:Do you think a Military Draft is a good thing? Why or Why not?
11 th Grade History Project
Reminder: in your paper, I don’t want a biography about a person. I don’t want , “ Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929. He had six brothers and sisters. ”
The point of your paper, which you will explain throughout your paper, is WHY IS YOUR TOPIC IMPORTANT TO US HISTORY.
At the end of the paper, you will explain how your song relates to your topic.
Your Presentation Needs to Answer the Following Questions:
1. Why/How did your person/event impact United States history?
2. How is your visual a representation of that event?
3. How is your song connected to that event?
Vietnam: The End
When American troops first entered the Vietnam War, many Americans supported the military effort.
As the war drag on, public support decreased.
Americans began to question the government and believed a credibility gap had developed, making it difficult to believe what the Johnson administration said about the war.
5 page in-class Essay
Using Notes from your handout you must create a 5 page essay on the Vietnam War
Must cite your specific example
Must use both sides of the argument for being in the war
Take a stand on your view of the war
DUE IN 25 mins!!!!!
Protests on the War
As casualties mounted in the war, public protest intensified and demanded the U.S. pull out of Vietnam
Although some American’s supported the war, it was the opponents of the conflict that gained the most attention
Protests on the War
People who protested the war did so for different reasons
Some saw the conflict as a civil war the U.S. had no business being in
Others saw South Vietnam as a corrupt dictatorship
Teach-in’s: began in March of 1965 when a group of faculty members and students abandoned their classes to informally discuss the war and the reasons why we were there
Anger over the Draft
Young protestors focused on what they saw as a unfair draft system
At the beginning of the war college students were able to defer military service until after graduation
Thus low-income families were more likely to send boys to war instead of college
Anger over the Draft
This meant minorities, particularly African Americans made up a large number of the soldiers in Vietnam.
The high number of African Americans and poor Americans dying in the war angered African American leaders like Martin Luther King
King waited until 1967 to speak out against the war not wanting do distract from the Civil Rights Movement
Anger over the Draft
As the war escalated, American officials increased the draft call, putting many college students at risk
An estimated 500,000 draftees refused to go.
Many burned their draft cards or simply did not report when called
Some fled to other countries, such as Canada, Sweden,
Other chose prison rather than fight
Protests of the War
Demonstrators held public rallies and marches
Students for a Democratic Society SDS, organized a march on Washington D.C. which drew over 20,000 participants
Two years later a rally at Washington’s Lincoln Memorial drew tens of thousands
Draftable but can’t Vote?
Anger over the draft also fueled discussions over the voting age.
Many draftees argued that if they were old enough to be drafted, they should be old enough to vote
In, 1971 the 26 th Amendment would pass, giving all citizens age 18 and older the right to vote
Hawks and Doves
By 1968 the nation seemed to be divided into two camps:
those that opposed the war and wanted out of Vietnam were known as Doves
Those who insisted we stay and fight were known as hawks
(in a poll done in mid-1967 68% of American’s favored continuing the war)
1968: The Pivotal Year
The year 1968 began with a surprise attack by the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese army on numerous cities.
The simultaneous strikes, while ending in military defeat for the Communist guerillas, stunned the American public.
That same year Kennedy and MLK were assassinated
Both sides agreed to a truce to celebrate the New Year.
Vietcong launched major attacks on over 100 cities and 12 U.S. air bases that lasted 1 month
Militarily it was a defeat for the Vietcong. Psychologically defeat for the US
The credibility gap increased as the US continued to lose.
Turning Point in the 60s
After the Tet Offensive, support for the war decreases
Johnson tells the nation that he will not run for re-election
Nixon wins the election, promises to end War
Nixon in the White House
In 1969, Nixon announced the first U.S. troop withdrawals from Vietnam. However, as Nixon pulled out the troops, he continued the war against North Vietnam, a policy that some critics would charge prolonged the war for several more years…
Peace talks but no agreement who should rule Vietnam
Vietnamization - Nixon’s plan to end the war
Gradual withdrawal of US, S. Vietnam would take on more combat roles
“ Peace with Honor”-maintain US dignity during the withdrawal.
Nixon secretly ordered the bombing of Laos and Cambodia which held a number of Vietcong soldiers
In 1969 Americans learned of a 1968 event that further increased their feelings that this was a senseless war.
My Lai Massacre - US troops were ordered to find Vietcong in the village.
No Vietcong were found, troops shot 504 innocent people.
Questions: The My Lai Massacre
What difficulties did the US military face in Vietnam?
What two tactics used by the Vietcong seem to be most effective against the US?
What effect do these tactics have on the men of Charlie Company?
What are some injustices performed by the US military on the Vietnamese people?
Why was the occurrence at My Lai particularly bad?
2 paragraphs (five sentences each): Were the men of Charlie Company justified for how they acted at My Lai? Are they criminals, or victims of bad circumstances? Explain.
PBS My Lai Massacre0:10:00 – 0:50:00
Counter Culture Go To Counter Cultuer PPT
Do think that our current war in Iraq and Afghanistan has created a counter culture movement here in the U.S. against these wars?
Grade Level Project!!!
I must have your song choice by 5-18, next Tuesday or I will take 10 points off of your final score!!!
If you are doing a PowerPoint and even if you are not save all of your files in a new folder!
WHY? SO WHAT? If you do not
an you import a song, but it is not
in the folder, it will NOT play when
you present, so just save EVERYTHING YOU IN ONE PLACE
Project Due in 21 Days!
Nixon invades Cambodia
College students protest and held the nations 1st general student strike.
1.5 million students closed down 1,200 campuses
Kent State-students protesting the war and entrance into Cambodia
Guard sent in and killed 4 students
1970 Congress repealed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution due to Nixon’s escalation of the war
Pentagon Papers- Secret documents about the war.
Confirmed the gov. lied about the war
Showed plans to enter the war even though Johnson promised he would not
Never a plan to end the war as long as the North persisted
America Leaves in 1973
U.S. signed an “Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam”
U.S. to remove all troops
North could leave troops already in South
North Vietnam would resume war
No provision for POWs or MIAs
For America the war ends in 1973
Finally… a United Vietnam
Two more years of fighting continued.
North attacks and defeats the South. South’s capital of Saigon is renamed Ho Chi Minh City
Vietnam unified under Communism
3 million Vietnamese killed 58,000 Americans killed 300,000 wounded
$150 billions U.S. spend in funding the war
War changed attitudes about war
Draft was eliminated
War Powers Act - president informs Congress in 48 hours if sent into hostile areas without declaration of war
May not stay for more than 90 days unless Congress approves
This gave president a lot of military power (perhaps more than they should have)
2,583 American POWs / MIAs still unaccounted for today.
Lessons for Future Presidents
Wars must be of short duration.
Wars must yield few American casualties.
Restrict media access to battlefields.
Develop and maintain Congressional and public support.