nu-Energie, LLC – closed
    • Pros
    • Is the only alt fuel that can yield increased economy and power
    • No new vehicles or infra. Required; Fill-n-go option at ≤ B20
    • Renewable; less smoke & smell; biodegradable & nontoxic
    • Helps equipment last longer; less wear and tear
    • Cons
    • Possible fuel filter changes; all biodiesel gels faster than diesel
    Biodiesel – Summary
  • 34. Who? - Regional Biodiesel Fleets
  • 35.
    • Solix, Solazyme, others are current leaders
    • Increasing oil yield per acre is one key to their growth
    • CO2 uptake from power plants another benefit
    • Even algae proponents say “need oil at $60-70/bbl to work”
    Algae – Summary
  • 36. Algae – more…
  • 37. Cellulosic Ethanol – Vonore Project
  • 38. Switchgrass!
  • 39.  
  • 40. Pilot Biorefinery Plant in Vonore
  • 41. Switchgrass Farm Locations Mainly Loudon, Monroe, McMinn
  • 42. Compressed Natural Gas – Summary
    • Most widely used alt fuel in U.S. today
    • Some of the cleanest vehicles in the U.S. || Civic GX – AT-PZEV
    • Can be co-fired with diesel or hydrogen
    * From www.fueleconomy.gov ** Federal tax credit of $1k, and Fuelmaker+Honda rebate of $2k barrels/year 0.1 11.8 Petroleum cons.* tons CO2/yr 5.4 6.3 Carbon footprint* 1-10; 10 is best 9 6 EPA air poll. score* -$1k + -$2k = -$3k** ~$4,000 Can’t! Home refueling $0.50/gal tax credit $2.30 $3.00 Fuel $4k fed. tax credit $25,000 $20-22,000 Vehicle Comments Honda Civic GX Honda Civic Category
  • 43. Your Link to Alt Fuels Info in East TN: ETCleanFuels.org (865) 974-3625 Questions? “ Do not follow where the path may lead. Go, instead, where there is no path and leave a trail. ” - Ralph Waldo Emerson