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Coun603   Ch 6   Rebt   Ppt For Students

Coun603 Ch 6 Rebt Ppt For Students



Garrett's lecture notes - coun603 Marshall University. From Corsini R. J. & Wedding, D. (2007) Current Psychotherapies (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole – Thompson Learning.

Garrett's lecture notes - coun603 Marshall University. From Corsini R. J. & Wedding, D. (2007) Current Psychotherapies (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole – Thompson Learning.



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  • Dr. Garrett is THE BEST! He may not know...he's taught me all the way through grad school and been a HUGE help with his posts. (He's at Marshal, I'm in Texas) :)
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    Coun603   Ch 6   Rebt   Ppt For Students Coun603 Ch 6 Rebt Ppt For Students Presentation Transcript

    • Current Psychotherapies Chapter 6 Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Author: Albert Ellis Instructor: Jeff Garrett Ph.D.
    • Basic Concepts of REBT
      • Practical and symptom focus
      • Philosophically based but techniques have empirical support
      • Requires collaboration with client
      • Clients change through identification of irrational thoughts
      • Clients behavior and thought processes are evaluated
    • Basic Concepts of REBT
      • Stresses thinking , judging, deciding, analyzing, and doing
      • Assumes that cognitions, emotions, and behaviors interact and have a reciprocal cause-and-effect relationship
      • Is highly didactic , very directive, and concerned as much with thinking as with feeling
      • Teaches that our emotions stem mainly from our beliefs , evaluations, interpretations, and reactions to life situations
    • Basic Propositions of REBT
      • People have the potential to be rational , self preserving, creative, functional and to use metathought OR to be irrational , self-destructive, short-range hedonists
      • Culture and family can perpetuate irrational thinking
      • Humans perceive, think, emote and behave simultaneously
      • All psychotherapies are not equally effective
      • Ellis implies that highly cognitive, directive therapies requiring tasks and discipline are likely to be effective in a shorter time period with less sessions required
    • Basic Propositions of REBT
      • A warm therapeutic relationship may be desirable but it is not necessary or sufficient condition for change
      • REBT Therapists use a variety of techniques - the focus is not symptom removal but cognitive and behavioral change
      • Neurotic thinking is the result of unrealistic, illogical thinking
    • Basic Propositions of REBT
      • The causes of an individual’s problems are not the events that have happened but how the individual perceives them
      • There is an element between stimulus and response; it is thought
      • S thoughts R
      • REBT holds that beliefs mediate events and emotions
      • REBT provides clients with methods for changing irrational beliefs
    • Comparing REBT with Psychoanalysis
      • REBT does not focus on free association, complex history taking, dream analysis or sexual conflicts
      • Transference is seen in REBT as resulting from irrational thoughts
      • REBT employs persuasive and directive techniques
      • If transference occurs a REBT therapist is likely to relate it to the client's irrational beliefs
      • In REBT the unconscious is viewed as virtually meaningless as most elements can be brought into conscious
    • Comparing REBT with Adler’s Theory
      • The most salient similarity between REBT and Adlerian psychotherapy is the emphasis on basic mistakes
      • Departs from Adler regarding emphasis on past memories, social interest
      • REBT is more future oriented and behavioral
    • Comparing REBT to Jungian Therapy
      • Both types of therapy are holistic
      • REBT views the Jung’s focus on dreams, fantasies, symbols or archetypes as a “waste of time”
    • Comparing Cognitive Therapy with REBT
      • In CT thoughts are labeled dysfunctional
      • In REBT thoughts are labeled irrational
      • CT therapists are more collaborative
      • REBT therapists are more confrontational
      • CT less aggressive
      • REBT more aggressive
      • The most significant difference between REBT and Cognitive therapy (CT) therapist's forcefulness in disputing beliefs
      • Both CT and REBT use psychoeducation
    • Comparing REBT and Behavior Therapy
      • REBT focuses more on cognitive aspects
      • REBT is more similar to CT and Multimodal Therapy than BT
    • History
      • REBT – developed by Alfred Ellis
      • After two decades of practicing psychoanalysis he became increasingly disillusioned by the limited progress clients were making
      • 1957 published How to live with a Neurotic
      • 1975 published A New Guide to Rational Living which continues to be one of his most popular books
      • 1977 published Handbook of Rational-Emotive Therapy
    • Current Status
      • Albert Ellis institute established in 1959 teaches principles of healthy living
      • Journal of Rational-Emotive Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy reports latest findings.
    • Research Supports Several REBT Principles
      • Thoughts and feelings are not different processes – each affects the other
      • Beliefs are more important than events
      • Metathought occurs (often captured in images)
      • Changing thoughts, behaviors, or emotions changes other modalities
    • Personality
      • Basic tenet of REBT is that emotional upsets , as distinguished from feelings of sorrow, regret, annoyance, and frustration, largely stem from irrational beliefs
      • Problematic beliefs center around words/concepts like … should, ought, awful, must, I want, I need …
      • This is the basic personality theory of REBT … Humans largely create their own distress
    • Personality
      • Ellis agrees with Freud that … the pleasure principle drives behavior
      • Ellis agrees with Horney and Fromm that … cultural and family influences impact people’s irrational thinking
      • Ellis agrees with Adler that … fictitious goals order people’s lives
      • Ellis agrees with Pavlov that … cognitive conditioning occurs
      • Ellis agrees with Piaget that … active learning is more effective than passive
      • Ellis agrees with Anna Freud that … people refuse to acknowledge mistakes and resort to defenses
      • Ellis agrees with Maslow and Rogers that … humans have great untapped recourses
    • Personality View of Human Nature
      • We are born with a potential for both rational and irrational thinking
      • Ellis suggests humans have an innate nature to want, need and condemn when needs aren't met
      • If an individual's needs aren't met they display a tendency to childishly condemn themselves , others and the world
      • Ellis contends that we are self-talking , self-evaluating, and self-sustaining.
      • We have an inborn tendency toward growth and actualization
      • We learn and invent disturbing beliefs and keep ourselves disturbed through our self-talk
      • We have the capacity to change our cognitive, emotive, and behavioral processes
    • View of Emotional Disturbance
      • REBT views emotional disturbances as the result of irrational thinking and behaving .
      • We learn irrational beliefs from significant other during childhood
      • REBT therapist teach clients to feel “ undepressed ” even when they are unaccepted and unloved by significant others.
    • Personality View of Emotional Disturbance
      • Blame is at the core of most emotional disturbances
      • Irrational idea (e.g., I must be loved by everyone)  internalize  self-defeating
      • We have a tendency to make ourselves emotionally disturbed by internalizing self-defeating beliefs
      • REBT hypothesizes that we keep ourselves emotionally disturbed by the process of self-indoctrination
      • REBT holds that neurotic problems directly stem from magical, “unvalidated” thinking
      • The solution for dealing with an individual's demandingness most strongly supported by REBT is decreasing demandingness
      • Example: The myth of entitlement
    • The ABCs (and D) of Emotion
      • REBT refers to the ABCD. ABCD stands for, activating events, beliefs, consequences (or consequent emotion), and dispute
      • In challenging an individual's thought processes, REBT would use persuasion and directive
    • The A-B-C Theory of Personality
    • A B C Failed a test Depressed 80%
      • A = C
      • or
      • A + B = C
    • A B C Failed a test I failed a test I’m going to fail them all This is awful I need to study more I should quit I am stupid I’ll never make it Depressed 80%
    • A B C
    • D = Dispute “B”
      • Is it true?
      • Is it healthy?
      • Is it helpful?
      • Is it realistic?
      • Is it logical?
      • Is it rational?
    • Case discussion 1
      • Tom, a college sophomore, want to overcomes his shyness around women. He does not date and even does his best to keep away from women because he is afraid they will reject him. But he wants to change this pattern.
        • Using the ABCs of Emotion analyze and help Tom
    • Case Discussion 2
      • Mary would like to take a course in creative writing, but she fears that she has no talent. She is afraid of failing, afraid of being told that she is dumb, and afraid of follow through with taking the course.
        • Using ABCs of Emotion to analyze and help Mary
    • Case discussion 3
      • Brent feels that he must win everyone’s approval. He has become a “super nice guy” who goes out of his way to please everyone. Rarely does he assert himself, for fear that he might displease someone who then would not like him.
        • What are the possible irrational beliefs?
        • How do you help Brent?
        • If Brent is Asian American, what cultural components you might take into account?
    • Irrational Ideas
      • Irrational ideas lead to self-defeating behavior
      • Some examples:
        • “ I must have love or approval from all the significant people in my life.”
        • “ I must perform important tasks competently and perfectly.”
        • “ If I don’t get what I want, it’s terrible, and I can’t stand it.”
    • Ten Common Irrational Ideas
      • I should be loved and approved by significant others and live up to their expectations.
      • I must be highly competent, adequate, intelligent and achieving before I can me happy.
      • When people act unfairly I should blame them and view them as bad people.
      • It is a terrible catastrophe when I am rejected, treated unfairly, and things aren’t as I would like them.
      • Since my feelings are caused by external factors, I have little or no ability to control or change them.
    • Ten Common Irrational Ideas
      • 6. I should be greatly concerned about dangerous and fearful things and must center my attention on them until the danger has past.
      • 7. I can handle difficulties and responsibilities better by avoiding them than by facing them.
      • 8. People and things SHOULD turn out better than they do, and when they don’t I should see them as awful, terrible, etc.
      • 9. My past remains all-important, and must influence my feelings and behavior now because it once did.
      • 10. I can achieve maximum happiness by inaction or by passively enjoying myself.
    • The Therapeutic Process
      • Therapy is seen as an educational process
      • Clients learn
        • To identify and dispute irrational beliefs
        • To replace ineffective ways of thinking with effective and rational cognitions
        • To stop absolutistic thinking, blaming, and repeating false beliefs
    • Therapeutic Goals
      • A basic goal is to teach clients how to change their dysfunctional emotions and behaviors via cognitive and behavioral methods - into healthy ones.
      • Two main goals of REBT are to assist clients to achieving unconditional self-acceptance and unconditional other acceptance.
        • As clients become more able to accept themselves, they are more likely to unconditionally accept others.
    • Therapist’s function and Role
      • 1. Encouraging clients to discover their irrational beliefs and ideas
      • 2. Making connection of how these irrational beliefs lead to emotional disturbances
      • 3. Challenging clients to modify or abandon their irrational beliefs.
      • 4. Dispute the irrational beliefs and substitute rational beliefs and behaviors.
      • 5. Displaying warmth toward clients may be desirable but it is not necessary.
    • Client’s Experience in Therapy
      • Client is a student and learner--- the client learns how to apply logical thoughts, experiential exercises, and behavioral homework to problem solving and emotional change.
      • Focus on here-and-now experiences
      • Does not spend much time to exploring clients’ early history and connecting present and past
      • Expect to actively work outside the therapy sessions.
    • Relationship Between Therapist and Client
      • The role of the client in rational emotive behavior therapy is like that of a student and a learner
    • Relationship Between Therapist and Client
      • Intensive therapeutic relationship is not required . But, REBT therapist unconditionally accept all clients and teach them to unconditionally accept others and themselves. (therapists accepts them as persons but confront their faulty thinking and self-destructive behaviors)
      • Ellis believes that too much warmth and understanding can be counter-productive, fostering dependence for approval.
    • Relationship Between Therapist and Client
      • Therapists shows great faith in their clients’ ability to change themselves.
      • Open and direct in disclosing their own beliefs and values
      • Transference is not encouraged , when it occur, the therapist is likely to confront it (e.g., clients believe that they must be liked and loved by their therapists.)
    • Therapeutic techniques and procedures
      • Cognitive methods
        • Disputing irrational beliefs
          • If I don’t get what I want, it is not at the end of the world
        • Doing cognitive homework
          • Applying ABC theory in daily life’s problems
          • Put themselves in risk-taking situations to challenge their self-limiting beliefs.
          • Replace negative self-statement to positive message
        • Changing one’s language
          • It would be absolutely awful..  It would be inconvenient
        • Using humor
          • Humorous songs
    • Therapeutic techniques and procedures
      • Emotional Techniques
        • Rational-emotional imagery
          • Imagine the worst things that could happen to them
        • Role playing
        • Shame-attacking exercises
          • Take a risk to do something that they are afraid to do because of what others might think…until they realize that their feelings of shame are self-created.
        • Use of force and vigor
          • From intellectual to emotional insight
          • Reverse role playing
    • Therapeutic techniques and procedures
      • Behavioral Therapy
        • Use most of the standard behavioral therapy approaches.
    • Personality Ways Individuals Alleviate Pain
      • Distraction
        • Leads to less demands of others
        • Individual becomes less anxious
        • Palliative (soothing)
      • Satisfying Demands
        • If demands are catered to, the individual feels better but does not get better
        • Therapist can give love and approval; provide pleasurable sensations
        • Ultimate impact is demandingness is reinforced.
      • Magic and Mysticism
        • Magical solutions are often offered to children and even to adolescents and adults
        • Generally magical solutions only temporarily placate the individual
    • Main Goals of REBT
      • The primary goal of REBT is the alteration of basic values and beliefs
      • REBT’s goal is to achieve minimal demandingness and maximal tolerance
      • Although temporary, palliative techniques may be used in REBT but the main goal is for more permanent solutions
      • Goal is minimization of musturbation, perfectionism, grandiosity, and low frustration tolerance
      • In therapy, REBT teaches patients to differentiate between those items they want or desire and musts
      • REBT assist client in seeing how giving up perfectionism improves their lives
      • REBT aims at changing habits as well as cognition through cognitive and behavior techniques
    • Psychotherapy
      • REBT helps clients acquire a more realistic, tolerant philosophy of life
      • REBT practitioners often employ a rapid-fire active-directive-persuasive-philosophical methodology
      • The solution for dealing with an individual's demandingness most strongly supported by REBT is decreasing demandingness
    • Psychotherapy
      • REBT Therapist Stress
      • only hard work and practice will correct irrational beliefs
      • self defeating behavior is past related but maintained by present beliefs
      • current distress results from self continuation of irrational beliefs
    • Mechanisms of Psychotherapy
      • The focus is on the client’s irrational beliefs
      • REBT therapists do not hesitate to contradict the client’s beliefs and is often one step ahead while showing acceptance
      • REBT therapist teaches the client to think and act differentl y - sometimes therapist may do more talking than the client
      • Therapists do not merely tell clients that their thoughts are irrational but attempts to encourage clients to see this for themselves
    • Application of REBT
      • Depression
      • Anxiety
      • Psychosis
      • Bipolar
      • Autistic
      • Anger management
      • Stress managment
      • Children
      • Problems with love, sex, and marriage
      • Couples and marriage and family counseling
      • Prevention
      • Research from CT supports the basic premise of REBT