What do you think makes people want to come to the United States?
(on average we introduce 1.7 million new U.S. citizens a year)
The Cold War: Tensions & Conflicts War in Korea and Vietnam
General Douglas Macarthur The Korean War
To China it is:
"The War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea."
To the U.S. it is:
To Korea it is:
"Fatherland Liberation War"
Standoff at the 38 th parallel
June 35 th , 1950, The north Koreans swept across the 38 th parallel in a surprise attack against south Korea
President Truman was convinced that the north Korean aggressors were repeating what Hitler, Mussolini, and the Japanese had done in the 1930’s.
Standoff at the 38 th parallel
South Korea asked the United Nations to intervene
The soviets boycotted the Security Council to protest the seating of nationalist China (Taiwan) rather than mainland China and thus vetoing its right to appose the UN’s plan of action.
The UN’s plan was to send an international force to Korea to stop the invasion.
A total of 15 nations, including Britain and Canada, participated under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur.
September 1950, the North Koreas had managed to take control of the entire Korean peninsula except for a tiny area around Pusan in the far southeast.
A month later, MacArthur launched a surprise attack and the troops moving north from Pusan met up with forces that had made an amphibious landing at Inchon. About half the North Koreans were surrendered, and the rest retreated.
The fighting continues
Late November, UN troops had pushed the North Koreans almost to the Yalu River at the border with China.
October 1950, The Chinese felt threatened by the American fleet off their coast and sent 300,000 troops to aid North Korea, causing the fight between North and South Korea to become a war between China and America.
January1951, China had pushed all the UN troops as well as the South Korean troops out of North Korea.
General MacArthur then calls for a nuclear attack against the Chinese cities.
Truman disagreed, viewing Macarthur’s proposals as reckless. “We are trying to prevent a world war, not start one,” were is words as he tried to explain his reasoning.
MacArthur instead tried to go over Truman's head and took his case to Congress and the press. Truman fired him.
On July 1953, UN forces and North Korea signed a cease-fire agreement.
After 3 years of fighting, the border between North and South Korea still lay close to the 38 th parallel, where it was before the war started, and approximately 5 million soldiers and civilians had died.
DMZ= demilitarized zone
In July of 1953, the Korean War ended, in which over 54,000 Americans died.
Aftermath and Legacy
In North Korea, the Communist dictator Kim Il Sung established collective farms. Developed heavy industry, and built up the country’s military power.
After Kim Jong Il’s father died, he ascended to power and the country developed nuclear weapons.
Aftermath and Legacy
The country continues to struggle with shortages of energy and food.
1987, South Korea adopted a democratic constitution and established free elections.
Between the 1980’s and 1990’s South Korea claimed one of the highest economic growth rates in the world.
The Korean War: Concluding Video South Korean troops patrol along the DMZ .
Developing capitalist ideas
Now more of dictator leadership
Supposed to be socialist
Really a Stalinist like dictatorship
Is now a full democracy
One of the strongest economies in the world
The Vietnam War
War In Vietnam – The road to war
Nationalist independence movements had begun to develop in the part of French Indochina that is now Vietnam.
A young Vietnamese Nationalist, Ho Chi Minh, turned to the communists for help in his struggle.
During the 1930s, he inspired Vietnam’s growing nationalist movement from exile. He believed that independence would surly follow.
Ho Chi Minh
When he was young, the poor Vietnamese Nguyen That (uhng-wuhn that) Thanh worked as a cook on a French steamship. In visiting American cities where the boat docked, such as Boston and New York , he learned both about American culture and ideals.
He later took a new name – Ho chi minh, meaning “he who enlightens.” But her held onto those American ideals. Though a communist, in announcing Vietnam’s independence from France in 1945, he declared “all men are equal.”
His people revered him and fondly called him Uncle Ho. However, Ho Chi Minh did not put his democratic ideals into such practice. From 1954 to 1969, he ruled North Vietnam by crushing all opposition.
War breaks out
Vietnamese Nationalists and communists joined to fight the French armies.
There the vietminh had widespread peasant support. The Vietminh used hit-and-run tactics to confine the French to cities.
1954, the French suffered a major military defeat at Dien Bien Phu and the surrendered to Ho.
After Frances defeat, international peace conference met in Geneva to discuss the future of Indochina. Based on these talks, Vietnam was divided at the 17 north latitude.
The United States and France set up an anti-communist government and the leadership of Ngo Dinh Diem.
The Domino Theory
Once the French were defeated in Vietnam, the U.S. feared other nations in SE Asia would also fall to communism.
This fear came to be known by President Eisenhower as the Domino Theory .
Vietnam – a divided country
Ho Chi Minh began a popular program of land redistribution in the north.
Vietnamese opposition to Diem’s corrupt government grew and Communist guerrillas called Vietcong began to gain strength in the south.
Most were South Vietnamese who hated Diem. Gradually, the vietcong won control of large areas of the country side.
1963, backed by the United states, a group of South Vietnamese generals planned a coup.
The United states gets involved
Americans had been serving as advisors to the South Vietnamese since the late 1950’s
In august 1964, President Johnson told congress that North Vietnamese patrol boats had attacked two American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. As a result, congress authorized the president to send American troops into Vietnam.
By 1968 more than half a million solders were in Vietnam yet they faced to major difficulties:
They were fighting a guerilla war in unfamiliar jungle terrain
the South Vietnamese government they were defending was becoming steadily more unpopular.
For What It’s Worth Buffalo Springfield
There's something happening here What it is ain't exactly clear There's a man with a gun over there Telling me I got to beware I think it's time we stop, children, what's that sound Everybody look what's going down There's battle lines being drawn Nobody's right if everybody's wrong Young people speaking their minds Getting so much resistance from behind I think it's time we stop, hey, what's that sound Everybody look what's going down What a field-day for the heat A thousand people in the street Singing songs and carrying signs Mostly say, hooray for our side
It's time we stop, hey, what's that sound Everybody look what's going down Paranoia strikes deep Into your life it will creep It starts when you're always afraid You step out of line, the man come and take you away We better stop, hey, what's that sound Everybody look what's going down Stop, hey, what's that sound Everybody look what's going down Stop, now, what's that sound Everybody look what's going down Stop, children, what's that sound Everybody look what's going down
Fortunate Son Creedence Clearwater Revival
Some folks are born made to wave the flag, Ooh, theyre red, white and blue. And when the band plays hail to the chief, Ooh, they point the cannon at you, lord, It aint me, it aint me, I aint no senators son, son. It aint me, it aint me; I aint no fortunate one, no, Yeah! Some folks are born silver spoon in hand, Lord, dont they help themselves, oh. But when the taxman comes to the door, Lord, the house looks like a rummage sale, yes, It aint me, it aint me, I aint no millionaires son, no. It aint me, it aint me; I aint no fortunate one, no.
Some folks inherit star spangled eyes, Ooh, they send you down to war, lord, And when you ask them, how much should we give? Ooh, they only answer more! more! more! yoh, It aint me, it aint me, I aint no military son, son. It aint me, it aint me; I aint no fortunate one, one. It aint me, it aint me, I aint no fortunate one, no no no, It aint me, it aint me, I aint no fortunate son, no no no
Find the Cost of Freedom Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young
Daylight again, following me to bed I think about a hundred years ago, how my fathers bled I think I see a valley, covered with bones in blue All the brave soldiers that cannot get older been askin' after you Hear the past a callin', from Ar- -megeddon's side When everyone's talkin' and noone is listenin', how can we decide? (Do we) find the cost of freedom, buried in the ground Mother earth will swallow you, lay your body down Find the cost of freedom, buried in the ground Mother earth will swallow you, lay your body down (Find the cost of freedom buried in the ground)
The United States withdraws
Dissatisfied youth began to protest the tremendous loss of life in an unpopular conflict on the other side of the world.
President Nixon began withdrawing US troops from Vietnam in 1969 .
Nixon's plan was called Vietnamization. It allowed for US troops to gradually pull out while the South Vietnamese increased their combat role.
The president also authorized bombings in neighboring Laos and Cambodia to wipe out Vietcong hiding places.
The last forces left in 1973 and the North Vietnamese overran South Vietnam two years later
The communists renamed Saigon, the former capital of the South, Ho Chi Minh City to honor their dead leader.
More than 1.5 million Vietnamese and 58,000 Americans had died in the war
Officials sent thousands of people to “reeducation camps” for training in Communist thought. They nationalized industries and strictly controlled businesses.
Communist oppression also caused 1.5 million to flee from Vietnam.
About 70,000 Vietnamese refugees eventually settled in the United states or Canada
While the Cold war superpowers were struggling for power in the Korean and Vietnam wars. They also were using economic and diplomatic means to bring other countries under their control.