EcstasyJosé Gerardo Cruz RiveraAbstract:______________________________________________________________________________MDMA can induce euphoria, a sense of intimacy with others, and diminished anxiety anddepression. Many, particularly in the fields of psychology and cognitive therapy, have suggestedMDMA might have therapeutic benefits and facilitate therapy sessions in certain individuals, apractice which it had formally been used for in the past. Clinical trials are now testing thetherapeutic potential of MDMA forpost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety associatedwith terminal cancer. The subjective effects, side effects, short term effects and long term effectof ecstasy are important for the people who use it.Introduction MDMA Ecstasy in the past year. According to the(methylenedioxymethamphetamine) or 1999 National Household Survey on Drugecstasy is a dangerous substance that has Abuse, approximately 3.4 million peoplebecome a problem in society due to had reported having used Ecstasy at leastoveruse. Ecstasy is a dangerous drug that once in their life.should never be taken under anycircumstances, but now scientists have done Ecstasy and oral healthresearch on the help that this substance doesin humans. According to Brand, The ecstasy is frequently used by young adults in the major Ecstasy is in fact a synthetic cities. This describes systemic and oralmethamphetamine derivative related to both effects of ecstasy. Life-threateningAmphetamine and Mescaline. Ecstasy is complications include hyperthermia,widely used at such teen events as dance hyponatraemia and liver failure. In addition,club or “rave” parties, like techno parties, psychotic episodes, depression, panicbut are not exclusive to those events. disorders and impulsive behaviour haveEcstasy was first synthesized in 1912 by been reported. Oral effects includeMerck, a German company, to be used as an xerostomia, bruxism, and an increased riskappetite suppressant or a weight-loss drug. of developing dental erosion. This occursEcstasy produces both stimulant and because the ecstasy stops the cardiovascularpsychedelic effects, enabling those who take system. Recent use of ecstasy may interferethe drug to remain active for longer periods with dental treatment.of time with less fatigue. According to the Office of National Subjective effectsDrug Control Policy, in 2000 the amonghigh school students surveyed are, 8.2% of The most common effect of MDMA12th graders, 5.4% of 10th graders, and was a heightened sense of "closeness" with3.1% of 8th graders stated that they had used other people (90% of subjects). Tachycardia,
dry mouth, bruxism and trismus werereported by the majority of users. These An Ecstasy overdose occurs wheneffects probably result from the more Ecstasy is consumed than your bodyamphetaminelike properties of the drug. can safely handle. As of November 1995, 50 to 60 people hadSide effects died due to either an ecstasy overdose or dehydration because of Ecstasy. Ecstasy Many ecstasy side effects are similar overdoses persist currently, including 8to those found with the use of cocaine and people in Miami and 5 in Minneapolis/St.amphetamines: confusion, depression, sleep Paul. In Boston during the first threeproblems, drug craving, severe anxiety, and quarters of 2000, Ecstasy was the mostparanoia, during and sometimes weeks after frequently mentioned drug in telephone callstaking Ecstasy. Physical Ecstasy side effects to the Poison Control Center.brought on by use of the drug includemuscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, Warning Signs of Ecstasy Overdosenausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movement, Feeling hot or unwellfaintness, and chills or sweating. Becoming confused, not able to talk properlyShort-terms effects Headache While Ecstasy is not as addictive as Vomitingheroin or cocaine, it can cause severe Not Sweatingadverse effects including nausea, Racing heart or pulse when restinghallucinations, chills, sweating, increases in Fainting or collapsingbody temperature, tremors, involuntary teeth Loss of control over body movementsclenching, muscle cramping, and blurred Tremorsvision. Problems UrinatingAfter effects Ecstasy users also report after-effects An Ecstasy Overdose is characterized by:of anxiety, paranoia, and depression. rapid heartbeatLong-Term Side Effects of Ecstasy high blood pressure In 1998, the National Institute of faintnessMental Health conducted a study of a small muscle crampinggroup of habitual Ecstasy users who were panic attacksabstaining from use. The study revealed that loss of consciousnessthe abstinent Ecstasy users suffered damage seizuresto the neurons in the brain that transmit hypothermiaserotonin, an important biochemical muscle breakdowninvolved in a variety of critical functions strokeincluding learning, sleep, and integration of kidney and cardiovascular systememotion. The results of the study have failureshown that recreational Ecstasy users may permanent damage to sections ofbe at risk of developing permanent brain brain critical to thought and memorydamage that may manifest itself in deathdepression, anxiety, memory loss, and otherneuropsychotic disorders. MDMA (Ecstasy)-Assisted PsychotherapyOverdose Ecstasy Relieves Treatment-Resistant PTSD
Belmont, MA-based Rick Doblin, Ph.D., Further research needs to be conducted toPresident of the Multidisciplinary explore whether the long-term cognitive andAssociation for Psychedelic Studies (a non- memory deficits are permanent or partially orprofit psychedelic and medical marijuana fully reversible, and to elucidate the mechanismresearch and educational organization that of action and dosage of SSRIs in blocking the action of Ecstasy. The latter may be promisingsponsored the study), together with South for the administration of SSRIs in managingCarolina-based psychiatrist Michael Ecstasy dependence and associated neuronMithoefer, MD and colleagues, made an degeneration.investigation on 20 patients with an average Recognizing the elevated abuse ( 500% increaseof 19 years with chronic post-traumatic since 1994) and toxic of Ecstasy, the DEA hasstress disorder. Prior to enrolling in the substantially increased its operations againstMDMA study, subjects were required to Ecstasy trafficking and smuggling, mainly fromhave received, and failed to obtain relief, Western Europe. The DEA also has been activefrom both psychotherapy and in cleaning up drug use at rave parties.psychopharmacology. It may be time to increase educational effortsThey analyzed these patients with MDMA directed toward young adolescents and their parents about the detrimental effects of Ecstasy.and placebo. Participants treated with a Short-term as well as long-term dangers shouldcombination of MDMA and psychotherapy be emphasized. Finally, further clinical researchwas statistically and clinically significant on the effects of MDMA is needed to provideimprovements more than the placebo group answers to important questions that remain.in post-traumatic stress disorder.The trial focused on psychotherapy sessions Referecesof eight hours scheduled about 3-5 weeks -Alcohol and drug rehab center. Ecstasyapart, where 12 subjects received MDMA, [internet]. [cited 2010 Nov24]. Availableand eight took a placebo. Subjects also were from: http://www.narconon.ca/Ecstasy.htmgiven psychotherapy once a week, before -Brand H. S. Dun S. N. and Nieuwand after each experimental session. An Amerongen, A. V. 2008. Ecstasy (MDMA)evaluator-blind, independent tested each and oral health. [Internet]. [cited 2010subject using a scale of PTSD at baseline October 13] Available from:and at intervals of four days after each http://proquest.umi.com.uprcdb.cayey.upr.edsession and two months after the second u:2048/pqdweb?index=5&did=1420134411session. The clinical response was &SrchMode=2&sid=3&Fmt=6&VInst=PROsignificant - 10 of 12 in the treatment group D&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQresponded to treatment compared with only D&TS=1287103519&clientId=45093two of eight in the placebo group. During -Ecstasy Fact Sheet. Ecstasy. [Internet].the trial, subjects had no drug related serious [cited 2010 Dec 2] Available from:adverse events (SAEs) or adverse http://ecstasyfactsheet.com/neurocognitive effects or clinically -Home health. Simple, reliable, accuratesignificant blood pressure or temperature health tests for the home and work place.increase [internet]. [cited 2010 Nov 28] AvailableConclusion from: http://www.homehealth-Although MDMA could induce emotional uk.com/medical/ecstasy.htmopenness, which is an invaluable tool in -National institute on drug abuse. Thepsychoanalysis, it poses a risk of flashbacks in science of drug abuse and addiction.victims of rape, child abuse, or posttraumatic MDMA (Ecstasy). [internet]. [cited 2010stress disorder that could create suicidalideations in these patients.
Nov 11]. Available from:http://drugabuse.gov/infofacts/ecstasy.html-SAGE Publications UK (2010, July 20).MDMA (Ecstasy)-assisted psychotherapyrelieves treatment-resistant PTSD, studysuggests.ScienceDaily. Retrieved October21, 2010, from:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/07/100719082927.htm-Schifano, Fabrizio. 2003. A bitter pill.Overview of ecstasy (MDMA, MDA)related fatalities[Internet]. [cited 2010October 7] Available from:http://proquest.umi.com.uprcdb.cayey.upr.edu:2048/pqdweb?index=3&did=706547521&SrchMode=2&sid=2&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1286544026&clientId=45093