Urbanization & political machine 2011Presentation Transcript
Do you think that progress is always for the good of society?
give an example to back up your claim
Melting pot: theory that US is a mixture of people of different cultures and races who blend together to become American.
Truth-many do not give up their customs
Might be more like a salad bowl
Anti-immigration feelings grow
Nativism-idea that native-born Americans are better
Xenophobia-fear of foreigners
Wanted immigration from the right countries: Britain, Germany, Scandinavia
Not wrong: Slav, Latin, Asian
Natives: Anglo Saxon and Protestant
New Immigrants: Jewish, Catholic, and Slav and Asian
Chinese look different: physical features, hair, dress
Feared they were taking jobs away from Native born Americans
1882 passed the Chinese Exclusion Act-banned all entry of Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials
1902-banned all Chinese immigration until 1943.
Asians went to segregated schools
1907-08 Gentlemen’s Agreement-limits Japanese immigration
Immigrants moved to the cities this produced urbanization: rapid growth of cities
People also moving from the country to cities
Row housing-houses built so that they are connected and share walls
Dumbbell houses-housing that is shaped like a dumbbell (includes air vents in the middle)
People use air vents to dump sewage
Crime increases (gangs)
Need public transportation for everyone
Horses create a mess in the street
10lbs of manure per horse per day
Create street cars and later subways for cities
Need clean drinking water
Trash is in the street
Not uncommon to see a dead horse in the street
Children play in the street
Start insisting on indoor plumbing
Water shortage, houses built together and of wood=big chance for a fire
Both Chicago and San Francisco had huge devastating fires
Settlement houses-community centers in slums that provide assistance, especially to immigrants.
Provided: educational, cultural, and social services
Jane Addams founded Hull house in Chicago
An important settlement house.
Women's Movement: worked for suffrage, temperance (no alcohol), insane, poor
E. C. Stanton/S. B. Anthony pushed for suffrage amendment
Lucy Stone pushed suffrage state by state
Wyoming: 1st state to allow women's voting
West more democratic: Colorado (1893), Idaho/Utah (1896)
Booker T. Washington : self-improvement before racial equality
Racism will end if African Americans prove useful to society
WEB Dubois: established NAACP for work for racial equality
Plessy v. Ferguson: established “separate but equal” clause in 1896
Made segregation legal
Jim Crow laws develop-separates public and private facilities
Political machine was an organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city
offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support.
Machine was run by a boss
It was like a pyramid
At the top was the city boss who controlled jobs in police, fire, and sanitation, and controlled the city government.
They tried to help immigrant problems and so won immigrant votes and loyalty.
It was like the mob
You had to go through the boss to get things in a city: new businesses, licenses, inspections, money for schools, hospitals, etc.
The machine then got paid for providing these governmental services
To keep the machine running they falsified elections
Put in names of dog, children, and dead people
Had more votes than registered voters
Machine would chose a worker that contracted for a government job, the worker would charge more than necessary and kick back a fee to the political machine
William “Boss” Tweed became one of the most powerful bosses
He headed Tammany Hall in New York
Democratic party in New York
Tweed-le-dee and Tilden-dum A Harper's Weekly cartoon depicts Tweed as a police officer saying to two boys, "If all the people want is to have somebody arrested, I'll have you plunderers convicted. You will be allowed to escape, nobody will be hurt, and then Tilden will go to the White House and I to Albany as Governor."
Tweed ring pocket $200 million from the city in kickbacks and payoffs