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Climate Change And Environmental Security
 

Climate Change And Environmental Security

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    Climate Change And Environmental Security Climate Change And Environmental Security Presentation Transcript

    • Climate Change and Environmental Security: Bringing Realism Back In Josh Gellers PhD Student, Political Science University of California, Irvine Photo: A. Ishokon (UNEP)
    • Themes
      • 1) Reconcile realism with environmental security
      • 2) Develop theoretical basis for designating climate change as a security issue
      • 3) Encourage reconceptualization and condensation of “environmental security”
    • Research Question
      • Question: Is realism incompatible with environmental security?
      • Argument: Realism can accommodate environmental security by expanding causal linkages
      Conflict Civil Unrest Economic Downturn Reduced Crop Yield Climate Change
    • Conceptual Underpinnings
      • “ Redefining Security” or “Securitizing the Environment”
      • 1) Political Economy of the Environment
        • Mathews (1989), Kahl (2005)
      • 2) Resource Scarcity
        • Homer-Dixon (1994), Maxwell & Reuveny (2000)
      • 3) Human Security
        • Ogata & Cels (2003), Paris (2001)
    • Existing Typologies
      • Direct v. Indirect Threats (Levy 1995)
        • Direct: Skin cancer from ozone depletion
        • Indirect: Global biodiversity loss
      • Territorial v. Extraterritorial Risks (Busby 2008)
        • Territorial: Climate change-induced drought
        • Extraterritorial: Sea level rise overtaking foreign military installations
    • Realist Applications
      • 1) Political Economy of the Environment
        • Ex: Climate change affects agricultural output
        • Defensive realism
      • 2) Resource Scarcity
        • Ex: Climate change causes water shortage
        • Offensive realism
      • 3) Human Security
        • Ex: Climate change-induced sea level rise creates environmental refugees
        • Defensive and offensive realism
    • Research Directions
      • Develop a comprehensive policy approach to conceptualizing environment-security relationship
        • Example: Drought in West Africa Caused by Climate Change and Its U.S. Impacts
          • Direct v. Indirect: Indirect
          • Territorial v. Extraterritorial: Extraterritorial
          • Source of Threat: Foreign Destabilization
          • Threat Severity: Low/Medium
          • Threat Imminence: Likely (20-year time horizon)
          • Sectors/Groups Impacted: Farmers, Agriculture, Government
          • Mitigating Resources: Foreign Assistance (USAID)
          • Environmental Linkage: Drought  Refugees  Political Stress in Nearby State  Institutional Destabilization  Terrorist Group Opportunism  Increased Terrorist Activities
    • Research Directions
      • Disentangle current categorizations
      = Human Security Environmental Security
    • Questions?