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World War Ii
 

World War Ii

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    World War Ii World War Ii Presentation Transcript

    • Three Candidates The economic situation in your country is dire. Millions are out of work. Millions more are going hungry. Thousands are losing their jobs every day. Your children have had to leave school to help earn money for the family. Past leaders have attempted to help the situation, but with limited and/or temporary success. A new election arises. Here are your candidates: Candidate A Candidate B Candidate C • Associates with • Has been kicked • Decorated war crooked politicians out of office twice hero • Has had two • Refuses to work • Vegetarian extramarital before noon • Rewards his staff affairs that have for quitting made headlines • Used hallucinogenic smoking • Chain smoker • Faithful to his drugs in college • Heavy drinker wife • Heavy drinker • Promises quick • Promises full economic • War hero economic recovery, but • Promises recovery, swiftly, requires further recovery, but that though with sacrifices to do so it will be a slow some sacrifices process for the good of all
    • World War II Protecting Democracy and Freedom Around the World
    • Post WWI: The Treaty of Versailles • The components of the Treaty created a severe economic depression in many of the countries involved in the war, especially Germany. • Germany was unable to pay the reparations it owed to the Allied countries, so they, in turn, fell into hard times as well. • The crash of the American stock market and subsequent Great Depression was felt world wide. In other words… things really sucked.
    • Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany • Germany did not increase taxes to pay for the war • To pay for expenses just produced more money
    • German children with stacks of inflated currency, vi rtually worthless in 1923.
    • To buy a loaf of bread in 1918 it cost less than 1 mark. By late 1923 it cost 200 billion marks
    • When trouble rears its ugly head, people need…
    • Benito Mussolini •In 1919 Benito Mussolini founded Italy’s Fascist Party •Fascism was a kind of aggressive nationalism. •Fascists believed that the nation was more important than the individual, and that a nation became great by expanding its territory and building its military. •Fascists were anti- Communist.
    • Adolf Hitler • Hitler founded the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi) • The Nazi Party was extremely nationalistic and anti-Communist • He believed certain Germans were part of a “master race” destined to rule the world. • He wanted Eastern Europeans enslaved. • He felt Jews were responsible for many of the world’s problems.
    • •Their symbol • It was also used by Native Americans as was the Swastika, well as early an ancient cross Christians. The with the arms Nazi’s adopted this cross when they bent at right mistakenly thought angles in the it was an Aryan middle found in symbol. ancient China, Egypt and India.
    • Emperor Hirohito • Difficult economic times in Japan after World War I undermined the country’s political system. Many Japanese officers and civilians wanted to seize territory to gain needed resources. • In 1931 the Japanese army, without the government’s permission, invaded the resource-rich Chinese province of Manchuria. The military took control of Japan.
    • Lenin and Stalin Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik Red Army dethrone the Czar and bring Russia to Communism. When Lenin dies, Joseph Stalin takes over. His form of Communism takes power away from the proletariat and uses fear tactics to squash any competition.
    • Looney Toons
    • •Japan aligned itself with Germany and Italy, and these three countries became known as the Axis Powers.
    • Quick Write 2-4-10 Answer the following questions: • Who was the leader of Germany? • Who was the leader of Italy? • Who was the leader of Japan? • What countries made up the AXIS powers?
    • America Declares Neutrality Gee… sound familiar?
    • Unites States Follows an Isolationist Policy * Isolationism- avoidance of political ties with other countries * In 1935, Congress passes Neutrality Acts
    • • President Franklin D. Roosevelt supported internationalism. Internationalists believe that trade between nations creates prosperity and helps to prevent war.
    • Neutral? • Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1935 making it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war. Then lessens the deal in 1937 to allow nonmilitary supplies to be sold. • After Japan launched a full-scale attack on China in 1937, Roosevelt authorized the sale of weapons to China, saying that the Neutrality Act of 1937 did not apply, since neither China nor Japan had actually declared war.
    • Hitler Starts His Mission • France, the Soviet Union, and Britain threatened to fight Germany if it attacked Czechoslovakia. At the Munich Conference on September 29, 1938, Britain and France, hoping to prevent another war, agreed to Hitler’s demands in a policy known as appeasement.
    • Wait...Hitler Lied?!?! • Hitler invades Czechoslovakia, March 1939 • Hitler invades Poland, September 1939 • Hitler defeats Norway and Denmark, April 1940 • He used his all-time favorite military strategy:
    • Hitler invades France • After World War I, the French built a line of concrete bunkers and fortifications called the Maginot Line along the German border. • When Hitler decided to attack France, he went around the Maginot Line by invading the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. • The French and British forces quickly went into Belgium, becoming trapped there by German forces.
    • • Hitler and Stalin sign an agreement stating that neither will attack the other in the event of war • Renders Soviet- Polish defense agreement useless.
    • The Battle of Britain! Hitler stretches his military might
    • British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
    • Battle of Britain • Great Britain stands alone against Germany in Europe • On Aug 23rd, German bombers “accidentally” bomb London, the British capital • This enrages the British citizens • The next night bombs, for the first time in the war, fall on Berlin
    • • Sporadic German air bombardment by the Luftwaffe increases to a full-blown air assault • Hitler’s new goal: terrorize the British • Hitler thinks Britain’s PM, Winston Churchill, will surrender after France surrenders • On advantage for the British: RADAR
    • The Atlantic Charter • Roosevelt and Churchill signed a treaty of friendship called the Atlantic Charter • The charter was fashioned after Wilson’s 14 Points • called for a League of Nations type of organization
    • Lend-Lease Agreement • Britain had run out of funds to wage war • Lend-Lease Act ▫ U.S. could lend or lease arms to any country considered to be “vital to the defense of the U.S.” • Britain could use now and pay later • “Great Arsenal of Democracy” • Goal: Keep the British fighting and thus making it unnecessary for U.S. to go to war
    • • "In this photograph, shot in December 1941, British children, evacuated from London's East End, are receiving a meal made from American dehydrated vegetables, provided under the Lend Lease program."
    • • "This photograph taken in the summer of 1941, shows Churchill's recognizable figure as he watches the arrival of the first B-17 'Flying Fortress.' Even though the U.S. was desperately trying to build up its military forces throughout 1941, • Roosevelt decided to give the British models of the United States' most advanced weapons. Military aid to Britain was greatly facilitated by the Lend-Lease Act of March 11, 1941, in which Congress authorized the sale, lease, transfer, or exchange of arms and supplies to 'any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the United States.'"
    • • "This photograph taken in the summer of 1941, shows Churchill inspecting an American M-3 tank. Even though the U.S. was desperately trying to build up its military forces throughout 1941, Roosevelt decided to give the British models of the United States' most advanced weapons. Military aid to Britain was greatly facilitated by the Lend-Lease Act of March 11, 1941, in which Congress authorized the sale, lease, transfer, or exchange of arms and supplies to 'any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the United States.'" (This is a stable URL and can be directly linked)
    • • "Baby Betty Rothwell loves her orange juice. She was very thin and ailing until lend-lease concentrated orange juice arrived in England for special distribution to children, nursing mothers and invalids. With the juice added to her wartime diet, she soon became the healthy one-year-old in the photograph."
    • • "Crowds of people and a guard of honor of tanks, meeting M. Maisky, Soviet ambassador, and members of the Russian military mission when they arrived at a tank factory somewhere in Great Britain(?), where the week's tank production is for Russia, showing the "Stalin" tank, which had just been christened by Madame Maisky."
    • Your Assignment • You will reading an address by President Roosevelt in one of his “fire-side” chats to the American public • Note: This address takes place 1 year prior to America entering the war • You will be looking at the reasoning behind the Lend-Lease Agreement and making an argument for or against it, citing reasons why.
    • Quick Write 2-9-10 • Based on what we learned in our last few classes on U.S. neutrality: • Do you feel think that the Neutrality Acts were an effective way to prevent the U.S. involvement in World War II? Why or Why not?
    • From neutrality to full-blown warfare
    • American Opinion Begins to Shift • After the German invasion of France and the rescue of Allied forces at Dunkirk, American public opinion changed to favor limited aid to the Allies. • President Roosevelt proposed the Lend-Lease Act, which stated that the United States could lend or lease arms to any country considered “vital to the defense of the United States.” Congress passed the act by a wide margin.
    • Operation Barbarossa was the code name for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II
    • Hemispheric Defense Zone • President Roosevelt developed the hemispheric defense zone, which declared the entire western half of the Atlantic as part of the Western Hemisphere and therefore neutral. This allowed Roosevelt to order the U.S. Navy to patrol the western Atlantic Ocean and reveal the location of German submarines to the British.
    • • The U.S. implemented a series of policies aimed at discouraging Japan from attacking Great Britain. • Roosevelt responded to the threat of the Japanese air force attacking Great Britain by freezing all Japanese assets in the United States and reducing the amount of oil shipped to Japan. • As a result, Japan signed an alliance with Germany and Italy and officially entered the war. • Sent General MacArthur to the Philippines to build up American defenses there.
    • December 7, 1941
    • Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii October 1941
    • Japanese Planes taking off
    • This is the Boston Naval Yard’s copy of a December 7, 1941, dispatch from the Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific, which announced the surprise Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
    • USS California
    • USS Arizona
    • USS Shaw
    • USS West Virginia ___ _______
    • The Wreckage
    • Casualties and Losses Japan United States 4 midget submarines sunk, 5 battleships sunk, 1 midget submarine run 2 destroyers sunk, 1 damaged aground, 1 other ship sunk, 3 damaged 29 aircraft destroyed, 3 battleships damaged, 55 airmen, 9 submariners 3 cruisers damaged killed and 1 captured 188 aircraft destroyed, 155 aircraft damaged, 2,345 military and 57 civilians killed, 1,247 military and 35 civilians wounded
    • • NAME RANK SERVICE HOME AARON, Hubert Charles Titus F2c USN Arkansas ABERCROMBIE, Samuel Adolphus S1c USN Texas ADAMS, Robert Franklin S1c USN Alabama ADKISON, James Dillion S1c USN Texas AGUIRRE, Reyner Aceves S2c USN AGUON, Gregorio San N. MATT1c USN Guam AHERN, Richard James F1c USN California ALBEROVSKY, Francis Severin BMKR1c USN California ALBRIGHT, Galen Winston S1c USN Indiana ALEXANDER, Elvis Author S2c USN Arkansas ALLEN, Robert Lee SF3c USN Texas ALLEN, William Clayborn EM1c USN California ALLEN, William Lewis SK2c USNR Texas ALLEY, Jay Edgar GM1c USN ALLISON, Andrew K. F1c USN Missouri ALLISON, J. T. F1c USN ALTEN, Ernest Mathew S2c USN California AMON, Frederick Purdy S1c USN AMUNDSON, Leo DeVere PVT USMC ANDERSON, Charles Titus CM2c USN California ANDERSON, Delbert Jake BM2c USN Minnesota ANDERSON, Donald William SM3c USN ANDERSON, Harry S1c USN California ANDERSON, Howard Taisey F1c USN Maryland ANDERSON, Irwin Corinthis MATT1c USN ANDERSON, James Pickins Jr. S1c USN ANDERSON, Lawrence Donald ENS USNR ANDERSON, Robert Adair GM3c USN Missouri ANDREWS, Brainerd Wells CCMP USN Vermont ANGLE, Earnest Hersea F2c USN West Virginia ANTHONY, Glenn Samuel S1c USN California APLIN, James Raymond CWTP USN California APPLE, Robert William F1c USN Illinois APREA, Frank Anthony COX USN ARLEDGE, Eston SM2c USN Louisiana ARNAUD, Achilles F3c USN Louisiana ARNEBERG, William Robert F2c USN ARNOLD, Claude Duran Jr. F3c USN Louisiana ARNOLD, Thell SC1c USN Arkansas ARRANT, John Anderson MM1c USN Florida ARVIDSON, Carl Harry CMMP USN Washington ASHMORE, Wilburn James S2c USN Louisiana ATCHISON, John Calvin PVT USMC Missouri ATKINS, Gerald Arthur HA1c USN Nebraska AUSTIN, Laverne Alfred S1c USN New York AUTRY, Eligah T. Jr. COX USN Arkansas AVES, Willard Charles F2c USN AYDELL, Miller Xavier WT2c USN Louisiana AYERS, Dee Cumpie S2c USN BADILLA, Manuel Domonic F1c USN BAILEY, George Richmond PFC USMC California BAIRD, Billy Bryon S1c USN Indiana BAJORIMS, Joseph S1c USN Illinois BAKER, Robert Dewey CMM USN BALL, William V. S1c USN BANDY, Wayne Lynn MUS2c USN Missouri BANGERT, John Henry FC1c USN BARAGA, Joseph SGT USMC Michigan BARDON, Charles Thomas S2c USN Oklahoma BARKER, Loren Joe COX USN Iowa BARNER, Walter Ray S2c USN Texas BARNES, Charles Edward Y3c USN Missouri BARNES, Delmar Hayes LTJG USNR California BARNETT, William Thermon S2c USN Arkansas BARTLETT, David William CPL USMC California BARTLETT, Paul Clement MM1c USN Texas BATES, Edward Munroe Jr. ENS USNR New York BATES, Tobert Alvin PHM3c USN Texas BATOR, Edward F1c USN New York BAUER, Harold Walter RM3c USN Kansas BEATON, Freddie PVT USMC California BEAUMONT, James Ammon S2c USN Texas BECK, George Richard S1c USN California BECKER, Marvin Otto GM3c USN Kansas BECKER, Wesley Paulson S1c USN Kansas BEDFORD, Purdy Renaker F1c USN Kentucky BEERMAN, Henry Carl CM3c USN Washington BEGGS, Harold Eugene F1c USN Missouri BELL, Hershel Homer FC2c USN Illinois BELL, Richard Leroy S2c USN California BELLAMY, James Curtis OS3c USN California BELT, Everett Ray Jr. PFC USMC Missouri BENFORD, Sam Austin BKR2c USN Minnesota BENNETT, William Edmond Jr. Y3c USN Illinois BENSON, James Thomas S1c USN Alabama BERGIN, Roger Joseph F2c USN Canada BERKANSKI, Albert Charles COX USN Pennsylvania BERNARD, Frank Peter F2c USN BERRY, Gordon Eugene F2c USN Colorado BERRY, James Winford F2c USN California BERSCH, Arthur Anthony S1c USN Iowa BERTIE, George Allan Jr. S2c USN Arizona BIBBY, Charles Henry F2c USN Alabama BICKEL, Kenneth Robert F1c USN Nebraska BICKNELL, Dale Deen S1c USN Washington BIRCHER, Frederick Robert RM3c USN Pennsylvania BIRDSELL, Rayon Delois F2c USN Missouri BIRGE, George Albert S1c USN New York BISHOP, Grover Barron MM1c USN Texas BISHOP, Millard Charles F3c USN Alabama BISHOP, Wesley horner Jr. RM3c USNR New York BLACK, James Theron PVT USMC Alabama BLAIS, Albert Edward RM3c USNR New York BLAKE, James Monroe F2c USN Missouri BLANCHARD, Albert Richard COX USN Minnesota BLANKENSHIP, Theron A. S1c USN Alabama BLANTON, Atticus Lee SF3c USN Florida BLIEFFERT, Richmond Frederick S1c USN Washington BLOCK, Ivan Lee PHM2c USN New Mexico BLOUNT, Wayman Boney S1c USN Texas BOGGESS, Roy Eugene SF2c USN California BOHLENDER, Sam GM2c USN Colorado BOLLING, Gerald Revese S1c USN Arkansas BOLLING, Walter Karr F3c USN Kentucky BOND, Burnis Leroy CPL USMC Missouri BONEBRAKE, Buford Earl F2c USN Kansas BONFIGLIO, William John EM1c USN New York BOOTH, Robert Sinclair Jr. ENS USNR BOOZE, Asbury Legare BM1c USN Georgia BORGER, Richard CMMA USN California BOROVICH, Joseph John S1c USN California BORUSKY, Edwin Charles CPL USMC North Dakota BOSLEY, Kenneth Leroy EM3c USN Missouri BOVIALL, Walter Robert AMM2c USN Wisconsin BOWMAN, Howard Alton S2c USN Iowa BOYD, Charles Andrew CM3c USN Alabama BOYDSTUN, Don Jasper S2c USN Texas BOYDSTUN, R. L. S2c USN Texas BRABBZSON, Oran Merrill MUS2c USN New York BRADLEY, Bruce Dean S2c USN Illinois BRAKKE, Kenneth Gay F3c USN Washington BRICKLEY, Eugene PVT USMC Indiana BRIDGES, James Leon S1c USN Tennessee BRIDGES, Paul Hyatt S1c USN Arkansas BRIDIE, Robert Maurice F1c USN BRIGNOLE, Erminio Joseph S2c USN California BRITTAN, Charles Edward S2c USN California BROADHEAD, Johnnie Cecil F2c USN Alabama BROCK, Walter Pershing S1c USN Kentucky BROMLEY, George Edward SM3c USN Washington BROMLEY, Jimmie S1c USN BROOKS, Robert Neal ENS USNR Washington BROOME, Loy Raymond SM3c USN Oklahoma BROONER, Allen Ottis S1c USN Indiana BROPHY, Myron Alonzo F2c USN Vermont BROWN, Charles Martin S2c USN California BROWN, Elwyn Leroy EM3c USN Kansas BROWN, Frank George QM3c USN Oregon BROWN, Richard Corbett S1c USN California BROWN, William Howard S2c USN Oregon BROWNE, Harry Lamont CMMA USN California BROWNING, Tilmon David S1c USN West Virginia BRUNE, James William RM3c USNR Missouri BRYAN, Leland Howard S1c USN Texas BRYANT, Lloyd Glenn BM2c USN California BUCKLEY, Jack C. FC3c USN Kentucky BUDD, Robert Emile F2c USN Michigan BUHR, Clarence Edward S1c USN New Mexico BURDEN, Ralph Leon RM3c USN Ohio BURDETTE, Ralph Warren MUS2c USN New Jersey BURKE, Frank Edmond Jr. SK2c USN Tennessee BURNETT, Charlie Leroy S2c USN BURNS, John Edward F1c USN Pennsylvania BUSICK, Dewey Olney F3c USN Ohio BUTCHER, David Adrian F2c USN Washington BUTLER, John Dabney F1c USN Texas BYRD, Charles Dewitt S1c USN Tennessee CABAY, Louis Clarence S1c USN Illinois CADE, Richard Esh S2c USN Washington CALDWELL, Charles Jr. F3c USN Missouri CALLAGHAN, James Thomas BM2c USN Colorado CAMDEN, Raymond Edward S2c USN Oklahoma CAMM, William Fielden Y2c USN Arkansas CAMPA, Ralph S1c USN California CAMPBELL, Burdette Charles S1c USN California CAPLINGER, Donald William SC3c USN Ohio CAREY, Francis Lloyd SK3c USN New York CARLISLE, Robert Wayne S1c USNR Texas CARLSON, Harry Ludwig SK3c USN Connecticut CARMACK, Harold Milton F2c USN Colorado CARPENTER, Robert Nelson MATT1c USN Virginia CARROLL, Robert Lewis S1c USN CARTER, Burton Lowell S2c USN California CARTER, Paxton Turner WO(PYCLK) USN California CASEY, James Warren S1c USN CASILAN, Epifanio Miranda OS3c USN New York CASKEY, Clarence Merton S1c USN Washington CASTLEBERRY, Claude W. Jr. S1c USN Texas CATSOS, George F1c USN California CHACE, Raymond Vincent CSKP USN California CHADWICK, Charles Bruce MM2c USN Mississippi CHADWICK, Harold MATT1c USN California CHANDLER, Donald Ross PVT USMC Alabama CHAPMAN, Naaman N. S1c USN Nebraska CHARLTON, Charles Nicholas WT1c USNR California CHERNUCHA, Harry Gregory MUS2c USN New York CHESTER, Edward S1c USN Kansas CHRISTENSEN, Elmer Emil MM2c USN Wyoming CHRISTENSEN, Lloyd Raymond F1c USN Nebraska CHRISTIANSEN, Edward Lee BKR3c USN Wyoming CIHLAR, Lawrence John PHM3c USN Minnesota CLARK, George Francis GM3c USN Illinois CLARK, John Crawford Todd F3c USN California CLARK, Malcolm BKR3c USN Louisiana CLARK, Robert William Jr. FC3c USN Pennsylvania CLARKE, Robert Eugene S1c USN Kansas CLASH, Donald F2c USN Michigan CLAYTON, Robert Roland COX USN Missouri CLEMMENS, Claude Albert S1c USN Oklahoma CLIFT, Ray Emerson COX USN Missouri CLOUES, Edward Blanchard ENS USN New Hampshire CLOUGH, Edward Hay GM1c USN Nebraska COBB, Ballard Burgher S1c USN Texas COBURN, Walter Overton S1c USN Oklahoma COCKRUM, Kenneth Earl MM1c USN Indiana COFFIN, Robert SF3c USN Washington COFFMAN, Marshall Herman GMec USN Indiana COLE, Charles Warren SGT USMC Washington COLE, David Lester ENS USNR California COLEGROVE, Willett S. Jr. S2c USN Washington COLLIER, John F2c USN Oregon COLLIER, Linald Long Jr. BKR3c USN Texas
    • • COLLINS, Austin SF3c USN COLLINS, Billy Murl S1c USN California CONLIN, Bernard Eugene S2c USN Illinois CONLIN, James Leo F2c USN Illinois CONNELLY, Richard Earl CQMA USN California CONRAD, Homer Milton Jr. S1c USN Ohio CONRAD, Robert Frank S2c USN California CONRAD, Walter Ralph QM2c USN COOPER, Clarence Eugene F2c USN COOPER, Kenneth Erven F2c USN CORCORAN, Gerard John S1c USN New York COREY, Ernest Eugene PHM3c USN Washington CORNELIUS, P. W. SC3c USN CORNING, Russell Dale RM3c USN COULTER, Arthur Lee S1c USN Oklahoma COWAN, William COX USN Missouri COWDEN, Joel Beman S2c USN Oregon COX, Gerald Blinton MUS2c USN Illinois COX, William Milford S1c USN Kentucky CRAFT, Harley Wade CM3c USN Oregon CRAWLEY, Wallace Dewight COX USN Indiana CREMEENS, Louis Edward S1c USN Arizona CRISCUOLO, Michael Y2c USN California CRISWELL, Wilfred John S1c USN Indiana CROWE, Cecil Thomas GM2c USN Kentucky CROWLEY, Thomas Ewing LCDR (DC) USN California CURRY, William Joseph WT2c USN Oregon CURTIS, Lloyd B. S1c USN Missouri CURTIS, Lyle Carl RM2c USN Wisconsin CYBULSKI, Harold Bernard S1c USN CYCHOSZ, Francis Anton S1c USN Michigan CZARNECKI, Stanley F1c USN Michigan CZEKAJSKI, Theophil SM3c USNR Michigan DAHLHEIMER, Richard Norbert S1c USN Minnesota DANIEL, Lloyd Naxton Y1c USN Montana DANIK, Andrew Joseph S2c USN Ohio DARCH, Phillip Zane S1c USN Massachusetts DAUGHERTY, Paul Eugene Em3c USN Ohio DAVIS, John Quitman S1c USN Louisiana DAVIS, Milton Henry S1c USN Kansas DAVIS, Murle Melvin RM2c USN Ohio DAVIS, Myrle Clarence F3c USNR Iowa DAVIS, Thomas Ray SF1c USN California DAVIS, Virgil Denton PVT USMC Missouri DAVIS, Walter Mindred F2c USN Missouri DAWSON, James Berkley PVT USMC Kentucky DAY, William John S2c USN Washington DE ARMOUN, Donald Edwin GM3c USN California DE CASTRO, Vicente OS3c USN DEAN, Lyle Bernard COX USN DELONG, Frederick Eugene CPL USMC Ohio DERITIS, Russell Edwin S1c USN DEWITT, John James COX USN DIAL, John Buchanan S1c USN DICK, Ralph R. GM1c USN California DINE, John George F2c USN California DINEEN, Robert Joseph S1c USN Pennsylvania DOBEY, Milton Paul Jr. S1c USN Texas DOHERTY, George Walter S2c USN California DOHERTY, John Albert MM2c USN California DONOHUE, Ned Burton F1c USN DORITY, John Monroe S1c USN California DOUGHERTY, Ralph Mc Clearn FC1c USN Massachusetts DOYLE, Wand B. COX USN Kentucky DREESBACH, Herbert Allen PFC USMC Illinois DRIVER, Bill Lester RM3c USN California DUCREST, Louis Felix S1c USN Louisiana DUKE, Robert Edward CCSTDA USN California DULLUM, Jerald Fraser EM3c USN Montana DUNAWAY, Kenneth Leroy EM3c USN Oklahoma DUNHAM, Elmer Marvin S1c USN DUNNAM, Robert Wesley PVT USMCR Texas DUPREE, Arthur Joseph F2c USN Missouri DURHAM, William Teasdale S1c USN North Carolina DURIO, Russell PFC USMC Louisiana DUVEENE, John 1SGT USMC California DVORAK, Alvin Albert BM2c USN Minnesota EATON, Emory Lowell F3c USN Oklahoma EBEL, Walter Charles CTCP USN California EBERHART, Vincent Henry COX USN Minnesota ECHOLS, Charles Louis Jr. EM3c USN Tennessee ECHTERNKAMP, Henry Clarence S1c USN Michigan EDMUNDS, Bruce Roosevelt Y2c USN New Hampshire EERNISSE, William Frederick PTR1c USN California EGNEW, Robert Ross S1c USN Illinois EHLERT, Casper SM3c USN Wisconsin EHRMANTRAUT, Frank Jr. S1c USN Indiana ELLIS, Francis Arnold Jr. EM3c USN Canada ELLIS, Richard Everrett S2c USN Nebraska ELLIS, Wilbur Danner RM2c USN California ELWELL, Royal S1c USN Texas EMBREY, Bill Eugene F3c USN California EMERY, Jack Marvin ENS USN California EMERY, John Marvin GM3c USN North Dakota EMERY, Wesley Vernon SK2c USN Indiana ENGER, Stanley Gordon GM3c USN Minnesota ERICKSON, Robert S1c USN ERSKINE, Robert Charles PFC USMC Illinois ERWIN, Stanley Joe MM1c USN Texas ERWIN, Walton Aluard S1c USN Texas ESTEP, Carl James S1c USN Texas ESTES, Carl Edwen S1c USN Texas ESTES, Forrest Jesse F1c USN California ETCHASON, Leslie Edgar S1c USN Illinois EULBERG, Richard Henry FC2c USN Iowa EVANS, David Delton PVT USMC Louisiana EVANS, Evan Frederick ENS USNR California EVANS, Mickey Edward S1c USN Missouri EVANS, Paul Anthony S1c USN Illinois EVANS, William Orville S2c USN Idaho EWELL, Alfred Adam WT1c USN EYED, George SK3c USN Indiana FALLIS, Alvin E. PHM2c USN California FANSLER, Edgar Arthur S1c USN Oklahoma FARMER, John Wilson COX USN Tennessee FEGURGUR, Nicolas San Nicolas MATT2c USN Guam FESS, John Junior F1c USN California FIELDS, Bernard RM3c USNR FIELDS, Reliford MATT2c USN Florida FIFE, Ralph Elmer S1c USN California FILKINS, George Arthur COX USN Minnesota FINCHER, Allen Brady ACK USMC Texas FINCHER, Dexter Wilson SGT USMC Oregon FINLEY, Woodrow Wilson PFC USMC Tennessee FIRTH, Henry Amis F3c USN FISCHER, Leslie Henry S1c USN Washington FISHER, Delbert Ray S1c USN Wyoming FISHER, James Anderson MATT1c USN Virginia FISHER, Robert Ray S2c USN California FISK, Charles Porter III Y1c USN California FITCH, Simon MATT1c USN Texas FIRZGERALD, Kent Blake PVT USMC Utah FITZSIMMONS, Eugene James F3c USN Illinois FLANNERY, James Lowell SK3c USN Ohio FLEETWOOD, Donald Eugene PFC USMC Iowa FLOEGE, Frank Norman MUS2c USN Illinois FLORY, Max Edward S2c USN Indiana FONES, George Everett FC3c USN Washington FORD, Jack C. S1c USN California FORD, William Walker EM3c USN Kentucky FOREMAN, Elmer Lee F2c USN Indiana FORTENBERRY, Alvie Charles COX USN Mississippi FOWLER, George Parten S2c USN Texas FOX, Daniel Russell LTCOL USMC California FRANK, Leroy George S1c USN Arkansas FREDERICK, Charles Donald EM2c USN Louisiana FREE, Thomas Augusta MM1c USN Texas FREE, William Thomas S2c USN Texas FRENCH, John Edmund LCDR USN Washington, D.C. FRIZZELL, Robert Niven S2c USN Alabama FULTON, Robert Wilson AMSMTH1c USN Missouri FUNK, Frank Francis BM2c USN Missouri FUNK, Lawrence Henry S1c USN Wisconsin GAGER, Roy Arthur S2c USN Kansas GARGARO, Ernest Russell S2c USN GARLINGTON, Raymond Wesley S1c USN California GARRETT, Orville Wilmer SF2c USN Missouri GARTIN, Gerald Ernest S1c USN California GAUDETTE, William Frank S1c USN Washington GAULTNEY, Ralph Martin Em3c USN Illinois GAZECKI, Philip Robert ENS USNR Wisconsin GEBHARDT, Kenneth Edward S1c USN North Dakota GEER, Kenneth Floyd S2c USN California GEISE, Marvin Frederick S1c USN Wisconsin GEMIENHARDT, Samuel Henry Jr. MM2c USN Ohio GHOLSTON, Roscoe Y2c USN Texas GIBSON, Billy Edwin S1c USN West Virginia GIESEN, Karl Anthony Y2c USN Iowa GILL, Richard Eugene S1c USN Nevada GIOVENAZZO, Michael James WT2c USN Illinois GIVENS, Harold Reuben Y3c USN GOBBIN, Angelo SC1c USN California GOFF, Wiley Coy S2c USN Oklahoma GOMEZ, Edward Jr. S1c USN Colorado GOOD, Leland S2c USN Illinois GOODWIN, William Arthur S2c USN Colorado GORDON, Peter Charles Jr. F1c USN Colorado GOSSELIN, Edward Webb ENS USNR Illinois GOSSELIN, Joseph Adjutor RM1c USN Massachusetts GOULD, Harry Lee S1c USN Illinois GOVE, Rupert Clair S1c USN California GRANGER, Raymond Edward F3c USN Iowa GRANT, Lawrence Everett Y3c USN Missouri GRAY, Albert James S1c USN Washington GRAY, Lawrence Moore F1c USN Missouri GRAY, William James Jr. S1c USN California GREEN, Glen Hubert S1c USN Mississippi GREENFIELD, Carroll Gale S1c USN Oregon GRIFFIN, Lawrence J. PFC USMC Louisiana GRIFFIN, Reese Olin EM3c USN Texas GRIFFITHS, Robert Alfred EM3c USN California GRISSINGER, Robert Beryle S2c USN Illinois GROSNICKLE, Warren Wilbert EM2c USN Iowa GROSS, Milton Henry CSKA USN California GRUNDSTROM, Richard Gunner S2c USN Iowa GURLEY, Jesse Herbert SK3c USN Illinois HAAS, Curtis Junior MUS2c USN Missouri HADEN, Samuel William COX USN Kansas HAFFNER, Floyd Bates F1c USN Illinois HAINES, Robert Wesley S2c USN California HALL, John Rudolph CBMP USN Arkansas HALLORAN, William Ignatius ENS USNR Ohio HAMEL, Don Edgar FLDMUS USMCR Illinois HAMILTON, Clarence James MM1c USN Washington HAMILTON, Edwin Carrell S1c USN HAMILTON, William Holman GM3c USN Oklahoma HAMMERUD, George Winston S1c USN North Dakota HAMPTON, "J" "D" F1c USN Kansas HAMPTON, Ted "W" Jr. S1c USN Oklahoma HAMPTON, Walter Lewis BM2c USN Pennsylvania HANNA, David Darling EM3c USN Texas HANSEN, Carlyle B. MM2c USN HANSEN, Harvey Ralph S1c USN Wisconsin HANZEL, Edward Joseph WT1c USN Michigan HARDIN, Charles Eugene S1c USN Missouri HARGRAVES, Kenneth William S2c USN Washington HARMON, William D. PFC USMC Oregon HARRINGTON, Keith Homer S1c USN Missouri HARRIS, George Ellsworth MM1c USN Illinois HARRIS, Hiram Dennis S1c USN Georgia HARRIS, James William F1c USN Michigan HARRIS, Noble Burnice COX USN Missouri HARRIS, Peter John COX USN
    • • Nebraska HARTLEY, Alvin GM3c USN Oklahoma HARTSOE, Max June GM3c USN Missouri HARTSON, Lonnie Moss SM3c USN Texas HASL, James Thomas F1c USN Nebraska HAVERFIELD, James Wallace ENS USNR Ohio HAVINS, Harvey Linfille S1c USN HAWKINS, Russell Dean SM3c USN Illinois HAYES, John Doran BM1c USN California HAYES, Kenneth Merle F1c USN California HAYNES, Curtis James QM2c USN Idaho HAYS, William Henry SK3c USN Kansas HAZDOVAC, Jack Claudius S1c USN California HEAD, Frank Bernard CYA USN California HEATER, Verrell Roy S1c USN Oregon HEATH, Alfred Grant S1c USN Wisconsin HEBEL, Robert Lee SM3c USNR Illinois HECKENDORN, Warren Guy S1c USN HEDGER, Jess Laxton S1c USN California HEDRICK, Paul Henry BM1c USN California HEELY, Leo Shinn S2c USN Colorado HEIDT, Edward Joseph F1c USN California HEIDT, Wesley John MM2c USN California HELM, Merritt Cameron S1c USN Minnesota HENDERSON, William Walter S2c USN HENDRICKSEN, Frank F2c USN Michigan HERRICK, Paul Edward PVT USMC Wisconsin HERRING, James Jumior SM3c USN Iowa HERRIOTT, Robert Asher Jr. S1c USN Texas HESS, Darrel Miller FC1c USN Utah HESSDORFER, Anthony Joseph MM2c USN Washington HIBBARD, Robert Arnold BKR2c USN HICKMAN, Arthur Lee SM3c USN HICKS, Elmer Orville GM3c USN Washington HICKS, Ralph Dueard PTR2c USNR Missouri HILL, Bartley Talor AOM3c USN California HILTON, Wilson Woodrow GM1c USN HINDMAN, Frank Weaver S1c USN Alabama HODGES, Garris Vada F2c USN Texas HOELSCHER, Lester John HA1c USN Nebraska HOLLAND, Claude Herbert Jr. S2c USN Alabama HOLLENBACH, Paul Zepp S1c USN New York HOLLIS, Ralph LTJG USNR California HOLLOWELL, George Sanford COX USN Arizona HOLMES, Lowell D. F3c USN Alabama HOLZWORTH, Walter MGYSGT USMC New Jersey HOMER, Henry Vernon S1c USN Michigan HOPE, Harold W. PVT USMC Illinois HOPKINS, Homer David S1c USN Michigan HORN, Melvin Freeland F3c USN Ohio HORRELL, Harvey Howard SM1c USN HORROCKS, James William CGMP USN Arizona HOSLER, John Emmet S1c USN Ohio HOUSE, Clem Raymond CWTP USN California HOUSEL, John James SK1c USN Missouri HOWARD, Elmo S1c USN Kentucky HOWARD, Rolan George GM3c USN Minnesota HOWE, Darrell Robert S2c USN Oregon HOWELL, Leroy COX USN Indiana HUBBARD, Haywood Jr. MATT2c USN Virginia HUDNALL, Robert Chilton PFC USMC Texas HUFF, Robert Glenn PVT USMC Texas HUFFMAN, Clyde Franklin F1c USN Ohio HUGHES, Bernard Thomas MUS2c USN Pennsylvania HUGHES, Lewis Burton Jr. S1c USN Alabama HUGHES, Marvin Austin PVT USMCR Texas HUGHEY, James Clynton S1c USN HUIE, Doyne Conley HA1c USN Missouri HULTMAN, Donald Standly PFC USMC Minnesota HUNTER, Robert Fredrick S1c USN Ohio HUNTINGTON, Henry Louis S2c USN California HURD, Willard Hardy MATT2c USN Tennessee HURLEY, Wendell Ray MUS2c USN Indiana HUVAL, Ivan Joseph S1c USN Louisiana HUX, Leslie Creade PFC USMC Louisiana HUYS, Arthur Albert S1c USN Indiana HYDE, William Hughes COX USN Missouri IAK, Joseph Claude Y3c USN IBBOTSON, Howard Burt F1c USN California INGALLS, Richard Fitch SC3c USN New York INGALLS, Theodore "A" SC3c USN New York INGRAHAM, David Archie FC3c USN ISHAM, Orville Adalbert CGMA USN Hawaii ISOM, Luther James S1c USN Alabama IVERSEN, Earl Henry S2c USN California IVERSEN, Norman Kenneth S2c USN California IVEY, Charles Andrew Jr. S2c USN California JACKSON, David Paul Jr. S1c USN Texas JACKSON, Robert Woods Y3c USN Iowa JAMES, John Burditt S1c USN Texas JANTE, Edwin Earl Y3c USN JANZ, Clifford Thurston LT USN California JASTRZEMSKI, Edwin Charles S1c USN Michigan JEANS, Victor Lawrence WT2c USN Oregon JEFFRIES, Keith COX USN Pennsylvania JENKINS, Robert Henry Dawson S2c USN Texas JENSEN, Keith Marlow EM3c USN Utah JERRISON, Donald D. CPL USMC California JOHANN, Paul Frederick GM3c USN Iowa JOHNSON, David Andrew Jr. OC2c USN Virginia JOHNSON, Edmund Russell MM1c USN California JOHNSON, John Russell RM3c USN Massachusetts JOHNSON, Samuel Earle CDR(MC) USN Alabama JOHNSON, Sterling Conrad COX USN Washington JOLLEY, Berry Stanley S2c USNR Idaho JONES, Daniel Pugh S2c USN Alabama JONES, Edmon Ethmer S1c USN Colorado JONES, Floyd Baxter MATT2c USN JONES, Harry Cecil S1c USN Kansas JONES, Henry Jr. MATT1c USN California JONES, Homer Lloyd S1c USN Colorado JONES, Hugh Junior S2c USN California JONES, Leland S1c USN Tennessee JONES, Quincy Eugene PFC USMC Texas JONES, Thomas Raymond ENS USNR Louisiana JONES, Warren Allen Y3c USN Nebraska JONES, Willard Worth S1c USN Tennessee JONES, Woodrow Wilson S2c USN Alabama JOYCE, Calvin Wilbur F2c USN Ohio JUDD, Albert John COX USN Michigan KAGARICE, Harold Lee CSKA USN California KAISER, Robert Oscar F1c USN Missouri KALINOWSKI, Henry PVT USMCR Texas KATT, Eugene Louis S2c USN California KEEN, Billy Mack PVT USMC Texas KELLER, Paul Daniel MLDR2c USN Michigan KELLEY, James Dennis SF3c USN Oklahoma KELLOGG, Wilbur Leroy F1c USN Iowa KELLY, Robert Lee CEMA USN California KENISTON, Donald Lee S2c USN Ohio KENISTON, Kenneth Howard F3c USN Ohio KENNARD, Kenneth Frank GM3c USN Idaho KENNINGTON, Charles Cecil S1c USN Tennessee KENNINGTON, Milton Homer S1c USN Tennessee KENT, Texas Thomas Jr. S2c USN Arkansas KIDD, Isaac Campbell RADM USN KIEHN, Ronald William MM2c USN California KIESELBACH, Charles Ermin CM1c USN California KING, Gordon Blane S1c USN Tennessee KING, Leander Cleaveland S1c USN Texas KING, Lewis Meyer F1c USN KING, Robert Nicholas Jr. ENS USNR New York KINNEY, Frederick William MUS1c USN Washington KINNEY, Gilbert Livingston QM2c USN California KIRCHHOFF, Wilbur Albert S1c USN Missouri KIRKPATRICK, Thomas Larcy CAPT(CHC) USN Missouri KLANN, Edward SC1c USN Michigan KLINE, Robert Edwin GM2c USN New York KLOPP, Francis Lawrence GM3c USN Ohio KNIGHT, Robert Wagner EM3c USN Ohio KNUBEL, William Jr. S1c USN Missouri KOCH, Walter Ernest S1c USN Minnesota KOENEKAMP, Clarence D. F1c USN Washington KOEPPE, Herman Oliver SC3c USN Illinois KOLAJAJCK, Brosig S1c USN Texas KONNICK, Albert Joseph CM3c USN Pennsylvania KOSEC, John Anthony BM2c USN California KOVAR, Robert S1c USN Illinois KRAHN, James Albert PFC USMC North Dakota KRAMB, James Henry S1c USN New York KRAMB, John david MSMTH1c USN New York KRAMER, Robert Rudolph GM2c USN Indiana KRAUSE, Fred Joseph S1c USN Minnesota KRISSMAN, Max Sam S2c USN California KRUGER, Richard Warren QM2c USN California KRUPPA, Adolph Louis S1c USN Texas KUKUK, Howard Helgi S1c USN New York KULA, Stanley SC3c USN Nebraska KUSIE, Donald Joseph RM3c USN New York LA FRANCEA, William Richard S1c USN Michigan LA MAR, Ralph "B" FC3c USN California LA SALLE, Willard Dale S1c USN Washington LADERACH, Robert Paul FC2c USN West Virginia LAKE, John Ervin Jr. WO(PYCLK) USN California LAKIN, Donald Lapier S1c USN California LAKIN, Joseph Jordan S1c USN California LAMB, George Samuel CSFA USN California LANDMAN, Henry AM2c USN Michigan LANDRY, James Joseph Jr. BKR2c USN Massachusetts LANE, Edward Wallace COX USN LANE, Mancel Curtis S1c USN Oklahoma LANGE, Richard Charles S1c USN California LANGENWALTER, Orville J. SK2c USN Iowa LANOUETTE, Henry John COX USN Connecticut LARSON, Leonard Carl F3c USN Washington LATTIN, Bleecker RM3c USN LEE, Carroll Volney Jr. S1c USN Texas LEE, Henry Lloyd S1c USN South Carolina LEEDY, David Alonzo FC2c USN Iowa LEGGETT, John Goldie BM2c USN Washington LEGROS, Joseph McNeil S1c USN Louisiana LEIGH, Malcolm Hedrick GM3c USN North Carolina LEIGHT, James Webster S2c USN California LEOPOLD, Robert Lawrence ENS USNR Kentucky LESMEISTER, Steve Louie EM3c USN North Dakota LEVAR, Frank CWTP USNR Washington LEWIS, Wayne Alman CM3c USN South Carolina LEWISON, Neil Stanley FC3c USN Wisconsin LIGHTFOOT, Worth Ross GM3c USN LINBO, Gordon Ellsworth GM1c USN Washington LINCOLN, John William F1c USN Iowa LINDSAY, James E. PFC USMC California LINDSAY, James Mitchell SF2c USN Colorado LINTON, George Edward F2c USN LIPKE, Clarence William F2c USN Michigan LIPPLE, John Anthony SF1c USN Iowa LISENBY, Daniel Edward S1c USN LIVERS, Raymond Edward S1c USN New Mexico LIVERS, Wayne Nicholas F1c USN New Mexico LOCK, Douglas A. S1c USN New York LOHMAN, Earl Wynne S1c USN LOMAX, Frank Stuart ENS USN Nebraska LOMIBAO, Marciano OS1c USN Philippines LONG, Benjamin Franklin CYP USN California LOUNSBURY, Thomas William S2c USN Illinois LOUSTANAU, Charles Bernard S1c USN Iowa LOVELAND, Frank Crook S2c USN Idaho LOVSHIN, William Joseph PFC USMC Minnesota LUCEY, Neil Jermiah S1c USN New Jersey LUNA, James Edward S2c USN Oklahoma LUZIER, Ernest Burton MM2c USN LYNCH, Emmett Isaac MUS2c USN Washington LYNCH, James Robert Jr. GM3c USN Texas LYNCH, William Joseph Jr. S1c USN Texas MADDOX, Raymond Dudley CEMP USN California MADRID, Arthur John S2c USN California MAFNAS, Francisco Reyes MATT2c USN Guam MAGEE, Gerald James SK3c USN New York MALECKI, Frank Edward CYP USN California MALINOWSKI, John Stanley SM3c USNR Michigan MALSON, Harry Lynn SK3c USN Indiana MANION, Edward Paul S2c USN Illinois MANLOVE, Arthur Cleon WO(ELEC) USN
    • • Clynton S1c USN HUIE, Doyne Conley HA1c USN Missouri HULTMAN, Donald Standly PFC USMC Minnesota HUNTER, Robert Fredrick S1c USN Ohio HUNTINGTON, Henry Louis S2c USN California HURD, Willard Hardy MATT2c USN Tennessee HURLEY, Wendell Ray MUS2c USN Indiana HUVAL, Ivan Joseph S1c USN Louisiana HUX, Leslie Creade PFC USMC Louisiana HUYS, Arthur Albert S1c USN Indiana HYDE, William Hughes COX USN Missouri IAK, Joseph Claude Y3c USN IBBOTSON, Howard Burt F1c USN California INGALLS, Richard Fitch SC3c USN New York INGALLS, Theodore "A" SC3c USN New York INGRAHAM, David Archie FC3c USN ISHAM, Orville Adalbert CGMA USN Hawaii ISOM, Luther James S1c USN Alabama IVERSEN, Earl Henry S2c USN California IVERSEN, Norman Kenneth S2c USN California IVEY, Charles Andrew Jr. S2c USN California JACKSON, David Paul Jr. S1c USN Texas JACKSON, Robert Woods Y3c USN Iowa JAMES, John Burditt S1c USN Texas JANTE, Edwin Earl Y3c USN JANZ, Clifford Thurston LT USN California JASTRZEMSKI, Edwin Charles S1c USN Michigan JEANS, Victor Lawrence WT2c USN Oregon JEFFRIES, Keith COX USN Pennsylvania JENKINS, Robert Henry Dawson S2c USN Texas JENSEN, Keith Marlow EM3c USN Utah JERRISON, Donald D. CPL USMC California JOHANN, Paul Frederick GM3c USN Iowa JOHNSON, David Andrew Jr. OC2c USN Virginia JOHNSON, Edmund Russell MM1c USN California JOHNSON, John Russell RM3c USN Massachusetts JOHNSON, Samuel Earle CDR(MC) USN Alabama JOHNSON, Sterling Conrad COX USN Washington JOLLEY, Berry Stanley S2c USNR Idaho JONES, Daniel Pugh S2c USN Alabama JONES, Edmon Ethmer S1c USN Colorado JONES, Floyd Baxter MATT2c USN JONES, Harry Cecil S1c USN Kansas JONES, Henry Jr. MATT1c USN California JONES, Homer Lloyd S1c USN Colorado JONES, Hugh Junior S2c USN California JONES, Leland S1c USN Tennessee JONES, Quincy Eugene PFC USMC Texas JONES, Thomas Raymond ENS USNR Louisiana JONES, Warren Allen Y3c USN Nebraska JONES, Willard Worth S1c USN Tennessee JONES, Woodrow Wilson S2c USN Alabama JOYCE, Calvin Wilbur F2c USN Ohio JUDD, Albert John COX USN Michigan KAGARICE, Harold Lee CSKA USN California KAISER, Robert Oscar F1c USN Missouri KALINOWSKI, Henry PVT USMCR Texas KATT, Eugene Louis S2c USN California KEEN, Billy Mack PVT USMC Texas KELLER, Paul Daniel MLDR2c USN Michigan KELLEY, James Dennis SF3c USN Oklahoma KELLOGG, Wilbur Leroy F1c USN Iowa KELLY, Robert Lee CEMA USN California KENISTON, Donald Lee S2c USN Ohio KENISTON, Kenneth Howard F3c USN Ohio KENNARD, Kenneth Frank GM3c USN Idaho KENNINGTON, Charles Cecil S1c USN Tennessee KENNINGTON, Milton Homer S1c USN Tennessee KENT, Texas Thomas Jr. S2c USN Arkansas KIDD, Isaac Campbell RADM USN KIEHN, Ronald William MM2c USN California KIESELBACH, Charles Ermin CM1c USN California KING, Gordon Blane S1c USN Tennessee KING, Leander Cleaveland S1c USN Texas KING, Lewis Meyer F1c USN KING, Robert Nicholas Jr. ENS USNR New York KINNEY, Frederick William MUS1c USN Washington KINNEY, Gilbert Livingston QM2c USN California KIRCHHOFF, Wilbur Albert S1c USN Missouri KIRKPATRICK, Thomas Larcy CAPT(CHC) USN Missouri KLANN, Edward SC1c USN Michigan KLINE, Robert Edwin GM2c USN New York KLOPP, Francis Lawrence GM3c USN Ohio KNIGHT, Robert Wagner EM3c USN Ohio KNUBEL, William Jr. S1c USN Missouri KOCH, Walter Ernest S1c USN Minnesota KOENEKAMP, Clarence D. F1c USN Washington KOEPPE, Herman Oliver SC3c USN Illinois KOLAJAJCK, Brosig S1c USN Texas KONNICK, Albert Joseph CM3c USN Pennsylvania KOSEC, John Anthony BM2c USN California KOVAR, Robert S1c USN Illinois KRAHN, James Albert PFC USMC North Dakota KRAMB, James Henry S1c USN New York KRAMB, John david MSMTH1c USN New York KRAMER, Robert Rudolph GM2c USN Indiana KRAUSE, Fred Joseph S1c USN Minnesota KRISSMAN, Max Sam S2c USN California KRUGER, Richard Warren QM2c USN California KRUPPA, Adolph Louis S1c USN Texas KUKUK, Howard Helgi S1c USN New York KULA, Stanley SC3c USN Nebraska KUSIE, Donald Joseph RM3c USN New York LA FRANCEA, William Richard S1c USN Michigan LA MAR, Ralph "B" FC3c USN California LA SALLE, Willard Dale S1c USN Washington LADERACH, Robert Paul FC2c USN West Virginia LAKE, John Ervin Jr. WO(PYCLK) USN California LAKIN, Donald Lapier S1c USN California LAKIN, Joseph Jordan S1c USN California LAMB, George Samuel CSFA USN California LANDMAN, Henry AM2c USN Michigan LANDRY, James Joseph Jr. BKR2c USN Massachusetts LANE, Edward Wallace COX USN LANE, Mancel Curtis S1c USN Oklahoma LANGE, Richard Charles S1c USN California LANGENWALTER, Orville J. SK2c USN Iowa LANOUETTE, Henry John COX USN Connecticut LARSON, Leonard Carl F3c USN Washington LATTIN, Bleecker RM3c USN LEE, Carroll Volney Jr. S1c USN Texas LEE, Henry Lloyd S1c USN South Carolina LEEDY, David Alonzo FC2c USN Iowa LEGGETT, John Goldie BM2c USN Washington LEGROS, Joseph McNeil S1c USN Louisiana LEIGH, Malcolm Hedrick GM3c USN North Carolina LEIGHT, James Webster S2c USN California LEOPOLD, Robert Lawrence ENS USNR Kentucky LESMEISTER, Steve Louie EM3c USN North Dakota LEVAR, Frank CWTP USNR Washington LEWIS, Wayne Alman CM3c USN South Carolina LEWISON, Neil Stanley FC3c USN Wisconsin LIGHTFOOT, Worth Ross GM3c USN LINBO, Gordon Ellsworth GM1c USN Washington LINCOLN, John William F1c USN Iowa LINDSAY, James E. PFC USMC California LINDSAY, James Mitchell SF2c USN Colorado LINTON, George Edward F2c USN LIPKE, Clarence William F2c USN Michigan LIPPLE, John Anthony SF1c USN Iowa LISENBY, Daniel Edward S1c USN LIVERS, Raymond Edward S1c USN New Mexico LIVERS, Wayne Nicholas F1c USN New Mexico LOCK, Douglas A. S1c USN New York LOHMAN, Earl Wynne S1c USN LOMAX, Frank Stuart ENS USN Nebraska LOMIBAO, Marciano OS1c USN Philippines LONG, Benjamin Franklin CYP USN California LOUNSBURY, Thomas William S2c USN Illinois LOUSTANAU, Charles Bernard S1c USN Iowa LOVELAND, Frank Crook S2c USN Idaho LOVSHIN, William Joseph PFC USMC Minnesota LUCEY, Neil Jermiah S1c USN New Jersey LUNA, James Edward S2c USN Oklahoma LUZIER, Ernest Burton MM2c USN LYNCH, Emmett Isaac MUS2c USN Washington LYNCH, James Robert Jr. GM3c USN Texas LYNCH, William Joseph Jr. S1c USN Texas MADDOX, Raymond Dudley CEMP USN California MADRID, Arthur John S2c USN California MAFNAS, Francisco Reyes MATT2c USN Guam MAGEE, Gerald James SK3c USN New York MALECKI, Frank Edward CYP USN California MALINOWSKI, John Stanley SM3c USNR Michigan MALSON, Harry Lynn SK3c USN Indiana MANION, Edward Paul S2c USN Illinois MANLOVE, Arthur Cleon WO(ELEC) USN California MANN, William Edward GM3c USN Washington MANNING, Leroy S2c USN Kentucky MANSKE, Robert Francis Y2c USN Iowa MARINICH, Steve Matt COX USN Utah MARIS, Elwood Henry S1c USN MARLING, Joseph Henry S2c USN Montana MARLOW, Urban Herschel COX USN Missouri MARSH, Benjamin Raymond Jr. ENS USNR Michigan MARSH, William Arthur S1c USN MARSHALL, Thomas Donald S2c USN California MARTIN, Hugh Lee Y3c USN Utah MARTIN, James Albert BM1c USN Texas MARTIN, James Orrwell S2c USN California MARTIN, Luster Lee F3c USN Arkansas MASON, Byron Dalley S2c USN Idaho MASTEL, Clyde Harold S2c USN California MASTERS, Dayton Monroe GM3c USN Texas MASTERSON, Cleburne E. Carl PHM1c USN California MATHEIN, Harold Richard BMKR2c USN Illinois MATHISON, Charles Harris S1c USN Wisconsin MATNEY, Vernon Merferd F1c USN Wisconsin MATTOX, James Durant AM3c USN Florida MAY, Louis Eugene SC2c USN Kansas MAYBEE, George Frederick RM2c USNR California MAYFIELD, Lester Ellsworth F1c USN Colorado MAYO, Rex Haywood EM2c USN Florida MEANS, Louis MATT1c USN Texas MEARES, John Morgan S2c USN South Carolina MENEFEE, James Austin S1c USN Mississippi MENO, Vicente Gogue MATT2c USN MENZENSKI,
    • • Stanley Paul COX USN MERRILL, Howard Deal ENS USN Utah MILES, Oscar Wright S1c USN Arkansas MILLER, Chester John F2c USN Michigan MILLER, Doyle Allen COX USN Arkansas MILLER, Forrest Newton CEMP USN California MILLER, George Stanley S1c USN Ohio MILLER, Jessie Zimmer S1c USN Ohio MILLER, John David S1c USN MILLER, William Oscar SM3c USN Illinois MILLIGAN, Weldon Hawvey S1c USN Texas MIMS, Robert Lang S1c USN Georgia MINEAR, Richard J. Jr. PFC USMC MLINAR, Joseph COX USN Pennsylvania MOLPUS, Richard Preston CMSMTHP USN California MONROE, Donald MATT2c USN Missouri MONTGOMERY, Robert E. S2c USN California MOODY, Robert Edward S1c USN Mississippi MOORE, Douglas Carlton S1c USN South Carolina MOORE, Fred Kenneth S1c USN Texas MOORE, James Carlton SF3c USN South Carolina MOORHOUSE, William Starks MUS2c USN Kansas MOORMAN, Russell Lee S2c USN California MORGAN, Wayne S1c USN California MORGAREIDGE, James Orries F2c USN Wyoming MORLEY, Eugene Elvis F2c USN Illinois MORRIS, Owen Newton S1c USN Alabama MORRISON, Earl Leroy S1c USN Montana MORSE, Edward Charles S2c USN Michigan MORSE, Francis Jerome BM1c USN California MORSE, George Robert S2c USN Montana MORSE, Norman Roi WT2c USN Virginia MOSS, Tommy Lee MATT2c USN Kentucky MOSTEK, Francis Clayton PFC USMC Idaho MOULTON, Gordon Eddy F1c USN California MUNCY, Claude MM2c USN California MURDOCK, Charles Luther WT1c USN Alabama MURDOCK, Melvin Elijah WT2c USN Alabama MURPHY, James Joseph S1c USN Arizona MURPHY, James Palmer F3c USN Ohio MURPHY, Jessie Huell S1c USN Louisiana MURPHY, Thomas J. Jr. SK1c USN Virginia MYERS, James Gernie SK1c USN Missouri McCARRENS, James Francis CPL USMC Illinois McCARY, William Moore S2c USN Alabama McCLAFFERTY, John Charles BM2c USN Ohio McCLUNG, Harvey Manford ENS USNR Pennsylvania McFADDIN, Lawrence James Y2c USN California McGLASSON, Joe Otis GM3c USN Illinois McGRADY, Samme Willie Genes MATT1c USN Alabama McGUIRE, Francis Raymond SK2c USN Michigan McHUGHES, John Breckenridge CWTA USN Washington McINTOSH, Harry George S1c USN Virginia McKINNIE, Russell MATT2c USN McKOSKY, Michael Martin S1c USN Oklahoma McPHERSON, John Blair S1c USN Tennessee NAASZ, Erwin H. SF2c USN Kansas NADEL, Alexander Joseph MUS2c USN New York NATIONS, James Garland FC2c USN South Carolina NAYLOR, "J" "D" SM2c USN Louisiana NEAL, Tom Dick S1c USN Texas NECESSARY, Charles Raymond S1c USN Missouri NEIPP, Paul S2c USN California MELSEN, George SC2c USN Washington NELSON, Harl Coplin S1c USN Arkansas NELSON, Henry Clarence BM1c USN Minnesota NELSON, Lawrence Adolphus CTCP USN California NELSON, Richard Eugene F3c USN North Dakota NICHOLS, Alfred Rose S1c USN Alabama NICHOLS, Bethel Allan S1c USN Washington NICHOLS, Clifford Leroy TC1c USN NICHOLS, Louis Duffie S2c USN Alabama NICHOLSON, Glen Eldon EM3c USN North Dakota NICHOLSON, hancel Grant S1c USN NIDES, Thomas James EM1c USN California NIELSEN, Floyd Theadore CM3c USN Utah NOLATUBBY, Henry Ellis PFC USMC California NOONAN, Robert Harold S1c USN Michigan NOWOSACKI, Theodore Lucian ENS USNR New York NUSSER, Raymond Alfred GM3c USN NYE, Frank Erskine S1c USN California O'BRIEN, Joseph Bernard PFC USMC Illinois O'BRYAN, George David FC3c USN Massachusetts O'BRYAN, Joseph Benjamin FC3c USN Massachusetts O'NEALL, Rex Eugene S1c USN Colorado O'NEILL, William Thomas Jr. ENS USNR Connecticut OCHOSKI, Henry Francis GM2c USN Washington OFF, Virgil Simon S1c USN Colorado OGLE, Victor Willard S2c USN Oklahoma OGLESBY, Lonnie Harris S2c USN Mississippi OLIVER, Raymond Brown S1c USN California OLSEN, Edward Kern ENS USNR Kansas OLSON, Glen Martin S2c USN Washington ORR, Dwight Jerome S1c USN California ORZECH, Stanislaus Joseph S2c USN Connecticut OSBORNE, Mervin Eugene F1c USN Kentucky OSTRANDER, Leland Grimstead PHM3c USN Minnesota OTT, Peter Dean S1c USN Ohio OWEN, Fredrick Halden S2c USN Texas OWENS, Richard Allen SK2c USN Colorado OWSLEY, Thomas Lea SC2c USN Idaho PACE, Amos Paul BM1c USN California PARKES, Harry Edward BM1c USN California PAROLI, Peter John BKR3c USN California PATTERSON, Clarence Rankin PFC USMC PATTERSON, Harold Lemuel S1c USN Texas PATTERSON, Richard Jr. SF3c USN Connecticut PAULMAND, Hilery OS2c USN Philippines PAVINI, Bruno S1c USN California PAWLOWSKI, Raymond Paul S1c USN New York PEARCE, Alonzo Jr. S1c USN PEARSON, Norman Cecil S2c USN California PEARSON, Robert Stanley F3c USN Montana PEAVEY, William Howard QM2c USN Iowa PECKHAM, Howard William F2c USN Missouri PEDROTTI, Francis James PVT USMC Missouri PEERY, Max Valdyne S2c USN California PELESCHAK, Michael S1c USN Alabama PELTIER, John Arthur EM3c USN Ohio PENTON, Howard Lee S1c USN Alabama PERKINS, George Ernest F1c USN Rhode Island PETERSON, Albert H. Jr. FC3c USN New Jersey PETERSON, Elroy Vernon FC2c USN California PETERSON, Hardy Wilbur FC3c USN Washington PETERSON, Roscoe Earl S2c USN California PETTIT, Charles Ross CRMP USN California PETYAK, John Joseph S1c USN Tennessee PHELPS, George Edward S1c USN New York PHILBIN, James Richard S1c USN Colorado PIASECKI, Alexander Louis CPL USMC PIKE, Harvey Lee EM3c USN Georgia PIKE, Lewis Jackson S1c USN Georgia PINKHAM, Albert Wesley S2c USN North Carolina PITCHER, Walter Giles GM1c USN California POOL, Elmer Leo S1c USN Indiana POOLE, Ralph Ernest S1c USN Ohio POST, Darrell Albert CMMA USN California POVESKO, George S1c USN Connecticut POWELL, Jack Speed PFC USMC California POWELL, Thomas George S1c USN Illinois POWER, Abner Franklin PVT USMC PRESSON, Wayne Harold S1c USN Ohio PRICE, Arland Earl RM2c USN Oregon PRITCHETT, Robert Leo Jr. S1c USN Louisiana PUCKETT, Edwin Lester SK3c USN Kentucky PUGH, John Jr. SF3c USN California PUTNAM, Avis Boyd SC3c USN Alabama PUZIO, Edward S1c USN Pennsylvania QUARTO, Mike Joseph S1c USN Connecticut QUINATA, Jose Sanchez MATT2c USN Guam RADFORD, Neal Jason MUS2c USN Nebraska RASMUSSEN, Arthur Severin CM1c USN California RASMUSSON, George Vernon F3c USN Minnesota RATKOVICH, William WT1c USN California RAWHOUSER, Glen Donald F3c USN Oregon RAWSON, Clyde Jackson BM1c USN Maryland RAY, Harry Joseph BM2c USN California REAVES, Casbie S1c USN Arkansas RECTOR, Clay Cooper SK3c USN Kentucky REECE, John Jeffris S2c USN Oklahoma REED, James Buchanan Jr. SK1c USN California REED, Ray Ellison S2c USN Oklahoma REGISTER, Paul James LCDR USN North Dakota REINHOLD, Rudolph Herbert PVT USMC Utah RESTIVO, Jack Martin Y2c USN Maryland REYNOLDS, Earl Arthur S2c USN Colorado REYNOLDS, Jack Franklyn S1c USN RHODES, Birb Richard F2c USN Tennessee RHODES, Mark Alexander S1c USN North Carolina RICE, William Albert S2c USN Washington RICH, Claude Edward S1c USN Florida RICHAR, Raymond Lyle S1c USN RICHARDSON, Warren John COX USN Pennsylvania RICHISON, Fred Louis GM3c USN California RICHTER, Albert Wallace COX USN RICO, Guadalupe Augustine S1c USN California RIDDEL, Eugene Edward S1c USN Michigan RIGANTI, Fred SF3c USN California RIGGINS, Gerald Herald S1c USN California RIVERA, Francisco Unpingoo MATT2c USN Guam ROBERTS, Dwight Fisk F1c USN Kansas ROBERTS, Kenneth Franklin BM2c USN ROBERTS, McClellan Taylor CPHMP USN California ROBERTS, Walter Scott Jr. RM1c USN Missouri ROBERTS, Wilburn Carle BKR3c USN Louisiana ROBERTS, William Francis S2c USN ROBERTSON, Edgar Jr. MATT3c USN Virginia ROBERTSON, James Milton MM1c USN Tennessee ROBINSON, Harold Thomas S2c USN California ROBINSON, James William S2c USN California ROBINSON, John James EM1c USN Oregon ROBINSON, Robert Warren PHM3c USN West Virginia ROBY, Raymond Arthur S1c USN California RODGERS, John Dayton S1c USN Pennsylvania ROEHM, Harry Turner MM2c USN Illinois ROGERS, Thomas Sprugeon CWTP USN Alabama ROMANO, Simon OC1c USN Virginia ROMBALSKI, Donald Roger S2c USN Washington ROMERO, Vladimir M. S1c USN Virginia ROOT, Melvin Lenord S1c USN Ohio ROSE, Chester Clay BM1c USN Kentucky ROSENBERY, Orval Robert SF2c USN Illinois ROSS, Deane Lundy S2c USN New York ROSS, William Fraser GM3c USN New York ROWE, Eugene Joseph S1c USN New Jersey ROWELL, Frank Malcom S2c USN Texas ROYALS, William Nicholas F1c USN Virginia ROYER, Howard Dale GM3c USN Ohio ROZAR, John Frank WT2c USN California ROZMUS, Joseph Stanley S1c USN New Hampshire RUDDOCK, Cecil Roy S1c USN RUGGERIO, William FC3c USN RUNCKEL, Robert Gleason BUG1c USN RUNIAK, Nicholas S1c USN New Jersey RUSH, Richard Perry S1c USN Texas RUSHER, Orville Lester MM1c USN Missouri RUSKEY, Joseph John CBMP USN California RUTKOWSKI, John Peter S1c USN New York RUTTAN, Dale Andrew EM3c USN Florida
    • • SAMPSON, Sherley Rolland RM3c USN Minnesota SANDALL, Merrill Deith SF3c USN Illinois SANDERS, Eugene Thomas ENS USN New York SANDERSON, James Harvey MUS2c USN California SANFORD, Thomas Steger F3c USN SANTOS, Filomeno OC2c USN California SATHER, William Ford PMKR1c USN California SAVAGE, Walter Samuel Jr. ENS USNR Louisiana SAVIN, Tom RM2c USN Nebraska SAVINSKI, Michael S1c USN Pennsylvania SCHDOWSKI, Joseph S1c USN SCHEUERLEIN, George Albert GM3c USN Pennsylvania SCHILLER, Ernest S2c USN Texas SCHLUND, Elmer Pershing MM1c USN Nebraska SCHMIDT Vernon Joseph S1c USN Minnesota SCHNEIDER, William Jacob PFC USMC SCHRANK, Harold Arthur BKR1c USN Texas SCHROEDER, Henry BM1c USN New Jersey SCHUMAN, Herman Lincoln SK1c USN California SCHURR, John EM2c USN Kansas SCILLEY, Harold Hugh SF2c USN Montana SCOTT, A. J. S2c USN SCOTT, Crawford Edward PFC USMC SCOTT, George Harrison PFC USMC SCRUGGS, Jack Leo MUS2c USN California SEAMAN, Russell Otto F1c USN Iowa SEELEY, William Eugene S1c USN Connecticut SEVIER, Charles Clifton S1c USN California SHANNON, William Alfred S1c USN Idaho SHARBAUGH, Harry Robert GM3c USN Pennsylvania SHARON, Lewis Purdie MM2c USN California SHAW, Clyde Donald S1c USN Ohio SHAW, Robert K. MUS2c USN Texas SHEFFER, George Robert S1c USN Indiana SHERRILL, Warren Joseph Y2c USN Texas SHERVEN, Richard Stanton EM3c USN North Dakota SHIFFMAN, Harold Ely RM3c USN Michigan SHILEY, Paul Eugene S1c USN Pennsylvania SHIMER, Melvin Irvin S1c USN SHIVE, Gordon Eshom PFC USMC California SHIVE, Malcolm Holman RM3c USNR California SHIVELY, Benjamin Franklin F1c USN Michigan SHORES, Irland Jr. S1c USN Alabama SHUGART, Marvin John S1c USN Colorado SIBLEY, Delmar Dale S1c USN New York SIDDERS, Russell Lewis S1c USN Ohio SIDELL, John Henry GM2c USN Illinois SILVEY, Jesse MM2c USN Texas SIMENSEN, Carleton Elliott 2LT USMC SIMON, Walter Hamilton S1c USN New Jersey SIMPSON, Albert Eugene S1c USN SKEEN, Harvey Leroy S2c USN Arizona SKILES, Charley Jackson Jr. S2c USN Virginia SKILES, Eugene S2c USN SLETTO, Earl Clifton MM1c USN Minnesota SMALLEY, Jack G. S1c USN Ohio SMART, George David COX USN Montana SMESTAD, Halge Hojem RM2c USN Minnesota SMITH, Albert Joseph LTJG USN Virginia SMITH, Earl Jr. S1c USN Missouri SMITH, Earl Walter FC3c USN Florida SMITH, Edward GM3c USN Illinois SMITH, Harry S2c USNR California SMITH, John A. SF3c USN Ohio SMITH, John Edward S1c USN California SMITH, Luther Kent S1c USN Tennessee SMITH, Mack Lawrence S1c USN Arkansas SMITH, Marvin Ray S1c USN Texas SMITH, Orville Stanley ENS USN Oklahoma SMITH, Walter Tharnel MATT2c USN Mississippi SNIFF, Jack Bertrand CPL USMC SOENS, Harold Mathias SC1c USN California SOOTER, James Fredrick RM3c USN SORENSEN, Holger Earl S1c USN New Mexico SOUTH, Charles Braxton S1c USN Alabama SPENCE, Merle Joe S1c USN Tennessee SPOTZ, Maurice Edwin F1c USN Illinois SPREEMAN, Robert Lawrence GM3c USN Michigan SPRINGER, Charles Harold S2c USN California STALLINGS, Kermit Braxton F1c USN North Carolina STARKOVICH, Charles EM3c USN Washington STARKOVICH, Joseph Jr. F2c USN Washington STAUDT, Alfred Parker F3c USN Washington STEFFAN, Joseph Philip BM2c USN Illinois STEIGLEDER, Lester Leroy COX USN Ohio STEINHOFF, Lloyd Delroy S1c USN California STEPHENS, Woodrow Wilson EM1c USN Washington STEPHENSON, Hugh Donald S1c USN New York STEVENS, Jack Hazelip S1c USN Texas STEVENS, Theodore R. AMM2c USN California STEVENSON, Frank Jake PFC USMC New York STEWART, Thomas Lester SC3c USN Arkansas STILLINGS, Gerald Fay F2c USN STOCKMAN, Harold William FC3c USN Idaho STOCKTON, Louis Alton S2c USN California STODDARD, William Edison S1c USN Louisiana STOPYRA, Julian John RM3c USN Massachusetts STORM, Laun Lee Y1c USN California STOVALL, Richard Patt PFC USMC STRANGE, Charles Orval F2c USN STRATTON, John Raymond S1c USN Indiana SUGGS, William Alfred S1c USN Florida SULSER, Frederick Franklin GM3c USN Ohio SUMMERS, Glen Allen Y1c USN Washington SUMMERS, Harold Edgar SM2c USN Ohio SUMNER, Oren S2c USN New Mexico SUTTON, Clyde Westly CCSTDP USN California SUTTON, George Woodrow SK1c USN Kentucky SWIONTEK, Stanley Stephen FLDCK USN Illinois SWISHER, Charles Elijah S1c USN California SYMONETTE, Henry OC1c USN California SZABO, Theodore Stephen PVT USMCR TAMBOLLEO, Victor Charles SF3c USN Maryland TANNER, Russell Allen GM3c USN Washington TAPIE, EDward Casamiro MM2c USN California TAPP, Lambert Ray GM3c USN Kentucky TARG, John CWTP USN California TAYLOR, Aaron Gust MATT1c USN California TAYLOR, Charles Benton EM3c USN Illinois TAYLOR, Harry Theodore GM2c USN Indiana TAYLOR, Robert Denzil COX USN Iowa TEELING, Charles Madison CPRTP USNR California TEER, Allen Ray EM1c USN California TENNELL, Raymond Clifford S1c USN Texas TERRELL, John Raymond F2c USN Arkansas THEILLER, Rudolph S1c USN California THOMAS, Houston O'Neal COX USN Texas THOMAS, Randall James S1c USN West Virginia THOMAS, Stanley Horace F3c USN THOMAS, Vincent Duron COX USN California THOMPSON, Charles Leroy S1c USN Illinois THOMPSON, Irven Edgar S1c USN Ohio THOMPSON, Robert Gary SC1c USN California THORMAN, John Christopher EM2c USN Iowa THORNTON, George Hayward GM3c USN Mississippi TINER, Robert Reaves F2c USN Texas TISDALE, William Esley CWTP USN California TRIPLETT, Thomas Edgar S1c USN California TROVATO, Tom S1c USN California TUCKER, Raymond Edward COX USN Indiana TUNTLAND, Earl Eugene S1c USN North Dakota TURNIPSEED, John Morgan F3c USN Arkansas TUSSEY, Lloyd Harold EM3c USN North Carolina TYSON, Robert FC3c USN Louisiana UHRENHOLDT, Andrew Curtis ENS USNR Wisconsin VALENTE, Richard Dominic GM3c USN California VAN ATTA, Garland Wade MM1c USN California VAN HORN, James Randolf S2c USN Arizona VAN VALKENBURGH, Franklin CAPT(CO) USN Minnesota VARCHOL, Brinley GM2c USN Pennsylvania VAUGHAN, William Frank PHM2c USN VEEDER, Gordon Elliott S2c USN Idaho VELIA, Galen Steve SM3c USN Kansas VIEIRA, Alvaro Everett S2c USN Rhode Island VOJTA, Walter Arnold S1c USN Minnesota VOSTI, Anthony August GM3c USN California WAGNER, Mearl James SC2c USN California WAINWRIGHT, Silas Alonzo PHM1c USN New York WAIT, Wayland Lemoyne S1c USN WALKER, Bill S1c USN Texas WALLACE, Houston Oliver WT1c USN Arkansas WALLACE, James Frank S1c USN Wisconsin WALLACE, Ralph Leroy F3c USN Oregon WALLENSTIEN, Richard Henry S1c USN WALTERS, Clarence Arthur S2c USN California WALTERS, William Spurgeon Jr. FC3c USN New Mexico WALTHER, Edward Alfred FC3c USN WALTON, Alva Dowding Y3c USN Utah WARD, Albert Lewis S1c USN Oklahoma WARD, William E. COX USN Illinois WATKINS, Lenvil Leo F2c USN Kentucky WATSON, William Lafayette F3c USN Florida WATTS, Sherman Maurice HA1c USN Arkansas WATTS, Victor Ed GM3c USN Texas WEAVER, Richard Walter S1c USN Nevada WEBB, Carl Edward PFC USMC WEBSTER, Harold Dwayne S2c USN Colorado WEEDEN, Carl Alfred ENS USN California WEIDELL, William Peter S2c USN Minnesota WEIER, Bernard Arthur PVT USMC Illinois WELLER, Ludwig Fredrick CSKP USN California WELLS, Floyd Arthur RM2c USN WELLS, Harvey Anthony SF2c USN California WELLS, Raymond Virgil Jr. S1c USN Missouri WELLS, William Bennett S1c USN Missouri WEST, Broadus Franklin S1c USN South Carolina WEST, Webster Paul S1c USN Arkansas WESTCOTT, William Percy Jr. S1c USN Indiana WESTERFIELD, Ivan Ayers S1c USN California WESTIN, Donald Vern F3c USN Oregon WESTLUND, Fred Edwin BM2c USN California WHISLER, Gilbert Henry PFC USMC WHITAKER, John William Jr. S1c USN Louisiana WHITCOMB, Cecil Eugene EM3c USN Michigan WHITE, Charles William MUS2c USN WHITE, James Clifton F1c USN Texas WHITE, Vernon Russell S1c USN South Carolina WHITE, Volmer Dowin S1c USN Mississippi WHITEHEAD, Ulmont Irving Jr. ENS USN Connecticut WHITLOCK, Paul Morgan S2c USN Texas WHITSON, Ernest Hubert Jr. MUS2c USN California
    • • WHITT, William Byron GM3c USN Kentucky WHITTEMORE, Andrew Tiny MATT2c USN Tennessee WICK, Everett Morris FC3c USN Oregon WICKLUND, John Joseph S1c USN Minnesota WILCOX, Arnold Alfred QM2c USN Iowa WILL, Joseph William S2c USN Colorado WILLETTE, Laddie James S2c USN Michigan WILLIAMS, Adrian Delton S1c USN Louisiana WILLIAMS, Clyde Richard MUS2c USN Oklahoma WILLIAMS, George Washington S1c USN Virginia WILLIAMS, Jack Herman RM3c USNR South Carolina WILLIAMS, Laurence "A" ENS(AV) USNR Ohio WILLIAMSON, Randolph Jr. MATT2c USN WILLIAMSON, William Dean RM2c USNR California WILLIS, Robert Kenneth Jr. S1c USN Louisiana WILSON, Bernard Martin RM3c USNR New York WILSON, Comer A. CBMP USN Alabama WILSON, Hurschel Woodrow F2c USN Ohio WILSON, John James S1c USN California WILSON, Neil Mataweny CWO(MACH) USN California WILSON, Ray Milo RM3c USNR Iowa WIMBERLY, Paul Edwin GM3c USN Tennessee WINDISH, Robert James PVT USMC Missouri WINDLE, Robert England PFC USMC Illinois WINTER, Edward WO(MACH) USNR Washington WITTENBERG, Russell Duane PVT USMC WOJTKIEWICZ, Frank Peter CMMP USN California WOLF, George Alexanderson Jr. ENS USNR Pennsylvania WOOD, Harold Baker BM2c USN Colorado WOOD, Horace Van S1c USN Texas WOOD, Roy Eugene F1c USN Arizona WOODS, Vernon Wesley S1c USN Texas WOODS, William Anthony S2c USN New York WOODWARD, Ardenne Allen MM2c USN California WOODY, Harlan Fred S2c USN WOOLF, Norman Bragg CWTP USN Alabama WRIGHT, Edward Henry S2c USN Illinois WYCKOFF, Robert Leroy F1c USN New Jersey YATES, Elmer Elias SC3c USN Nebraska YEATS, Charles Jr. COX USN Illinois YOMINE, Frank Peter F2c USN Illinois YOUNG, Eric Reed ENS USN Colorado YOUNG, Glendale Rex S1c USN YOUNG, Jay Wesley S1c USN Utah YOUNG, Vivan Louis WT1c USN Virginia ZEILER, John Virgel S1c USN Colorado ZIEMBRICKE, Steve A. S1c USN New York ZIMMERMAN, Fred Cox USN North Dakota ZIMMERMAN,Lloyd McDonald S2c USN Missouri ZWARUN, Jr. Michael S1c(S2c) USN New Jersey
    • Comparing Attacks: Pearl Harbor 9/11 Twin Towers • 2,345 military and 57 civilians • 2,918 civilians and 55 military killed personnel • Attacked without warning • Attacked without warning • Lead to American involvement • Lead to American involvement in war in war
    • Pearl Harbor Memorial today
    • Declaration of War
    • December 11, 1941, Japan’s allies— Germany and Italy—declared war on the United States
    • During World War II, U.S. General George C. Marshall believed that the jeep was “America’s greatest contribution to modern warfare.” The jeep was first developed as a small durable military vehicle with room to mount a machine gun. The four-wheel drive function on the jeep made it possible for the vehicle to drive off the road through ice, mud, and other obstacles.
    • Quick Write 2-11-10 • Why do you think it takes a major event to get people to donate money to causes of need? • Haiti…was in trouble before the earthquake • Red Cross…always needs money to stay operational • WWII- U.S. need funds to protect the country, but did not really push for more until after the attack on Pearl Harbor
    • Economic survival • The United States' industrial output during World War II was twice as productive as Germany and five times that of Japan. This turned the tide in favor of an Allied victory. Part of the success of the United States was the result of the government mobilizing the economy before the U.S. entered the war.
    • The Reconstruction Roosevelt Finance the War created Corporation Production (RFC), the Board (WPB) to government and set priorities agency which had production goals beento control and set up during the distribution the Depression, made of raw materials loanssupplies. and to companies to help them with the cost of converting to war production.
    • The automobile factories turned to the production of trucks, jeeps, and tanks. They also built artillery, rifles, mines, helmets, pontoon bridges, cooking pots, and other military supplies, producing nearly one-third of the military equipment that was manufactured during the war. Henry Ford created an assembly line for B-24 bombers.
    • Women and Minorities Gain Ground The wartime labor shortage forced factories to hire married women in positions that were traditionally considered men’s work. “Rosie the Riveter,” a character from a popular song by the Four Vagabonds, became a symbol for the campaign to hire women. The campaign resulted in 2.5 million women entering the “Rosie the Riveter” manufacturing workforce. symbolized new roles for women.
    • Rose Will Monroe: The REAL ―Rosie the Riveter‖
    • Rosie the Riveter – The Four Vagabonds All the day long, Whether rain or shine, She's a part of the assembly line. She's making history, Working for victory, Rosie the Riveter. Keeps a sharp lookout for sabotage, Sitting up there on the fuselage. That little girl will do more than a male will do. Rosie's got a boyfriend, Charlie. Charlie, he's a Marine. Rosie is protecting Charlie, Working overtime on the riveting machine. When they gave her a production "E," She was as proud as she could be. There's something true about, Red, white, and blue about, Rosie the Riveter.
    • Rationing War rationing affected everyone. Women painted seams on their legs to make it look like they were wearing stockings, because silk was needed to make parachutes instead of stockings.
    • Rationing • Victory gardens were planted to produce more food for the war effort. Scrap drives were organized to collect spare rubber, tin, aluminum, and steel. • Americans exchanged bacon grease and meat drippings for extra ration coupons because fats and oils were so vital to the production of explosives.
    • Rationing Activity • Apples • Corn • Margarine • Soup • Bisquick • Crackers • Mayonnaise • Spinach • Bread • Eggs • Milk (evaporated) • Steak • Flour • Strawberries • Bugles snacks • Grits • Orange juice • Butter • Pasta • Sugar • Ground beef • Cake mix • Jelly • Peanut butter • Syrup • Cheerios • Lemon juice • Popsicles • Tomato • Luncheon meat juice • Cheese • Potatoes • Tuna • Coffee • Rice • Coke • Sausage • Cookies • Shrimp
    • Cooking without Sugar!
    • Everyone helped out!
    • Sugar Rations for children • All schoolchildren had to have a weekly dose of VIROL, a sweet and sticky extract of malt, in order to make sure they got the proper ration of vitamins; (and you weren't allowed much time to suck the spoon to get all the sticky off it!)
    • Fish Paste • 3 oz cooked fresh-salted cod 2 oz mashed potatoes 1 oz softened margarine 2 teaspoons Worcestershire sauce pepper
    • Grilled Pigeon • Pigeons for grilling must be very young, when they are often known as 'squabs'. • Wash and dry the birds and split lengthways. Season, then brush the birds generously with melted fat. • Preheat the grill and place the birds with the skin side uppermost on the grill pan. Cook for 5 minutes. Turn them over and brush the underside with more fat. Continue cooking for a further 5 minutes, then turn the birds over once more and cook until tender. • To give more flavour to the flesh a few chopped herbs can be mixed with the melted fat. Serve the pigeons with redcurrent or apple jelly.
    • Buying Bonds • Buying bonds • Issued by the U.S. Government, they were first called Defense Bonds. • The name was changed to War Bonds after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
    • Buying Bonds • Living in the United States with a median income during World War II meant earning about $2,000 a year. • Despite the war’s hardships, 134 million Americans were asked to purchase war bonds to help fund the war. • Stamps also could be purchased, starting at 10 cents each, to save toward the bond.
    • WAACs, WACs, and WASPs
    • “Release a man for combat” Women were enlisted mainly for administrative and clerical work so more men would be available for combat.
    • WAAC – Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps • Established in 1942, it was an auxiliary corps, which means they were officially members of the military
    • WAC – Women’s Army Corps • Replaced the WAAC as a true military unit
    • WASPS – Women’s Airforce Service Pilots • The first women in history trained to fly American military aircraft. • Trained to fly non-combat missions in order to free male pilots for combat missions. They ferried planes from the manufacturing plants to military bases, and ended up doing much more -- including flying new aircraft such as the B-29, to prove to male pilots that these were not as difficult to fly as the men thought!
    • Nursing
    • U.S.O. • “The USO (United Service Organization) is a congressionally chartered, nonprofit organization, and is not a part of the federal government. Since 1941, the USO mission has remained the same: to provide morale, welfare and recreation-type services to service members and their families.”
    • “For many decades, celebrities have joined forces with the USO to entertain troops all over the world. Actors, singers, comedians, writers and professional sports figures provide troops with a morale boost when they need it most. Traveling the globe, they volunteer their time and talents, ensuring that service members and their families know they are not forgotten.”
    • USO Celebrities • The organization became mostly known for its live performances called Camp Shows, through which the entertainment industry helped boost the morale of its servicemen and women. At its high point in 1944, the USO had more than 3,000 clubs, and curtains were rising on USO shows 700 times a day. From 1941 to 1947, the USO presented more than 400,000 performances, featuring entertainers such as Bing Crosby, Judy Garland, Bette Davis, Humphrey Bogart, Lauren Bacall, Frank Sinatra, Marlene Dietrich, Laurel and Hardy, The Marx Brothers, Jack Benny, James Cagney, James Stewart, Gary Cooper, Danny Kaye, The Rockettes, Al Jolson, Fred Astaire, The Andrews Sisters, Lucille Ball, Glenn Miller, Mickey Rooney, and most famously, Bob Hope.
    • Quick Write 2-18-10 Current Issue: • In a effort to deal with fights on campus (EC Section 48900). EHRS and other California high school will be adapting lunch arrangements on campus. • New campus policy: • “lunches no longer by building or grade level, but into a male lunch and female lunch. The goal being to minimize issues between the two groups and thus adhere to the campus’s policy on reducing lunch time disruptions and fights on campus.”
    • At home and on the front lines
    • • Ad campaign designed to symbolize the efforts of African-Americans who were fighting for victory against fascism abroad and fighting racism at home. • This slogan was adopted on a national scale to criticize the discrimination that African- Americans were facing in defense-related industries.
    • • Due to racial discrimination, African American servicemen were not allowed to learn to fly until 1941, when African American college graduates were selected for what the Army called "an experiment”. • The army air force turned the experiment into the 99th Pursuit Squadron, an African American unit. • Known as the Tuskegee Airmen.
    • • When Eleanor Roosevelt visited Tuskegee Army Air Field in 1941, she insisted on taking a ride in an airplane with a black pilot at the controls. ER's pilot was Charles Anderson. ER then insisted that her flight with Anderson be photographed and the film developed immediately so that she could take the photographs back to Washington when she left the field. ER used this photograph as part of her campaign to convince FDR to activate the participation of the Tuskegee Airmen in North Africa and in the European Theater.
    • • In June 1943, the Tuskegee Airmen entered into combat over North Africa. • They were involved in more than 15,000 attacks, completing over 1,500 missions during the war. • They never lost an escorted bomber to enemy fighters. No other escort unit could claim such a record. • When the war ended, the Tuskegee Airmen returned home with 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses, Legions of Merit and the Red Star of Yugoslavia
    • Navajo Code Talkers When American marines stormed an enemy beach, they used radios to communicate. Using radios, however, meant that the Japanese could intercept and translate the messages. In the midst of battle, however, there was no time to use a code machine. A suggestion was made to recruit the Navajos as “code talkers”. The Navajo language was a “hidden language” because it had no written alphabet and was known only to the Navajo and a few missionaries and anthropologists. The Navajo used words from their own language to represent military terms. For example, the Navajo word jay-sho, or “buzzard”, was code for bomber; lotso, or “whale”, meant battleship; and na-ma-si, or “potatoes”, stood for grenades. They could relay a message in minutes what it would have taken a machine operator hours to encrypt and transmit.
    • • Over 400 Navajo served in the marine corps as code talkers • Sworn to secrecy, their mission was not revealed until many years after the war
    • • After the start of the war, employers in Detroit turned to a ready pool of African American labor from the South. • June 20, 1943 racially motivated riots broke out in across Detroit. • Eventually, 6,000 federal troops had to be called in to quell the violence. • 43 DEAD
    • •Released in 1997 •Reflecting on the 1943 Zoot Suit Riots •Listen to the lyrics •Who is the riot between? •Why?
    • • A series of riots that erupted in Los Angeles during World War II between sailors and soldiers and Mexican American youth gangs. • On June 3, 1943, a group of servicemen on leave complained that they had been assaulted by a gang of pachucos. • The headed to east LA where they attacked all the men they found wearing zoot suits, often ripping off the suits and burning them in the streets. • In many instances, the police intervened by arresting beaten-up Mexican-American youth for disturbing the peace. • The government finally intervened on June 7, by declaring that Los Angeles would henceforth be off-limits to all military personnel.
    • Bracero Program leads to prejudice and segregation…
    • • US negotiated Bracero program due to labor shortage (1942-64). • Mexican citizens worked in US—about 4 million. • US farmers became dependent upon Bracero laborers. Bracero workers on a California farm (1944)
    • • The Braceros converted the agricultural fields of America into the most productive in the planet. • Working conditions for migrant workers were harsh and often unsafe. Their wages were low, and they were often taken advantage of.
    • What are the 2 “victories” that the Double V campaigned for? Fighting for victory against 1.Fascism abroad and 2.Fighting racism at home.
    • Why did some Americans see Zoot Suits as unpatriotic? Zoot Suits used an excessive amount of fabric. Americans thought that during war people should cut back and conserve (Liberty Suits instead)
    • What was the primary reason for the Bracero Program? • US encouraged Mexican immigration to the US due to a labor shortage to work in agriculture.
    • Japanese Internment The Attack on Pearl Harbor Changed Peoples’ Attitudes Across the Country
    • Japanese Internment
    • Japanese Internment • Interment camps across the United States
    • Japanese Internment
    • Japanese Internment • Aerial Photo of Granada Center from the Water Tower - Granada Relocation Center, Amache, Colorado.
    • Japanese Internment
    • High School Campus at Heart Mountain, Wyoming. • Classes are housed in tarpaper-covered, barrack-style buildings originally designed as living quarters for the evacuees.
    • •In an atmosphere of hysteria, Roosevelt,, authorized the internment of American citizens of Japanese ancestry and resident aliens from Japan. •Executive Order 9066 ordered the “removal of resident enemy aliens” from parts of the West vaguely identified as “military areas.”
    • • In her memoirs, Eleanor Roosevelt recalled being completely floored by her husband’s action. A fierce proponent of civil rights, Eleanor hoped to change Roosevelt’s mind, but when she brought the subject up with him, he interrupted her and told her never to mention it again.
    • •Pearl Harbor Bombed: 12-07-1941 •Internment Camps Created: 2-19-1942 •120,000 forced into 10 camps all •Only Japanese-Americans on the West Coast •66% were US citizens! •What does Executive Order 9066 suggest about executive power?
    • Eugene V. Rostow, Harper’s Magazine September 1945) • "In the perspective of our legal tradition, the facts are almost incredible. During the bleak spring of 1942, the Japanese and the Japanese- Americans who lived on the West Coast of the United States were taken into custody and removed to camps in the interior. More than 100,000 men, women, and children were thus exiled and imprisoned. More than two thirds of them were American citizens. • These people were taken into custody as a military measure on the ground that espionage and sabotage were especially to be feared from persons of Japanese blood. The whole group was removed from the West Coast because the military authorities thought it would take too long to conduct individual investigations on the spot. They were arrested without warrants and were held without indictment or a statement of charges, although the courts were open and freely functioning. They were transported to camps far from their homes, and kept there under prison conditions, pending investigations of their "loyalty." Despite the good intentions of the chief relocation officers, the centers were little better than concentration camps."
    • Eugene V. Rostow, Harper’s Magazine September 1945) Break Down… • These people were taken into custody as a military measure on the ground that espionage and sabotage were especially to be feared from persons of Japanese blood. • The whole group was removed from the West Coast because the military authorities thought it would take too long to conduct individual investigations on the spot. • They were arrested without warrants and were held without indictment or a statement of charges, although the courts were open and freely functioning. • They were transported to camps far from their homes, and kept there under prison conditions, pending investigations of their "loyalty.“ • Despite the good intentions of the chief relocation officers, the centers were little better than concentration camps."
    • • In times of crisis the government over steps its boundaries and takes away individual liberties Sedition/Espionage Acts-WWI
    • Manzanar
    • •If you were forced to move with your family to an internment camp, what personal belongings would you take with you? In the suitcase below, draw those special items you would take to the camp. •Describe how would you and your families lives would be different if you were forced to move to an internment camp. How would you feel? AND FARWELL TO MANZANAR
    • • By 1944, 1,500 men from the camps volunteered for Military Service • 5,000 went back to Japan after the war • 1945: Supreme Court ruled that the camps were unconstitutional • In 1948 Truman signed an act to pay back over 131 million. Only 38 million was ever paid back • (1942) Over 2 billion dollars was lost in property and income
    • • In 1988, Congress implemented the Civil Liberties Act, apologizing on behalf of the nation for the "grave injustice" done to persons of Japanese ancestry. Congress declared that the internments had been "motivated largely by racial prejudice, wartime hysteria, and a failure of political leadership" and authorized $20,000 payments to Japanese Americans who had suffered injustices during World War II.
    • What does Executive Order 9066 say about the government during times of crisis? •In times of crisis the government over steps its boundaries, and takes away individual liberties
    • How did the US Supreme Court justify the removal of Japanese Americans from their home? •Ruling that the actions were necessary for national security
    • Haiku, the shortest form of poetry developed in Japan, emerged in the late 17th century. A Haiku is a three-line poem consisting of 17 syllables: 5 in the first line, 7 in the second, and 5 in the third. Haiku is subtle and simple, conveying scenes and moods with great sensitivity. A haiku often includes a reference to nature or to past events. The essence of haiku is not descriptive; instead, it represents the reader with a series of images that, when connected with the reader’s imagination, yield a wealth of associations, visions, and emotions. •Most haiku are written in the present tense.
    • Examples of Haikus Mountain snow loosens Rivulets of tears. Washed stones, Forgotten clearing -from Farewell to Manzanar Bitter winter snow Bleak encampment of sorrow A cold, white prison. -Teacher’s Curriculum Institute
    • Examples of Haikus Haiku Japanese poetry Mountain snow loosens Rivulets of tears. Washed stones, Haiku, the shortest form of poetry Forgotten clearing developed in Japan, emerged in the late 17th century. -from Farewell to Manzanar A Haiku is a three-line poem Bitter winter snow consisting of 17 syllables: 5 in the Bleak encampment of sorrow first line, 7 in the second, and 5 in the A cold, white prison. third. -Teacher’s Curriculum Institute Haiku is subtle and simple, conveying scenes and moods with great sensitivity. Task: A haiku often includes a reference to nature or to past events. Make your own Haiku Poem The essence of haiku is not from the viewpoint of a Japanese descriptive; instead, it represents the Internee. Brainstorm some ideas reader with a series of images that, when connected with the reader’s first then with the paper provided imagination, yield a wealth of create a final draft. You will need associations, visions, and emotions. to create a picture in the Most haiku are written in the present tense. background of your poem as well. See examples provided.
    • Quick Write Answer the following Questions: • 1. What did the : “V’s” stand for in the Double V campaign? • 2. What was the name given to the African- American pilots that fought in the Mediterranean? • 3. What minority group was used for their language to prevent Japanese decoding of messages?
    • Getting America behind the war
    • Both for soldiers and civilians
    • Dr. Seuss – political cartoonist “Horton Hears a Who! Deals with Japanese and U.S. relations "Yertle the Turtle" pokes fun at those who want to rule the world.
    • Holding the Line with Japan
    • Holding the Line Against Japan • After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, the commander of the United States Navy in the Pacific, Admiral Chester Nimitz, could do little at first to stop the advancing Japanese into Southeast Asia. Japan attacked American airfields in the Philippines and landed their troops in the islands.
    • Holding the Line Against Japan The commander of the Americans and Filipinos defending the Philippines, General Douglas MacArthur, decided to take his badly outnumbered troops and retreat to the Bataan Peninsula. Roosevelt ordered the general to evacuate to Australia.
    • Holding the Line Against Japan • The Allied "You should be dead, but defenders of you just keep going," Bataan said Onufry, who now finally lives in the North surrendered, Country town of and thousands Freedom. died on the "Another day, and you're Bataan Death still alive." March to a Japanese prison camp. Japanese soldier taking the head off a prisoner
    • Bataan Death March
    • Holding the Line Against Japan In early 1942, B-25 bombers replaced the aircraft carriers’ short-range bombers because they could attack from farther away. Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle was put in command of the mission that bombed Japan on April 18.
    • Doolittle Raids • Attaching “peace” medals given to the U.S. during the Japanese diversion before Pearl Harbor. • All of 13 and all but 1 of the 14th plane would return to the US, some after years as prisoners of war
    • Holding the Line Against Japan • Doolittle’s attack on Japan made Japanese leaders change their strategy. An attack on Midway Island—the last American base in the North Pacific west of Hawaii—was planned to lure the American fleet into battle to be destroyed by the Japanese. This would cut American supply lines to Australia. The plan failed because the United States had a team of code breakers based in Hawaii that broke the Japanese Navy’s secret code for conducting operations.
    • Holding the Line Against Japan • The turning point in the war came during the Battle of Midway when Americans shot down 38 Japanese planes and destroyed four Japanese carriers. This stopped the Japanese advance into the Pacific.
    • Japanese Cruiser on Fire
    • USS Yorktown • Strike on USS Yorktown by 3 Japanese Kamikaze attacks • It would take 2 Japanese torpedos
    • •Why did the Japanese decide to attack Midway Island? Midway Island was the last American base in the North Pacific. The Japanese believed that an attack on Midway Island would lure the American fleet into battle and enable the Japanese fleet to destroy it. The American fleet had to be destroyed in order to protect Tokyo from being bombed by American B-25s.
    • Consequences of the Battle of Midway • The consequences of the Battle of Midway for the Japanese were huge. At a stroke they had lost four vital aircraft carriers that were considered to be vital for the Pacific campaign. Whereas the Americans could replace the 'Yorktown', the Japanese would have found it very difficult to replace one carrier, let alone four. Regardless of finding new carriers, experienced crew would also be needed and the Japanese had lost many experienced crewmen during the battle.
    • Striking Back at the Third Reich
    • Turning Back the German Army • A. The leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, urged Roosevelt to open a second front in Europe. Although Roosevelt wanted his troops to enter into battle in Europe, Prime Minister Churchill wanted to be more cautious and attack the periphery, or edges, of Germany. In July 1942, Roosevelt ordered the invasion of Morocco and Algeria(Africa)— French territories indirectly under Germany control.
    • Turning Back the German Army • B. On November 8, 1942, the American invasion of North Africa began under the command of General Dwight D. Eisenhower. General George Patton led the American forces in Morocco and captured the city of Casablanca. At the Battle of Kasserine Pass, Americans faced the German army for the first time. Outmaneuvered and outfought, Americans suffered huge losses. The general in charge was fired and Patton was put in command. American and British forces finally pushed the Germans back. On May 13, 1943, German forces in North Africa surrendered.
    • Turning Back the German Army • C. After Germany declared war on the United States, German submarines began sinking American cargo ships along the American East Coast. The situation greatly improved when the U.S. Navy set up a convoy system, in which cargo ships traveled in groups and were escorted by navy warships. The German submarine campaign continued into the spring of 1942. From July on, American shipyards produced more ships than German submarines could sink.
    • Turning Back the German Army • D. Hitler wanted to defeat the Soviets by destroying their economy. So he ordered his army to capture oil fields, industries, and farmlands vital to the Soviet economy. The Germans tried to capture Stalingrad, but the Soviets held their ground. The Germans were surrounded and surrendered. The Battle of Stalingrad was a turning point in the war because it put the Germans on the defensive.
    • Turning Back the German Army •Why was the Battle of Stalingrad an important battle for the Allies? The Germans tried to capture Stalingrad, but the Soviets held their ground. The Germans surrendered. The Battle of Stalingrad was a turning point in the war because it put the Germans on the defensive.
    • • Use the Code Talkers Dictionary and create your own secret code. • Then try cracking Mr. Fuertsch’s code.
    • Quick Write 2-24-10 • Would you be willing to die for your country to fight in a battle to win a war? Now consider these things: • Your country has the ability to drop a bomb to end the fighting so you did not have to risk your life • This bomb however will kill hundreds of thousands of people
    • Striking Back at the Third Reich
    • Casablanca Conference • At the Casablanca Conference, Roosevelt and Churchill planned a wartime strategy that included increased bombing of Germany and an attack on Sicily. • The Allied invasion of France took place on June 6, 1944, which was known as D-Day • General MacArthur’s strategy involved taking back islands in the Pacific, one island at a time, to push back the Japanese.
    • Striking Back at the Third Reich • A. In January 1943, President Roosevelt met with Prime Minister Churchill to plan the next stage of war. During the Casablanca Conference, the decision was made to increase the bombing of Germany in an effort to destroy its military, industrial, and economic system and to hurt the German morale. They decided to attack the Axis on the island of Sicily.
    • Striking Back at the Third Reich • B. The new massive bombing campaign by the United States and Britain against Germany did not destroy the German economy or undermine its morale. However, the bombing caused a severe oil shortage and destroyed irreplaceable railroad and aircraft in Germany. As a result, Allies landing in France had total control of the air and could not be bombed.
    • Striking Back at the Third Reich • C. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was the overall commander of the invasion of Sicily, Italy.General Patton and British General Montgomery were in charge of the forces on the ground. • By August 18, Germans had evacuated the island. Mussolini was placed under arrest by the king of Italy. • On September 8, 1943, the Italian government announced Italy’s surrender. Hitler sent German troops to seize control of Italy and put Mussolini back in power. In May 1944, the Germans retreated.
    • Striking Back at the Third Reich • D. Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill met in Tehran, Iran, and reached several agreements about the plans for the rest of the war and after the war. Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill meet at Tehran.
    • Landing in France • A. Operation Overlord was the code name for the planned invasion of France by the Allies. General Eisenhower was selected to command the invasion. • B. The Allies had the advantage of surprise—the Germans did not know when or where they would strike. The Germans were fooled into thinking the attack would occur in Pas-de-Calais, when in fact the invasion was planned to take place in Normandy.
    • Landing in France • C. The date for the invasion became known as D-Day because Eisenhower’s planning staff referred to the day of any invasion with the letter D.
    • Landing in France • D. The invasion of Normandy began shortly after midnight on June 6, 1944. The Allied forces had little trouble capturing the Utah Beach and moving inland. • The American forces at Omaha Beach met intense German fire. • American commander General Omar Bradley planned an evacuation of Omaha Beach, but the American troops moved forward against the Germans. • The invasion succeeded. The goal was Cherbourg. Without Cherbourg the Allies could not land supplies.
    • The War Comes to an End
    • After D-Day June 6, 1944 • Although D-Day was a success ( in spite of the high casualty rate) it was only the beginning of the Allied march eastward towards Berlin, Germany. • It was not until August 25, 1944 that Paris was finally liberated. • The Germans were retreating.
    • Battle of the Bulge The Last German Offensive • Hitler made one last desperate attempt to cut off Allied supply lines in Belgium. • The fierce fighting began on Dec.16 and ended with over 100,000 German deaths in Jan. of 1945.
    • The Death of FDR • FDR died on April 12, 1945. • He did not live to see the end of the war though he knew the Allies were well on their way to victory. • Harry S. Truman is the new president.
    • The Death of Hitler • Berlin was surrounded by Soviet and Allied soldiers. • Deep in his bunker, Hitler knew the end was near. • On April 30, 1945, Hitler and his long-time companion and wife of one day Eva Braun committed suicide. • Eva Braun took a cyanide pill while Hitler took a pill and pulled the trigger of a pistol in his mouth.
    • Hitler’s Remains • Hitler had ordered his body to be doused in gasoline and burned. • The charred remains were found by the invading Soviets. • Hitler chose Admiral Karl Doenitz as his successor.
    • Hitler and Eva During Happier Times
    • V-E Day • On May 7,1945, Germany gave its unconditional surrender. • The next day, May 8, 1945 was proclaimed V-E Day for Victory in Europe.
    • Island Hopping Campaign • The U.S. fought Japan on numerous islands including Okinawa and Iwo Jima. • These islands were used to launch aerial assaults on Japan. • This is the award winning photo taken by Joe Rosenthal on Iwo Jima on Mt. Suribachi. • This was the first time an invaders flag flew over Japanese territory.
    • • On February 19, 1945, 60,000 American Marines landed on Iwo Jima, and 6,800 lost their lives before the island was captured.
    • • Japan refused to surrender. American military planners chose to invade Okinawa, 350 miles from Japan, to stockpile supplies and build up troops. On April 1, 1945, American troops landed on Okinawa. On June 22, 1945, Okinawa was captured with more than 12,000 American soldiers, sailors, and marines losing their lives.
    • U.S.S. Indianapolis • In July of 1945, the ship had delivered vital parts for the atomic bomb to a U.S base in Tinian. • She was attacked and sunk by a Japanese submarine
    • What’s So Special About the U.S.S. Indianapolis? • The ship sent distress signals which the Navy claims were never received. • The delay in the rescue led to the loss of hundred of sailors. • 300 men died in the attack while another 880 floated in the ocean for another four days. • They suffered from lack of food and water, exposure to the elements, severe desquamation, and did I mention shark attacks?
    • The Shark Attacks • The Discovery Channel has stated that the Indianapolis sinking resulted in the most shark attacks on humans in history. • The same show attributed most of the deaths on Indianapolis to exposure, salt poisoning and thirst, with the dead being dragged off by sharks.
    • The Manhattan Project • The U.S had a program code-named the MP led by Gen. Groves. • Groves organized a team of engineers and scientists to build an atomic bomb. • The secret laboratory was located in Los Alamos, New Mexico and was led by Robert Oppenheimer.
    • The Japanese Decision • As the allies fought an island hopping campaign across the Pacific, Truman was forced to consider all options. • Historians and military strategists still debate today over the options available to President Truman.
    • Three Options • A) Invade Japan with Allied troops; this would result in high deaths on both sides and an unknown timeline • B) Drop an atomic bomb out in the Pacific away from people to show Japan our military strength • C) Drop the bomb without warning to “shock” Japan into surrendering • D) We give the people of cities 24 hours notice, then we drop the bomb
    • So What Does the Bomb Do? • The atomic bombs were either uranium or plutonium based and involved fission (splitting atoms) or fusion (joining atomic nuclei). • The bombs are designed to be detonated about 1900ft. in the sky. • The explosions generated heat estimated at 3,900 degrees Celsius (7,000 degrees Fahrenheit) and winds that were estimated at 1005 km/h (624 mph) and extreme radiation.
    • Cut Away of ―Fat Man‖
    • Hiroshima • August 6,1945, the U.S. orders the dropping of a uranium- based bomb called “Little Boy” on Hiroshima. • B-29 Bomber “Enola Gay” • As many as 140,000 people died instantly • Thousands more died in the following weeks due to radiation exposure and extreme burns.
    • ―Little Boy‖
    • The Shockwave • It leveled the city • Few buildings were left standing
    • Survivor of Hiroshima
    • Nagasaki • On August 9, 1945, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. • This was a plutonium- based bomb called “Fat Man”. • Estimates are as high as 80,000 people killed instantly in this blast. • Since then, thousands more have died due to exposure to radiation(see atomic bomb pictures)
    • Damage Caused by the Flash of Heat • The heat generated over a few seconds caused terrible burns. The burns were fatal within a distance of 1.2 kilometers. • In the area near the hypo- center, the heat instantly carbonized human bodies and vaporized their internal fluids.
    • Atomic Shadows It is believed that a person sat down on the steps facing the direction of the hypocenter, possibly waiting for the bank to open. By a flash of the heat rays with temperatures up to 100 million degrees, that person was incinerated on the stone steps.
    • Atomic Shadows This photo shows the shadow made by the heat rays. This place is about 800 meters from the hypocenter, and the unshielded asphalt surface was scorched, whereas the surface shielded by the handrail appears to be a whitish shadow.
    • Soviets Declare War on Japan • On the same day as the bomb on Nagasaki, the Soviets declare war on Japan (bad day huh?) • Emperor Hirohito ordered his govt. to surrender. • V-J Day was August 15, 1945.
    • Famous V-J Day Photo
    • Formal Surrender • On September 2, 1945, Japan signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, which officially ended World War II. • Gen. MacArthur represented the U.S. aboard the U.S.S. Missouri.
    • Creating the United Nations • On April 25, 1945, representatives from 50 countries came to San Francisco to establish the United Nations Charter. • The UN would also have a Security Council with 11 members including 5 permanent members. • The 5 permanent members are Britain, France, Soviet Union, China, and the U.S. • Each permanent member has veto power.
    • The UN Building • There are currently 192 member states, including nearly every recognized independent state in the world. • The UN is located in New York City.
    • The UN Flag
    • Nuremberg Trials • In Nuremberg, Germany, the International Military Tribunal (IMT) tried German leaders suspected of committing war crimes. • Similar trials were also held in Tokyo, Japan against Japanese leaders. • Several military leaders were sentenced to death and many more were given prison sentences. Many others evaded capture and some committed suicide.
    • No Hitler, So Who was Next? • Hermann Göring, Commander of the Luftwaffe 1935-1945, Chief of the 4-Year Plan 1936- 1945, and several departments of the SS. Second only to Hitler in the Nazi hierarchy during the last years of the war. Committed suicide the night before his execution.
    • What About Hideki Tojo? • Tojo shot himself in the chest 4 times but survived. He had surgery in an American hospital. • He was later tried by the IMT. He was sentenced to death on 12 November 1948 and executed by hanging on 23 December 1948.
    • Final Numbers See pages 611 of your text.
    • Assignment 14: To Bomb or Not to Bomb • Write a 2 paragraph letter to President Truman encouraging him to bomb or not to bomb. • Use at least three arguments to back up your decision. When you mention an argument, underline or highlight it. • No text-speak. Write grammatically correct.