"If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union.” – Abraham Lincoln
Southerners frustrated with Republicans running their states, they organized secret societies to undermine their rule.
The largest group was the Ku Klux Klan. Created in 1866 by former Confederate soldiers in Tennessee. Hooded, white-robed Klan members rode in bands at night terrorizing African-Americans, White Republicans, and teachers in African American Schools
Most tenant farmers ended up becoming sharecroppers.
They paid a share of their crops to cover their rent and farming costs.
Although sharecropping allowed African American farmers to control their own work schedule and working conditions, it also trapped them in poverty because they could not make enough money to pay off their debts and buy their own land.
Disenfranchisement- To deny privileges, protection, and especially the right to vote
Poll Taxes- Tax paid if you wanted to vote. Many African Americans could not afford to pay this tax
Literacy Tests- A test was given in order to register to vote. These tests were designed to make anyone fail if they wanted them to.
Grandfather Clauses- Since the imposition of those requirements also could impact the number of poor whites voting, Southern legislatures introduced the “grandfather clause," which exempted voters from the restrictions if their grandfathers had voted. This clearly eliminated the blacks.
Literacy tests were used to keep people of color -- and sometimes poor whites --from voting. They were administered at the discretion of the officials in charge of voter registration. If the official wanted a person to pass, he could ask the easiest question on the test – for example, "Who is the president of the United States?"
The same official might require a black person to answer every single question correctly, in an unrealistic amount of time, in order to pass.