Progressive movement 2011.pptx


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Progressive movement 2011.pptx

  1. 1. <ul><li>Why do you think people crave freedom, but get mad when people abuse their freedom? </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Mark Twain called this era the “Gilded Age” </li></ul><ul><li>(gilded) means plated, so some that is made to look expensive and nice, but really is not </li></ul><ul><li>An alarm that beneath the surface lay corruption </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Population boom </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Urban Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption in Government </li></ul><ul><li>New needs of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens demanding more rights </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Not an organized movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A collection of different ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Believed industrialization and urbanization had created many social problems </li></ul><ul><li>Partially a reaction to “Laize-Faire”- (hands off) approach </li></ul><ul><li>People wanted the government to do more </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Wanted political power given back to people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative—people propose legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referendum—people vote on legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall—people can remove elected officials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desire to decrease corruption </li></ul><ul><li>(Political Machines) </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>The movement focused on applying moral principles to the improvement of industrialized society </li></ul><ul><li>particularly to reforms such as the abolition of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>child labor, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a shorter workweek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>factory regulation.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Idea that biblical ideas could improve cities and industries </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>“ That danger, as we saw in our brief sketch of the industrial revolution, was immediately realized in the most sweeping measure. The people lost control of the tools of industry more completely than they ever lost control of the land. Under the old system the workman owned the simple tools of his trade. To-day the working people have no part nor lot in the machines with which they work. In capitalistic production there is a cooperation between two distinct groups: a small group which owns all the material factors of land and machinery; a large group which owns nothing but the personal factor of human labor power. In this process of cooperation the propertyless group is at a fearful disadvantage.” </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Willing to expose corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Journalists: Term coined by </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>Among the first to call for action </li></ul><ul><li>Some reported on unfair business practices </li></ul><ul><li>Others reported on government and political machines </li></ul><ul><li>Still others focused on society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty, disease, and crime </li></ul></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Meant to show the harsh tones of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>poverty, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>absence of social programs, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unpleasant living and working conditions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and hopelessness among the working class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instead, it lead to a public outcry on the unsanitary conditions of the meat packing industry </li></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>Woman Suffrage was an important issue for progressives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffrage is the right to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early suffragists were accused of being unfeminine and immoral </li></ul><ul><li>Even physically attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Form the National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA) </li></ul><ul><li>The big problem: How to convince women to become politically active? </li></ul>
  11. 18. <ul><li>In 1919, NAWSA used it’s influence to defeat two anti-suffrage Senators </li></ul><ul><li>The following year, the 19 th Amendment passed, guaranteeing women the right to vote </li></ul>
  12. 19. <ul><li>Campaign Against Child Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Most emotional issue </li></ul><ul><li>Children had worked on family farms </li></ul><ul><li>Factory work was different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monotonous tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unhealthy working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1900 there were 1.7 Million Children working under the age of 16 (Newsies) </li></ul>
  13. 21. <ul><li>Muckraker John Spargo’s Book The Bitter Cry of Children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>showed how thousands of “breaker boys” 9-10, were paid 60 cents for a 10 hour day to sling coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The work permanently bent their backs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often crippled their hands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reports such as this created new changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum working age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required children to be in school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum work hours for children </li></ul></ul>
  14. 22. <ul><li>Health and Safety Codes </li></ul><ul><li>Adult workers faced difficult and dangerous working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed 150 women from doors that wouldn’t open </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protests led to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New building codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with fire hazards, unsafe machinery, and working conditions </li></ul></ul>Factory Floor Work Stations Examining the Bodies Political Cartoon
  15. 24. <ul><li>Felt wealth was in the hands to too few people </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly trusts and big holding companies (Rockfeller) </li></ul><ul><li>Created the Sherman Anti-Trust Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break up big companies to restore competition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interstate Commerce Commission: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New government agency to watch big business </li></ul></ul>
  16. 25. <ul><li>Socialism : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea that the government should own and operate industry for the community as a whole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wanted the government to buy up large companies and industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads and utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At its peak even had candidate run for president in 1912 for the Socialist Party </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to today… </li></ul>
  17. 26. “ The rich should act as a steward (supervisor) to the poor.” –Andrew Carnegie Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why?
  18. 27. <ul><li>Short lived movement against banks, railroads, and elites </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers in crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Overproduction from Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>had left prices too low to survive </li></ul><ul><li>Two party system couldn’t solve </li></ul><ul><li>the nation’s problems </li></ul>
  19. 28. <ul><li>Farmer’s embraced populism, a movement to increase the farmer’s political power </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers banned together to create the people’s party </li></ul><ul><li>Nation found itself in bigger trouble when the railroads collapsed and defaulted on their loans </li></ul>
  20. 29. <ul><li>Nation was in debt and needed a way out </li></ul><ul><li>Populists suggested using silver to back the nations economy </li></ul><ul><li>However, as the depression faded and gold was discovered in Ca the movement faded </li></ul><ul><li>So did the populist party with little success at changing the strong industrial North </li></ul>
  21. 30. <ul><li>There were many different types of progressives </li></ul><ul><li>One group focus on the making government more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>They believe that if the government could run worked properly, problems in society would be fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that modern cities needed experts, not politicians </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted LESS democracy, democracy=corruption </li></ul>
  22. 31. <ul><li>Not everyone agreed that society needed less democracy </li></ul><ul><li>What they needed was to be informed </li></ul><ul><li>Before the parties had chosen the candidates, </li></ul>
  23. 32. <ul><li>Hold direct primaries, where the people pick the candidates </li></ul><ul><li>“ Democracy is based upon knowledge…the only way to beat the boss…is to keep the people informed” </li></ul>
  24. 33. <ul><li>Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>Taft </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson </li></ul>
  25. 34. <ul><li>Trustbuster- believed some trusts were hurting the public </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to supervise big business without destroying it </li></ul>
  26. 35. <ul><li>Established Department of Commerce and Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Under Roosevelt’s presidency, Congress gave the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission the power to enforce regulation of railroad rates </li></ul><ul><li>Ordered break-up of Northern Securities Trusts </li></ul>
  27. 36. <ul><li>One of first presidents to protect environment </li></ul><ul><li>Laws to irrigate deserts and reserve forest land </li></ul><ul><li>Established National Parks </li></ul>
  28. 37. Crater Lake, Oregon Wind Cave, South Dakota Mesa Verde, Colorado Yosemite, CA National Parks Conserved by Roosevelt
  29. 38. <ul><li>Re-elected in 1904 </li></ul><ul><li>In 1908, Roosevelt hand-picked Taft as his successor </li></ul><ul><li>Legacies of Roosevelt: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased power and prestige of presidency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set rates and regulations for the railroad industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture Department  Public Health Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Trust lawsuits under the Expedition Act </li></ul></ul>
  30. 39. <ul><li>Lacked personality compared to Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>Really wanted to keep the “status quo” </li></ul><ul><li>Busted more trusts than Roosevelt </li></ul>
  31. 40. <ul><li>Trustbuster- Standard Oil in 1911 </li></ul><ul><li>Created the Children’s Bureau  child labor </li></ul><ul><li>Conservationist: forests and water </li></ul>
  32. 41. <ul><li>William Howard TAFT was the largest U.S. President. </li></ul><ul><li>7′ long and 41″ wide. </li></ul><ul><li>Replica of his custom bathtub </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For a reference as to the scale, (10 yr old boy in background) </li></ul></ul>Fun Taft Fact
  33. 43. <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson was elected in 1912 </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to regulate trusts so small business could thrive </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted more competition in economy— New Freedom Program </li></ul><ul><li>Called for assault on tariffs, banks and trusts </li></ul>
  34. 44. <ul><li>Passed Underwood Tariff Bill—dramatic reduction in rates </li></ul><ul><li>Also began collecting income tax </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to equalize wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Tax money now larger source of income than tariffs </li></ul>
  35. 45. <ul><li>Wanted banks to end its monopoly and to be able to put more currency in market when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>1913 Federal Reserve Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created Federal Reserve Board—oversees regional reserve districts and banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each bank empowered to issue paper money if necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important piece of economic legislation between Civil War and New Deal </li></ul></ul>
  36. 46. <ul><li>1914 Federal Trade Commission Act— outlawed unfair trade practices </li></ul><ul><li>1914 Clayton Anti-Trust Act , made sure labor unions weren’t being prosecuted </li></ul>
  37. 47. <ul><li>Progressivism changed the view many people had about government’s role on social issues </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the progressive era American’s expected the government to do more in solving our problems </li></ul>
  38. 48. <ul><li>Passed laws to protect workers and work against child labor </li></ul><ul><li>Did not address the issues of African Americans and religion </li></ul>
  39. 49. <ul><li>16 th  allows Congress to charge an income tax without regard to the States </li></ul><ul><li>17 th  Amendment provides for the direct election of Senators by the people of a state rather than their election or appointment by a state legislature. </li></ul><ul><li>18 th  Prohibiting the sale of alcohol  Prohibition </li></ul><ul><li>19 th  Gave women the right to vote </li></ul>
  40. 51. <ul><li>1. How might a modern day progressive deal with the issue of ________? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(pick 1: Health Care, Drugs, Crime, Executive Bonuses) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. How are modern companies becoming more efficient? </li></ul><ul><li>(Give me 2 examples and explain HOW they increase efficiency) </li></ul><ul><li>3. What are you prohibited from doing at home? At school? By law? </li></ul><ul><li>(Give me 2 examples of each & tell me WHY do you think they are prohibited?) </li></ul><ul><li>4. A. What is a political initiative? </li></ul><ul><li>B. What does it mean to take initiative in a situation? (answer the 2 questions) </li></ul>