Personality
What is personality? <ul><li>Personality-  the psychological qualities that bring continuity to an individual’s behavior i...
The “what” & the “why” of personality <ul><li>Most theories of personality try to explain how & why one’s personality form...
The “what” & the “why” of personality <ul><li>Most theories of personality try to explain how & why one’s personality form...
Psycho dynamic  Theory <ul><li>Contemporary Psycho dynamic  Theory is based on the psycho analytic  theories of Sigmund Fr...
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>After unsuccessful with hypnosis, Sigmund Freud found that there were other means to...
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>Freud’s theory centered around the  unconscious . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repressed im...
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>Id vs. Superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Id - the primitive, unconscious portion of the...
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>Psychosexual Developmental Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>Ego Defense Mechanisms (operate at the  pre conscious level) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R...
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>Psychic Determinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freud’s assumption that ALL mental & behav...
Neo-Freudians’ Psychodynamic Theories <ul><li>All neo-Freudians  agreed  that the unconscious influenced behavior. </li></...
Neo-Freudians’ Psychodynamic Theories <ul><li>Carl Jung  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal vs. Collective Unconscious  </li><...
Trait Theory <ul><li>Trait theory began with Hippocrates’ theory of the four humors (fluids) secreted from the body. </li>...
Trait Theory <ul><li>Temperament - basic & pervasive personality dispositions that are apparent in early childhood & that ...
Trait Theory <ul><li>The “big five” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines many traits as fitting into more global dimensions: </li...
Trait Theory <ul><li>Assessing Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TAT & Rorschach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEO-PI-R </li>...
Trait Theory <ul><li>Assessing Trait Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait testing can be used to predict behavior…to a point...
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#39&40 Personality

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  • Transcript of "#39&40 Personality"

    1. 1. Personality
    2. 2. What is personality? <ul><li>Personality- the psychological qualities that bring continuity to an individual’s behavior in different situations at different times. </li></ul>
    3. 3. The “what” & the “why” of personality <ul><li>Most theories of personality try to explain how & why one’s personality forms & changes through the lifespan. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic , ( Radical Behavioristic ), Humanistic & Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Trait Personality theory defines the components -traits, temperaments & types- of personality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait theorists do not ask the question of “why?” </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. The “what” & the “why” of personality <ul><li>Most theories of personality try to explain how & why one’s personality forms & changes through the lifespan. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psycho analytic (now Psycho dynamic ) , ( Radical Behavioristic ), Humanistic & Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Trait Personality theory defines the components -traits, temperaments & types- of personality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait theorists do not ask the question of “why?” </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Psycho dynamic Theory <ul><li>Contemporary Psycho dynamic Theory is based on the psycho analytic theories of Sigmund Freud. </li></ul><ul><li>Psycho dynamic personality theorists emphasize the effect of unconscious motives & past experiences on our current mental health. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>After unsuccessful with hypnosis, Sigmund Freud found that there were other means to alleviate conversion symptoms (then hysteria). </li></ul><ul><li>Freud’s techniques accompanied his explanations of personality in what was then called psychoanalysis . </li></ul>
    7. 7. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>Freud’s theory centered around the unconscious . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repressed impulses, drives & conflicts which the conscious self is unaware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eros & Thanatos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eros - the libido fuels lust (& work & leisure activities). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thanatos - aggression & destruction against others </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>Id vs. Superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Id - the primitive, unconscious portion of the psyche that houses the most basic drives & stores repressed memories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superego - the psyche’s storehouse of values & morals (from parents); “the conscience” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ego moderates the conflict between the id & superego; it’s the conscious & rational part of the psyche. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>Psychosexual Developmental Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phallic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genital </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>Ego Defense Mechanisms (operate at the pre conscious level) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sublimation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impetus for projective testing- Rorschach & TAT </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>Psychic Determinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freud’s assumption that ALL mental & behavioral responses are caused by unconscious traumas, desires or conflicts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freudian Slips… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… when you say one thing but mean your mother. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Neo-Freudians’ Psychodynamic Theories <ul><li>All neo-Freudians agreed that the unconscious influenced behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>All neo-Freudians disagreed about the specific motives for behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(more focus conscious, lifelong influence & social effects) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neo-Freudians include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carl Jung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karen Horney </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfred Adler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erik Erikson </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Neo-Freudians’ Psychodynamic Theories <ul><li>Carl Jung </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal vs. Collective Unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archetypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality types (I/E;S/iN; F/T) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Karen Horney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M/F differences are derived from society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic anxiety causes mental disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with basic anxiety: move toward , against , or away from others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alfred Adler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation for unconscious inferiority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Erik Erikson- social & lifelong development </li></ul>
    14. 14. Trait Theory <ul><li>Trait theory began with Hippocrates’ theory of the four humors (fluids) secreted from the body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanguine- cheerful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choleric- angry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melancholic- depressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phlegmatic- cold, aloof </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Trait Theory <ul><li>Temperament - basic & pervasive personality dispositions that are apparent in early childhood & that establish the tempo & mood of the individual’s behaviors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected by biology & genetics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inherited temperament may set the range of responses to life situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who inherits shyness may become less shy, but will not likely become overly extroverted. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Trait Theory <ul><li>The “big five” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines many traits as fitting into more global dimensions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Openness to experience (Intellectual style) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness (WOrk style) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion (Expressive style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeableness (Interpersonal style) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroticism (Emotional style) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valid across cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely accepted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cattell’s 16PF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures the degree to which individuals fit 16 basic personality traits. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Trait Theory <ul><li>Assessing Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TAT & Rorschach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEO-PI-R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Big Five Inventory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MMPI-2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measures degrees of serious mental illnesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highly valid & reliable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MBPI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Jungian personality characteristics + perceiving vs. judging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many uses…but, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Questionable reliability & validity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Trait Theory <ul><li>Assessing Trait Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait testing can be used to predict behavior…to a point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait theory does not EXPLAIN behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some opponents of trait theory say that situational factors affect behavior much more than traits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more ambiguous the situation, the less consistent the behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul>
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