The Environmental Cost of Cloud
Computing: Assessing Power Use
           and Impacts
      Jonathan G. Koomey, Ph.D.
    ...
For users, the cloud offers
infinitely scalable computing
           on demand



                            2
So why should cloud users
  care about power use?



                            3
Power use strongly affects
  costs for “in-house” IT
services (the alternative to
 relying on the cloud) AND


           ...
Cloud computing suppliers
     have two inherent
advantages on power and
 costs over “in-house” IT
    (load diversity and...
(As an aside, most people
think the true total cost for
 “in-house” IT is far lower
     than it actually is)


          ...
Data centers, where the
cloud resides, are where the
world of bits meets the world
          of atoms


                  ...
8
The cloud uses electricity.
       How much?




                              9
World data center electricity
    use, 2000 and 2005




    Source: Koomey 2008
                            10
How much is 152B kWh?
             Italy

      South Africa

           Mexico

World Data Centers

              Iran

 ...
Trends push power use both
       up and down



                         12
Pushing power use up…
•  Increasing demands for
  –  E-commerce
  –  VOIP
  –  Internet search
  –  software as a service
...
Summary:
Delivery of IT services is
    increasing rapidly


                             14
Pushing power use down…
•    Virtualization/consolidation
•    Cooling and power constraints
•    Recognition of constrain...
Summary:
Information technology is
  becoming more energy
 efficient at a furious pace


                               16
Internet electricity intensity
 Electricity per GB transferred down 30% per year!




     Source: Taylor and Koomey (2008...
Data center costs are strongly
   affected by IT power use



                            18
Annualized data center costs




                          19
Two important equations



           Power related terms




                                 20
In spite of our historical
progress, there’s still great
potential for improving the
 energy efficiency of data
          ...
Many efficiency opportunities




      Source: EPA report to Congress 2007   22
Improving the energy
efficiency of data centers is as
     much about people and
    institutions as it is about
         ...
Efficiency opportunities
•  Improve asset management and
   utilization (multiple benefits)
•  Improve efficiency of compo...
Misplaced incentives
•  Energy, efficiency, and performance metrics
   not standardized
•  Not charging per kW but per squ...
Cloud computing suppliers
   have at least two big
advantages on power and
 costs over “in-house” IT


                   ...
1) Diversity: spread loads
    over many users,
   improving hardware
        utilization


                             27
2) Economies of scale:
 implementing technical +
 organizational changes is
cheaper and easier than for
      small IT sho...
The biggest environmental
  story about information
technology (IT) is not direct
  electricity use (which is
relatively s...
Why?




       30
Moving electrons is always
   less environmentally
damaging than moving atoms


                         31
Example: paper vs. PDF
•  Mass of paper = 5 g/sheet
•  Mass of electrons to move a 1 MB PDF
   file of that page (based on...
Conclusions
•  The cloud is responsible for 1-2% of the world’s
   electricity use.
•  Absolute electricity use growing fa...
Key web sites
•  EPA on data centers + 2007 Report to Congress
   http://www.energystar.gov/datacenters
•  LBNL on data ce...
References
•    Koomey, Jonathan. 2007a. Estimating regional power consumption by servers:
     A technical note. Oakland,...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Koomeyondatacenterelectricityuse v24

1,167 views

Published on

This is a talk I gave at Green:Net in March 2009

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,167
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Koomeyondatacenterelectricityuse v24

  1. 1. The Environmental Cost of Cloud Computing: Assessing Power Use and Impacts Jonathan G. Koomey, Ph.D. http://www.koomey.com Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory & Stanford University Presented at Green:Net San Francisco, CA March 24, 2009 1
  2. 2. For users, the cloud offers infinitely scalable computing on demand 2
  3. 3. So why should cloud users care about power use? 3
  4. 4. Power use strongly affects costs for “in-house” IT services (the alternative to relying on the cloud) AND 4
  5. 5. Cloud computing suppliers have two inherent advantages on power and costs over “in-house” IT (load diversity and economies of scale) 5
  6. 6. (As an aside, most people think the true total cost for “in-house” IT is far lower than it actually is) 6
  7. 7. Data centers, where the cloud resides, are where the world of bits meets the world of atoms 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. The cloud uses electricity. How much? 9
  10. 10. World data center electricity use, 2000 and 2005 Source: Koomey 2008 10
  11. 11. How much is 152B kWh? Italy South Africa Mexico World Data Centers Iran Sweden Turkey 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Final Electricity Consumption (Billion kWh) Source for country data in 2005: International Energy Agency, World Energy Balances (2007 edition) 11
  12. 12. Trends push power use both up and down 12
  13. 13. Pushing power use up… •  Increasing demands for –  E-commerce –  VOIP –  Internet search –  software as a service –  video downloads –  resilience in the face of disaster –  regulatory compliance (e.g. Sarbanes-Oxley) –  IT-enabled business transformation •  More transistors on a chip + more RAM + more volume servers 13
  14. 14. Summary: Delivery of IT services is increasing rapidly 14
  15. 15. Pushing power use down… •  Virtualization/consolidation •  Cooling and power constraints •  Recognition of constraints by the C level •  Metrics –  Servers + other IT equipment (Spec Power, 80 plus, E*) –  Site infrastructure •  Utility rebates (PG&E) 15
  16. 16. Summary: Information technology is becoming more energy efficient at a furious pace 16
  17. 17. Internet electricity intensity Electricity per GB transferred down 30% per year! Source: Taylor and Koomey (2008) for 2000 and 2006 data. Trends for 2000 to 2006 extrapolated to 2008 by JK. 17
  18. 18. Data center costs are strongly affected by IT power use 18
  19. 19. Annualized data center costs 19
  20. 20. Two important equations Power related terms 20
  21. 21. In spite of our historical progress, there’s still great potential for improving the energy efficiency of data centers 21
  22. 22. Many efficiency opportunities Source: EPA report to Congress 2007 22
  23. 23. Improving the energy efficiency of data centers is as much about people and institutions as it is about technology 23
  24. 24. Efficiency opportunities •  Improve asset management and utilization (multiple benefits) •  Improve efficiency of components (e.g. power supplies) •  Implement consistent metrics and track over time •  Align incentives to minimize True Cost of Ownership •  Think “whole system redesign” (RMI) 24
  25. 25. Misplaced incentives •  Energy, efficiency, and performance metrics not standardized •  Not charging per kW but per square foot •  Split accountability –  Who pays the bills, IT or facilities? –  Who bears the risk of failure? •  Hierarchy and culture differences •  Piling safety factor upon safety factor •  Not focusing on total costs for delivering computing services 25
  26. 26. Cloud computing suppliers have at least two big advantages on power and costs over “in-house” IT 26
  27. 27. 1) Diversity: spread loads over many users, improving hardware utilization 27
  28. 28. 2) Economies of scale: implementing technical + organizational changes is cheaper and easier than for small IT shops 28
  29. 29. The biggest environmental story about information technology (IT) is not direct electricity use (which is relatively small) but how IT affects efficiency in the broader society 29
  30. 30. Why? 30
  31. 31. Moving electrons is always less environmentally damaging than moving atoms 31
  32. 32. Example: paper vs. PDF •  Mass of paper = 5 g/sheet •  Mass of electrons to move a 1 MB PDF file of that page (based on average network electricity intensity of 7 kWh/ GB) is 1.7 x 10-5 g •  Ratio of paper mass to electron mass ~ 300,000 32
  33. 33. Conclusions •  The cloud is responsible for 1-2% of the world’s electricity use. •  Absolute electricity use growing fast (doubling every 5-8 years) •  IT services are growing much faster than electricity use (doubling every year or two). •  Electricity productivity, defined as computing services delivered per kWh, is increasing rapidly and this trend promises to continue. •  The indirect environmental and productivity benefits of IT are likely to be more important than direct electricity use. 33
  34. 34. Key web sites •  EPA on data centers + 2007 Report to Congress http://www.energystar.gov/datacenters •  LBNL on data centers: http://hightech.lbl.gov/ datacenters.html •  The Green Grid: http://www.thegreengrid.org/ •  The Uptime Institute: http://www.upsite.com/ TUIpages/tuihome.html •  SPEC power: http://www.spec.org/power_ssj2008/ 34
  35. 35. References •  Koomey, Jonathan. 2007a. Estimating regional power consumption by servers: A technical note. Oakland, CA: Analytics Press. December 5. (http:// www.amd.com/koomey) •  Koomey, Jonathan. 2007b. Estimating total power consumption by servers in the U.S. and the world. Oakland, CA: Analytics Press. February 15. (http:// enterprise.amd.com/us-en/AMD-Business/Technology-Home/Power- Management.aspx) •  Koomey, Jonathan, Kenneth G. Brill, W. Pitt Turner, John R. Stanley, and Bruce Taylor. 2007. A simple model for determining true total cost of ownership for data centers. Santa Fe, NM: The Uptime Institute. September. (http:// www.upsite.com/cgi-bin/admin/admin.pl?admin=view_whitepapers) •  Koomey, Jonathan. 2008. "Worldwide electricity used in data centers." Environmental Research Letters. vol. 3, no. 034008. September 23. <http:// stacks.iop.org/1748-9326/3/034008 >. •  Taylor, Cody, and Jonathan Koomey. 2008. Estimating energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of Internet advertising. Working paper for IMC2. February 14. <http://imc2.com/Documents/CarbonEmissions.pdf>. 35

×