Had aspirations of becoming an architect before turning to politics
Decorated war veteran – medals for bravery
Events that led to the rise of Dictators
The Roaring 20’s
The 1920’s were a time of peace and great prosperity,
From 1921 to 1929, the Dow Jones rocketed from 60 to 400!
Millionaires were created instantly.
Soon stock market trading became America’s favorite pastime as investors jockeyed to make a quick killing.
it was the Bee’s Knees!
1920’s Has a Crash!!!
Everyone was investing
People had disposable income
Everyone invested in the Stock Market, even the butlers
… then it all fell apart
The stock market crashed!
The term fascism comes from the Latin word ‘fasces’ (a bodyguard’s axe), which was an ancient Roman symbol of authority containing a bundle of rods and an axe.
The fasces-symbol became to fascists what the Swastika was to the Nazis.
What is Fascism?
"Either the government will be given to us or we shall seize it by marching on Rome."
October 1922 Mussolini and 30,000 Fascist marched on Rome
Demanded the King put Mussolini in charge of the government
1922 March on Rome
October 1922 the King of Italy gave into Mussolini and the Blackshirts.
Fascism was made the official government of Italy, and Mussolini was named “Il Duce” or head of state.
Promised to rebuild Italy and recreate the Roman Empire
Victor Emmanuel III Benito “Il Duce” Mussolini
Democracy was eliminated
Mussolini’s political enemies were jailed
Failure in controlling the Italian economy
Mussolini was jealous of British and French colonies in Africa
Ordered in invasion of Ethiopia in 1935
The Ethiopian President appealed for support from the League of Nations.
The League condemned the invasion, but did nothing else.
Vive Roma! A New Roman Empire
The Rise of Dictators The Rise of Ducktators
Who created it?: Benito Mussolini
What are their beliefs?: A totalitarian, ultra-nationalist, anti-communist and anti-liberalism political movement.
The state is more important than the individual.
Where did it start?: Italy
When did it start?: 1919
Marxism was regarded as the enemy because it promoted class struggle and the rise of the proletariat or laborers.
Fascists felt that this class-division would weaken the state
Felt that each class had their own place and special role in society
Why hate Commies?
The Fascisti formed armed squads of war veterans called Blackshirts (or squadristi ) to terrorize socialists, anarchists, and communists. The government rarely interfered .
Who created it?:
What are their beliefs?:
A totalitarian, nationalist, anti-communist and anti-liberalism political movement.
Where and when did it start?:
Why was it popular?
Italy’s former government was unable to solve the economic problems after WWI. They were seen as weak and ineffectual .
Nazi’s take hold of Germany
Their symbol was the Swastika, an ancient cross with the arms bent at right angles in the middle found in ancient China, Egypt and India. It was also used by Native Americans as well as early Christians. The Nazi’s adopted this cross when they mistakenly thought it was an Aryan symbol.
Influenced Hitler to start the Fascist movement in Germany
Hitler modeled economic and political policies after him
Hitler emulated Mussolini’s “March on Rome” with his “Campaign in Berlin”
Inspired by Mussolini’s takeover of Italy, Hitler and the Nazis planned to take over Munich
Hitler was arrested
Wrote Mein Kampf while in prison – set forth his beliefs and goals for Germany,
Out raged at the Treaty of Versailles
Aryans were the master race
Jews, Slavs, and Gypsies are inferior
Written while Hitler was in prison for trying to overtake Munich (1925)
Describes “Aryans” (whom Hitler incorrectly identified as being German) as a “Master Race”
Stated that Germany was overcrowded and would attain more living space (lebensraum) by invading and conquering Eastern Europe and Russia
Extracts from 'Mein Kampf' on racial purity: 'The stronger must dominate and not mate with the weaker, which would signify the sacrifice of its own higher culture'. Extracts from 'Mein Kampf' on the Jews: 'If the Jews were the only people in the world they would be wallowing in filth and mire and would exploit one another and try to exterminate one another in a bitter struggle, which shows in itself in their cowardly spirit … The black haired Jewish youth lies in wait for hours on end, satanically glaring at and spying on the unsuspicious girl whom he plans to seduce, adulterating her blood…' Extracts from 'Mein Kampf' on the mentally and physically disabled: 'Those who are physically and mentally unhealthy and unfit must not perpetuate their own suffering in their bodies of their children…' Extracts from 'Mein Kampf' on democracy: 'Democracy as practiced in Western Europe today, is the forerunner of Marxism [Communism] … By the introduction of parliamentary democracy an abortion of filth and fire was created…'
Hitler revives the Nazi Party after leaving prison, but is largely ignored until Germany’s economic collapse Germans turned to Hitler for leadership, hoping for security Der Führer (the leader) of the Nazi party January 1933: Hitler named Chancellor Hitler calls for new elections; blames Parliament fire on Communists; wins majority vote Hitler bans all other political parties and has opponents arrested The Schutzstaffel (SS) are created Strikes, labor unions outlawed; gov’t takes over businesses Uses Propaganda, fear, book burning, and indoctrination to gain popular support
By 1933 however Hitler was the chancellor of Germany.
The Nazi’s had risen from obscurity to power, total power.
Storm troopers intimidated voters into giving Hitler dictatorial powers.
National Socialist German Workers’ Party, Nazi for short
German fascist movement
not only extremely anti-communist, but also very anti-Semitic.
Set up a private militia called storm troopers or Brown Shirts (secret police)
Storm Troopers: called "brownshirts" for the color of their uniforms; specialist military troops used in Hitler’s rise to power The SS: an elite, black-uniformed military police unit; replaced the Storm Troopers; guilty for the worst of the human atrocities of the war. Gestapo: official secret police of Nazi Germany
Schoolboys aged 10-18 years old were required to join the Hitler Youth (the League of German Girls for females)
It was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party
many HJ activities closely resembled military training, with weapons training, assault course circuits and basic tactics. Some cruelty by the older boys toward the younger ones was tolerated and even encouraged, since it was believed this would weed out the unfit and harden the rest.
The HJ wore uniforms very like those of the Storm Troopers, with similar ranks and insignia.
German totalitarianism included the censorship of every aspect of social life
News, Radio, Film, Literature, Painting were all used as methods of propaganda.
Books that didn’t conform to Nazi ideals were burned in huge bonfires
Churches were forbidden to criticize the Nazi government.
Emperor Hirohito- a figure head
Difficult economic times in Japan after World War I undermined the country’s political system.
Military leaders take control of country
Want to solve economic problems through foreign expansion
Japan has investments in Manchuria, Chinese province
In 1931, Japanese army seizes Manchuria
League of Nation Protests action; Japan withdraws from League