Do you think states should have the right to nullify or declare not valid laws that the federal government makes?
Common American idea that the nation was meant to spread to the Pacific.
"...It is confidently believed that our system may be safely extended to the utmost bounds of our territorial limits, and that as it shall be extended the bonds of our Union, so far from being weakened, will become stronger..."
~ From the inaugural address of James K. Polk, 11th President (1845-49)
Under Jefferson the size of the country increased considerably
And the Jackpot Louisiana Purchase
4/30/1803- Congress overwhelmingly approved
US paid $11.25 million and almost doubled its size
828,000 square miles
Less than 3 cents per acre
Florida was a source of frustration for Southerners
Slaves would run away and hide in Florida
Spain was unable to control border
Jackson sent troops in
Under pressure, Spain ceded all of Florida
Concerns about Russia’s growing interest in the American Northwest.
In 1821 Russia had announced that its empire extended south from Alaska to Oregon Territory
Monroe Doctrine- Monroe decided to issue a statement (1823), declaring that the American continents should no longer be viewed as open to colonization
Missouri is Stirring Up Trouble
The matter of statehood for Missouri stirred up disagreements
1819 the Union consisted of
11 free and 11 slave states.
Admitting any new state would upset the balance of political power in the Senate
Maine wanted in too, but as a free state
So a year after Missouri requested admission as a slave state they both were let in
Senate agreed that there could be no more slave states in Louisiana Territory
This issue over Missouri was a sign of the divisions between the N and S
Had our eyes set on California and Oregon even though other nations had partial claims to it
Remember Manifest Destiny
We add 5 More States in 1845
Andrew Jackson leads America on its quest to dominate the land out west
Under Jackson, America passes the Indian Removal Act
Entire tribes are up rooted and moved West to reservations, either by choice or by force
We add more states in 1845
Trail of Tears
The nation was pushing west. Land and other resources were vital, but Indians owned the land and stood in the way.
In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma.
The Cherokee people called this journey the "Trail of Tears," because of its devastating effects.
The migrants faced hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march. Over 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokees died.
Trail of Tears
"I have no motive, my friends, to deceive you. I am sincerely desirous to promote your welfare. Listen to me, therefore, while I tell you that you cannot remain where you are now. It is impossible that you can flourish in the midst of a civilized community. You have but one remedy in your reach. And that is to remove to the West and join your countrymen."
President Andrew Jackson, Washington, 1835, addressing Cherokee delegation
"Whole nations melt away like snowballs in the sun. The White men have surrounded us, leaving only a little spot of ground to stand upon, and it seems to be their intention to destroy us as a Nation." Chief Dragging Canoe, The Trail of Tears Cherokee Legacy , Rich-Heape Films, 2006
"I fought through the Civil War and have seen men shot to pieces and slaughtered by thousands, but the Cherokee removal was the cruelest work I ever knew." Georgia militiaman, Jahoda, 1939
Along with Jackson’s push to move out the Indians, Jackson moved in a number of good friends, to the government
He practiced the spoils system, appointing people to jobs based on loyalty
However, Jackson would have to turn his attention to a national crisis
South Carolina depended on many of its manufactured goods coming from England
The United States had just passed a new tax making these goods almost unaffordable
Vice President John C. Calhoun, who was from South Carolina tried to find a way for his state to avoid this tax
Calhoun put forth the idea of nullification
Nullification basically allows a state to declare a federal law null or not valid
This nullification issue would only grow when a second tax was passed
Carolina had threaten to secede from the Union
Jackson even sent a warship to Charleston
War With Mexico
Mexico is outraged that Texas joins the Union
Before war was declared settlers in Northern CA began an uprising against Mexico
On June 14,1846 they declared CA independent and renamed the region the Bear Flag Republic
Within a month American navy forces arrived to occupy ports of San Francisco & San Diego
Claimed the Republic for the US
After refusing to give up, Mexico finally surrendered in 1848 (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)
Gained 500,000 square miles
7 new states added: CA, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming
BAD for them GOOD for us
More Land, More issues
The delicate balance of states rights and the balance between free states and slave states was quickly coming to head
Civil War was almost around the corner
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