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Alternative Fuels Presentation for Middle Schoolers
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Alternative Fuels Presentation for Middle Schoolers

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From the negative effects of air pollution and oil dependence to the benefits of biodiesel and ethanol, this presentation covers many of the aspects of using alternative fuels.

From the negative effects of air pollution and oil dependence to the benefits of biodiesel and ethanol, this presentation covers many of the aspects of using alternative fuels.

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  • There are other air pollutants emitted too. PM is found in smoke and haze, and is formed with the gas from car exhaust reacts with air. In part, it is unburned fuel. You can see it in the puff of smoke coming from cars & trucks. Fine particles or PM 2.5 are particles 2.5 micrometers or smaller. Our eyes can only detect things that are at least 35 micrometers large, so we can’t really see PM. A grain of salt is about 100 microns.
  • There are other air pollutants emitted too. PM is found in smoke and haze, and is formed with the gas from car exhaust reacts with air. In part, it is unburned fuel. You can see it in the puff of smoke coming from cars & trucks. Fine particles or PM 2.5 are particles 2.5 micrometers or smaller. Our eyes can only detect things that are at least 35 micrometers large, so we can’t really see PM. A grain of salt is about 100 microns.
  • Particles are carried by the wind and can hurt the environment too—getting into water and ground, even causing acid rain. Why does this matter to you? Next. Slide.
  • That’s a lot of gas, and it certainly wasn’t always like this… Next. Slide.
  • This shows our Energy Consumption for the past 400 or so years. We are focusing on the red line that represents petroleum consumption.
  • This is not sustainable at all. We cannot keep using Energy at this rate, especially non-renewable energy sources. We are going to have to learn and choose to do things differently, or we won’t have a choice and we will be forced to. Because we will run out. Next Slide.
  • Finally, This is all a problem because, if we run out of the non-renewable, finite oil resource, our transportation sector has no backups. This is a graph of our fuel use within sectors, and as you can see, transportation is heavily reliant on petroleum. The other sectors would probably be ok because they have diversity already. When you or your parents go to fill up their car, how many options of fuel do they have? But that’s all gasoline, right? So really we just have one—gas. Transportation doesn’t have diversity! We need more diversity in transportation fuels. So, if all these problems or reasons aren’t enough to tell you why we need alternative fuels, then ask yourself… Next Slide…
  • 100 lbs. soybean oil + 10 lbs. methanol* * ≤ 1 lb. of Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide used as catalyst == 100 lbs. soy biodiesel + 10 lbs. crude glycerin Only EPA regulated fuel. Must meet EPA standards
  • Micro-algae—unicellular bio-factories for oil—meaning the algae are single celled and produce oil one there own. Compare to corn:18 gal./acre, soybean:48, and even oil palm:635 Still developing ways to grow algae safely and get the most out of it. Plants use CO2 in photosynthesis to make sugar, and we can use them to make fuel. Could help with two problems—two birds with one stone.
  • Easy to use and handle Alternative for US gas market
  • Well suited to the Southeast Currently, ~6-8 tons/acre in TN Potential for 12+ tons/acre Warm season, native, perennial grass Tolerates poor soils, flooding, drought Highly resistant to many pests and plant diseases Low use of chemicals or fertilizers 1-2 year establishment Weed control critical in establishment Initial production practices similar to hay Working toward next generation harvest, storage, management improvements UT has long history of switchgrass production and market research
  • Plus… Having access to alternative would simply give us more options at the pump! Here are some examples of alternative fuel vehicles. Cool looking Aptera—can get up to 230 miles per gallon at 55 miles per hour.
  • There are people right here in your area that are using Alternative fuels…
  • Your city or county. Utilities, Companies like Mayfield, McGee Tyson Airport, The Smoky Mt. National Park, etc.
  • Car pool, ride mass transit (school bus). Get cars with better fuel efficiency or just drive less—walk or ride your bike.
  • There are things you can do. A school in Atlanta had a Ride & Walk to school week. Parents and teachers helped to create a safe path so kids could get to school. Maybe you could do something similar.

Alternative Fuels Presentation for Middle Schoolers Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Alternative Fuels: What exactly are they? Emily DeVillers Education Coordinator East Tennessee Clean Fuels Coalition ~~~ 2009
  • 3. Pollution
  • 4. 6 Most Common Pollutants from burning Fossil Fuels
    • Particulate matter
    • Volatile organic compounds
    • Ozone
    • Nitrogen dioxide
    • Carbon monoxide
    • Lead
  • 5. Other Effects of Petroleum Pollution
    • Climate Change
      • Increases the earth’s temperature, changes weather patterns,
      • melts ice shelves,
    • Oil spills
      • Contaminates water,
      • kills birds, fish, and animals
    • Causes Acid Rain
      • Kills plants
      • Deteriorates monuments like the Washington Monument or Statue of Liberty
    • Effects on animals
      • Lead exposure = inability for birds to fly
  • 6. Air Quality in the U.S. Source: American Lung Association Purple = Very Unhealthy Red = Unhealthy Orange = Unhealthy for sensitive populations 0 0 22 0 2 24 Nashville 0 0 8 0 1 77 Maryville 0 6 77 11 55 185 Los Angeles 0 0 21 1 0 70 Knoxville 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fargo 0 0 0 0 0 12 Colorado Springs 0 0 43 0 5 41 Chicago 0 0 31 0 2 12 Bronx Purple Days Red Days Orange Days Purple Days Red Days Orange Days City Particulate Matter O-zone
  • 7. Current U.S. Fuel Consumption
    • 882,000,000 gallons per day
    • 27,000,000,000 gallons per month
    • 322,000,000,000 Gallons per Year
  • 8. Really Long-term U.S. Energy Data Consumption What does this growth curve look like if we add up all the different forms of energy we are consuming?
  • 9. Really Long-term U.S. Energy Data Consumption Over the long haul, we are going to have to learn to do things differently, or we will be forced to .
  • 10. U.S. Dependence on Foreign Oil Rate of Use Oil Reserves Updated July 2005. Source: International Energy Annual 2003 (EIA), Tables 1.2 and 8.1-O&GJ. Canada’s reserves include tar sands. The United States uses more oil than the next five highest-consuming nations combined. 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 7% 25 % 7% 3% 0% 10% 15% 20% 5% 25%
  • 11. There’s a Storm coming!! Today, 97% of our transportation fuel comes from petroleum sources
  • 12. Domestically Produced Alternative Fuels
    • Biodiesel-95%
    • Electricity-100%
    • Ethanol-95%
    • Natural gas-90%
    • Propane-95%
    Gasoline + Diesel = 40% vs.
  • 13.
    • Biodiesel is…
      • A fuel for diesel engines made from natural oils: Soybeans, sunflowers, animal fats, algae
    • Biodiesel is not raw vegetable oil
    Biodiesel
  • 14. Biodiesel
    • American-made and renewable
    • Reduces air pollution by up to 75%
    • Not a poison
    • Don’t have to change existing car
    Advantages Disadvantages vs. Glacier Nat’l Park, Montana photo from biodiesel.org
    • Fuel filter clogs after first time use
    • May gel in cold weather
  • 15. Algae Research
    • Algae are unicellular and contains a lot of oil
    • Huge potential: up to 20,000 gallons oil/acre
    • Still researching how to get the most oil possible out of the algae
  • 16. Ethanol
    • What is ethanol?
      • Fuel for gasoline engines
      • Alcohol based fuel
      • Made by fermenting and distilling crops that have been broken down into simple sugars
    • What is it made from?
      • Corn, Sugar cane, cellulose
  • 17. Ethanol (E10 + E85)
    • American-made and renewable
    • Reduces air pollution by 59%
    • Cheaper than gasoline
    • Increased power
    • Creates jobs
    • Lower miles per gallon
    • Need a Flex Fuel car to use E85
    • Need newer gas stations
    Advantages Disadvantages vs.
  • 18. Ethanol vs. Food: The Debate
    • Today we grow 5 times as much food on 20% less land.
    • In 20 years we will grow twice as much food we do today.
    1930’s Today 2029
  • 19. Switchgrass
    • Native to TN
    • Only have to replant every 10-20 years
    • Produces 540% more energy than needed to grow, harvest, and refine it
    • Creates 94% less pollution than gasoline
    • Could potentially make 100 billion gallons of ethanol a year
    New Biorefinery in Vonore, TN
  • 20. Switchgrass
  • 21. OPTIONS!! Biodiesel—B5, B20, B100 Ethanol—E10, E85 CNG LPG Hydrogen Hybrid Electric Vehicle Plug-in HEV Electricity — NG
  • 22. Alternative Fuels Stations in Eastern TN!
  • 23. Regional Fleets Using Alternative Fuels
  • 24. We need multiple solutions! Fuel Efficiency Alternative Fuels Conservation Cleaner Air & Oil Independence Improve Reduce Replace
  • 25. Conservation and Fuel Efficiency
    • #1: Use alternative fuels
      • Talk to your parents about buying a FFV
      • Make your school a Clean Fuel School
    • #2: DRIVE LESS!!!
      • Carpool, Walk, Bike, Bus
    • #3: Little things count
      • Drive the speed limit
      • Don’t drive aggressively
      • Properly inflate your tires
      • Lower the A/C
      • Idle less
      • Travel light
    What Can You Do?
  • 26. Questions?
  • 27.