European imperialism


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European imperialism

  1. 1. European Imperialism in the 19th Century
  2. 2.  Imperialism: The economic and political control of a weaker nation by a stronger nation.
  3. 3.  Africa, South East Asia, Eurasia
  4. 4. 1. Money, specifically raw materials 2. Racism – Social Darwinism and Eugenics 3. Nationalism 4. Spreading Christianity
  5. 5.  Better weapons  More money  More stable politically
  6. 6.  European countries got together to
  7. 7. Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child.
  8. 8. Form Definition Example Colony A country or territory governed internally by a foreign power Somaliland in East Africa was a French colony. Protectorate A country or territory with it’s own internal government but under the control of an outside power Britain established a protectorate over the Niger River delta. Sphere of Influence An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges Liberia was under the sphere of influence of the United States Economic Imperialism An independent but less-developed counter controlled by private business interests rather than governments The Dole Fruit company controlled pineapple trade in Hawaii
  9. 9. Indirect Control Direct Control • Local government officials used • Limited self-rule • Goal: to develop future leaders • Government institutions are based on European styles but may have local rules • EXAMPLE: U.S. colonies on Pacific Islands • Foreign officials brought into rule (paternalism) • No self-rule • Goal: Assimilation • Government institutions are based only on European styles. • EXAMPLE: Portuguese colonies, such as Angola
  10. 10.  Geopolitics: An interest in or taking land for its strategic location or products.
  11. 11.  The class will be divided into groups of four or five students (depending on the size of the class). You must work together as a team to achieve your goal.  Your mission: WORLD DOMINATION!WORLD DOMINATION!
  12. 12. Australia New Zealand
  13. 13. Indonesia  The Dutch East India Company actively sought land in Southeast Asia for oil, tin, and rubber.  Eventually they took over all of Indonesia and renamed it the Dutch East Indies.  They created a strict social structure, with the Dutch on top of the social ladder, wealthy and educated Indonesians next, and plantation workers at the bottom.
  14. 14. Singapore  Britain takes over the Malay Peninsula and modern day Singapore  The trade of rubber, tin, and oil made Singapore one of the world’s busiest ports  Britain gained colonies in Malaysia and Burma (modern day Myanmar), rich in tin and rubber.  The British persuaded Chinese settlers to migrate to Malaysia to work the mines and rubber trees, soon making the Malays a minority in their own country.
  15. 15. Siam - Thailand  Siam was able to keep its independence throughout the colonial period  They acted as a neutral zone between their two neighbors – French Indochina and British- controlled Burma.  They reformed their education, legal, and transportation systems and escaped much of the turmoil of the colonies surrounding them.
  16. 16. The Philippines  America gains the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico as a result of the Spanish- American War.  Most Americans were wary of imperialism, but were swayed by the prospect of Christianizing the new territories.  The Filipinos fought for their independence, and although they lost, the US prepared them for self-rule.
  17. 17. Welcome to Hawai’i
  18. 18. Old Hawai’i  Hawaiian society was a highly stratified system with strictly maintained castes. Each caste had its assigned tasks and responsibilities.   Not until 1810 was there a single king over all Hawaii with the reign of Kamehameha.  Before then, there were a number of small kingdoms that divided the islands and were often at war with each other.
  19. 19. Europeans Discover Hawai’i  Modern Hawaiian history begins on January 20, 1778, when Captain James Cook's expedition made its first contact with the Hawaiian people on the islands of Kauai and Niihau.  Captain Cook was not the first man to "discover" the Hawaiian Islands.  He was the first known European to arrive.
  20. 20. King Kamehameha  Various kings had attempted to unite the entire island chain under one command  After taking control of the Big Island of Hawai’I, he moved through Maui, Lanai, Molokai, and O’ahu.
  21. 21. The Last Monarch: Queen Lili'uokalani  Rivalry was intense between white businessmen who dominated the economy and native politicians who still retained the power to get things accomplished.  Lili'uokalani looked to create a new constitution which would restore the power of the monarchy.  A Committee of Safety was formed by prominent annexationists.  They took it upon themselves to create a provisional government and a militia.  The Queen could have declared martial law and arrested the conspirators, but she felt that this would begin armed conflict which would result in loss of innocent lives.
  22. 22.  The Committee of Safety then made its move and armed companies of militia took over government buildings and offices.  The evening before, marines and sailors from the U.S.S. Boston were landed to keep order in Honolulu and their commander, Captain G.C. Wiltse, openly supported the Provisionals.  The Queen was powerless.  Finally on January 17, 1893, the Queen faced the inevitable and surrendered under protest.
  23. 23. The Hula  Early missionaries disliked the hula they saw.  The sight of scantily clad women moving in rhythm to poetry offended their puritan ethics and they made strenuous efforts to abolish this aspect of ancient Hawaiian culture.
  24. 24. Surfing  Royalty used surfing as a means of maintaining their strength, liveliness and authority over their people. Only the elite class was allowed to use certain materials and wood for their boards resulting in a superior quality board, which separated the royalty from the commoners.  Duke Kahanamoku is singularly credited with popularizing surfing world- wide during the 1920s
  25. 25. Imperialism Hits China The Boxer Rebellion
  26. 26. Opium  It contains up to 12% morphine, an opiate alkaloid, which is most frequently processed chemically to produce heroin for the illegal drug trade. The resin also includes codeine and non-narcotic alkaloids.
  27. 27. Boxer Rebellion  A violent anti-foreign, anti-Christian movement by the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists in China  Occurred in response to imperialist expansion, growth of cosmopolitan influences, and missionary evangelism, and against the backdrop of state fiscal crisis and natural disasters.
  28. 28. British East India Company  Traded mainly in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpeter, tea, and opium.  Came to rule large swathes of India, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions, to the exclusion, gradually, of its commercial pursuits
  29. 29. Sepoy Mutiny  A native of India; a soldier allied to a European power.  The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of British East India Company's army
  30. 30. Indian Servitude