• Atoms are most stable _______________
• To obtain a full shell atoms can:
–______________or __________ electrons
(forming cations or anions)
–___________ electrons (form a covalent
• Non-metals generally have 4,5,6,7 or 8 electrons in
the outer shell
• If they bond with each other, electrons are shared
valence electrons can be shared
Outer shells overlap and
valence electrons are shared
• Covalent bonds
– Valence electrons are shared between
___________ atoms to fill a an atom’s octet
• ___ shared electrons: single bond
• ___shared electrons: double bond
• ___shared electrons: triple bond
Lewis Dot Structures –
• Identify the number
of valence electrons
in each atom.
• Spread them around
the atom symbol –
then in pairs
• Oxygen= _________
Lewis Dot structures of molecules
• Method #1
– Put your atoms together.
– If Octet is not filled, slide e-
pairs to form double, triple
• Method #2
– Count total number of
– Fill central atom’s octet
– Create double, triple bonds
• Draw electronic structure diagrams to show
how the following elements or compounds
– Methane (CH4)
– Oxygen (O2)
– Nitrogen (N2)
– Water (H2O)
– Carbon dioxide (CO2)
– Carbon monoxide (CO)
Naming Covalent Compounds
• Draw the structure to find out how many of
each element there are.
• Write the formula with correct subscripts.
• Name the formula- write the names of the
• Include prefixes to match subscripts.
– NO MONO- on the first element!
• Make sure there’s an “-ide” on the end.