Explaining how factor analysis was used to identify benefits of technology in academic success:A statistical technique used to reduce a large number of attributes into a smaller set of “factors” based on response patterns.A factor consists of a number of attributes that are rated in a similar way.Factor analysis is extremely useful when dealing with a very large number of attributes that would be cumbersome to analyze individually.The names of the factors are subjective and are intended to describe the common theme shared by all of the attributes within that factor.
Continuing with the factor analysis, there are relationships between selected technologies and certain benefits.
Overall, the average student spends at least some time engaging in about 21 different kinds of software applications and activities out of 40 they were asked about. Students use a variety of communication tools, but the most common ones have reached mass adoption.
Smartphones have a variety of academic uses, not just communication. More than one in three students (37%) have used an iPhone or another smartphone in one or more courses or academic activities in the past year. Forty-five percent of smartphone users have used these devices to look up information on the Internet in class.
1. Experiential Mobile Learning Activities
2. Was it an authentic, relevant learning experience?
3. What Epiclearningexperiencehave youfacilitated orparticipatedin? http://wiffiti.com/screens/97427
4. Students in educational environments with astrong sense of community are more likely to. . .
5. Research has shown that functioning in a community can enhance the learning that occurs.Optimal learning outcomes are directly tied to the establishment of social networks among participants engaged a collaborative learning enterprise.Such collaboration has been shown to be very important in the development of a learning community and in achieving the desired learning outcomes. Vesely, P., Bloom, L. & Sherlock, J. (2007). Key Elements of Building Online Community: Comparing Faculty and Student Perceptions. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 3, (3). Retrived from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol3no3/vesely.htm.
6. Unfortunately . . .Unfortunately, schools with a strong sense of community are fairlyrare. In fact, most schools that survey students perceptions ofcommunity wind up with mediocre mean scores. Of further concernis the fact that low-income students and students of color usuallyreport a lower level of community in school than do affluent or whitestudents. Many schools appear to be ill-equipped to providecommunity for the students who may need it most. Schaps, Battistich, & Solomon, 1997 in Snaps’ Creating a School Community http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar03/vol60/num06/Creating-a-School-Community.aspx
7. In virtual learning communities . . .
8. commonality is the essence of communityGetting to “know” each other. Finding out where people lived, whatthey did, their experiences, whether or not they had families and thelike was the “X” factor. Participants generally agreed that this shouldhave been a first step in community-building, but usually it was notpart of the formal coursework. Brown, R. (2001). The Process of Community Building in a Distance Learning Classes
9. Responsible not only for one’s own learning but for other learners, too.Brown, R. (2001). The Process of Community Building in a Distance Learning Classes
10. Collaborative mobile learning . . .
11. An Overview of Mobile Device Use
12. Smartphone Ownership60%50%40%30% 51%20% 39%10% 24% 21% 12% 8%0% Millennials Gen X Younger Older Boomers Silent G.I. Generation (18-34) (35-46) Boomers (57-65) Generation (75+) (47-56) (66-74) Source: Pew Research Centers Internet & American Life Project, April 26-May 22, 2011 Tracking Survey. N=2,277 adults 18 and older, including 755 reached via cell phone.
13. Digital Revolution Mobile – 77% of teens Total U.S. population: 315.5 million
14. Digital devices Younger Older Silent G.I. All Millennial Gen X Boomers Boomers Generatio Generatio adults s (18-34) (35-46) (47-56) (57-65) n (66-74) n (75+) (18+)Cell phone 94% 92% 86% 80% 69% 1% 84%Laptopcomputer 71% 67% 56% 46% 34% 16% 57%Desktopcomputer 52% 64% 62% 55% 49% 33% 55%iPod orMP3 player 69% 57% 36% 24% 10% 5% 44%Gameconsole 63% 63% 38% 19% 8% 3% 42%e-bookreader 12% 14% 14% 12% 6% 5% 12%Tablet, likeiPad 14% 15% 8% 4% 3% 3% 11%
15. ECAR Student study, 2011 key findings Students recognize major academic benefits of technology. Students report uneven perceptions of institutions and instructors on technology. Students prefer, and say they learn more in, classes with online components. Responses from 3,000 students at 1,179 colleges and universities provided a nationally representative sample of students©2011 EDUCAUSE. CC by-nc-nd EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research = http://www.educause.edu/ecar 32
16. Academic BenefitsAvg. Agreementwith Statements Gives Students Access to Resources and Progress Reports  Easy to track my academic progress  Gives me access to resources  Helps me know how I am doing  Easier to get help when I need it  Simplifies administrative-related activities Makes Students More Efficient  Helps me do my work faster  Efficient way to store examples of work  Allows me to produce higher-quality work  Makes college easier Facilitates Connecting with Others  Feel connected to other students  Feel connected to whats going on  Feel connected to professors/staff  Gives me access to experts in my field Makes Learning More Engaging and Relevant  Learning more creative  More relevant to real life  Take control of own learning  Learning more fun  More engaging  Extends learning beyond classroom  Think out of the box  Elevates teaching  Prepares me for the workforce  Individualized/personalized  Reach academic potential  Prepares me for graduate school ©2011 EDUCAUSE. CC by-nc-nd 33
17. Relationships between Technologies and Benefits Access to Resources &Progress Reports Laptop computer Wi-Fi Printer Document camera USB drive Projector Efficiency Laptop Wi-Fi Printer Smartphone Internet device that Digital video camera eReader Connecting attaches to TV With Others Digital point and shoot Student clickers/ iPad Scanner camera student response systems Engagement Digital video camera Internet device that attaches to TV Interactive whiteboard Digital camerasand Relevance iPhone/ Student clickers/ Scanner iPad Mp3 player DVD player Document DVR Webcam smartphone student response Desktop computer systems camera ©2011 EDUCAUSE. CC by-nc-nd
18. Academic Tools - Communications Frequency of Use for School or Personal Purposes E-mail 75% 13% 9% 99% Text message 74% 6% 8% 93% Use Facebook 58% 14% 11% 90% Download or stream web-based videos (YouTube, etc.) 20% 14% 33% 18% 85% Read Wikis (Wikipedia, course wiki, etc.) 12% 12% 35% 26% 85% Instant message (Gchat, Facebook chat, AIM, etc.) 27% 12% 22% 20% 81% Download or stream web-based music 15% 11% 30% 23% 79% Read blogs 13% 9% 23% 27% 72% Use online forums or bulletin boards 11% 11% 23% 25% 70% Use telephone-like communication over the Internet 7% 7% 21% 33% 68% Watch podcasts or webcasts 5% 18% 33% 59% Participate in online chats, chat events, webinars 6% 15% 28% 53% Use photo-sharing websites (Flickr, Snapfish, Picasa, etc.) 13% 32% 50% Tagging/bookmarking/liking 6% 6% 17% 20% 49% Play online multi-user computer games for recreation 9% 15% 14% 43% Contribute to blogs 11% 24% 43% Post videos to a video-sharing website (YouTube, etc.) 8% 29% 42% Use Twitter 9% 12% 37% Use other social networking websites (MySpace, etc.) 6% 17% 31% Access Internet content via a TV (Apple TV, Roku) Several times a day 7% 12% 25% Use LinkedIn 6% 15% 25% Once a day Contribute to Wikis (Wikipedia, course wiki, etc.) 5% 18% 25% A few times a week Use social studying sites 7% 12% 23% Less often Use Geo-Tagging, Geo-Tagged environments 9% 18% Participate in online virtual worlds 8% 15%Q5a. Thinking about the most recent school year, how often did you do the following, whether it was for school or personal purposes? ©2011 EDUCAUSE. CC by-nc-nd
19. Academic Benefits - Smartphones Ways Smartphones Are Used for Academic Work (Among Users) n= 1,122 E-mailing professors 66% Checking grades 62% Texting other students about coursework 61% Looking up info on Internet outside of class 59% E-mailing other students about coursework 57% Accessing course websites or syllabi 45% Looking up info on Internet in class 45% As a timer or time management device 42% Listening to music while doing coursework 40% Taking pictures 37% Collecting data for classwork 28% To access a social networking website 28% Accessing library resources 24% Registering for courses 22% Opportunities exist for Conducting research for papers/presentations 22% universities and students to Accessing financial aid information 21% take greater advantage of Texting professors smartphone technology when it 19% comes to administrative Making textbook purchases 16% activities, such as ordering Learning about locations youre in/visiting 15% transcripts, purchasing As a source of additional help or tutoring 15% textbooks, accessing financial Posting information or images on the Internet 14% aid information, and registering Writing papers or other classwork 12% for courses. Ordering transcripts 7% Making charts or other visual aids 5%Q11. You said you own an iPhone or smartphone. Which of the following are ways you use your iPhone or smartphone for your academic work? ©2011 EDUCAUSE. CC by-nc-nd 36
21. 2011 Horizon ReportFor most people in the developed world, a mobile is alwaysclose at hand and available with speedy Internet accesswhenever it is needed. Mobiles are easy to use for webbrowsing; much of the available content seamlessly adjusts foroptimal display on whichever device is used to access it. http://wp.nmc.org/horizon2011/sections/mobiles/
22. Future Workforce Skills Skills being honed on social networks today will be critical tomorrow, as work will be dominated by fast- moving, geographically diverse, free- agent teams of workers connected via socially mediating technologies. — Fred Stutzman, creator of the software Freedom and Anti-Social Elon studies the future of "Generation Always-On” http://www.elon.edu/e- net/Note.aspx?id=958393&board_ids=5%2C58&max=50
23. Future Workforce Skills Social intelligence is the ability to connect to others in a deep and direct way, to sense and stimulate reactions and desired interactions. This has always been a key skill for workers who need to collaborate and build relationships of trust, but it is even more important as we are called on to collaborate with larger groups of people in different settings. Davies, Fidler, & Gorbis. (2011). http://www.iftf.org/futureworkskills2020
24. Future Workforce SkillsVirtual collaboration is the ability to work productively, drive engagement, anddemonstrate presence as a member of a virtual team. Online streams created bymicro blogging and social networking sites can serve as virtual watercoolers, providing a sense of camaraderie and enabling employees todemonstrate presence. Davies, Fidler, & Gorbis. (2011). http://www.iftf.org/futureworkskills2020
25. Conclusions . . .
26. Social Collaboration and Mobile LearningSocial collaboration is the key to mobile learning. Sociallearning and collaboration are important to successful learningbecause the interaction engages and motivates learners. http://www.trivantis.com/mlearncon2011-evolution-mobile-learning
27. Mobile Education Landscape ReportFor the Education sector, mobile connectivity provides anopportunity to offer new ways of teaching and learning thatultimately will improve performance and results whilst at the sametime open up new markets for mobile operators across the world.Mobile will increase access to up-to-date materials, will enablecollaboration and strengthen learner engagement. http://www.ambientinsight.com/News/Ambient-Insight-highlighted-in-GSMA-reports.aspx
28. What a great way to learn communication techniques! Thank you Jackie for allyour creative ways to make this class fun and exciting as well as informational.
29. Considerations: The App GapShould We Be Concerned About an "App Gap"? http://www.edutopia.org/blog/app-gap-digital-divide-audrey-watters
30. Considerations: Acceptable Use Policy http://www.cosn.org/Default.aspx?tabid=8139
31. Texting Interviews Look for someone sitting near you or one of your SL friends. IM them to say hi. Think of a question to ask him/her that would help you get to know him/her better, discover something new. You are going to text your interview response to Cel.ly. Put in first name of your interviewee and a summary of what you found out. http://community-building.weebly.com/interviews.html
33. Picture Your Valueshttp://community-building.weebly.com/picture-our-values.html
34. What are your values? Chose your most important 3 values from http://www.stevepavlina.com/articles/list-of-values.htm Find objects in your environment that symbolize these values. Take pictures of the objects using your mobile devices and email the photos directly to a Flickr page set up for this purpose. Write your value in the subject line and a short description in the message. email@example.com
35. Values Page on Flickr Site http://www.flickr.com/photos/57763362@N05/