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Day 2 Cold War Competition
 

Day 2 Cold War Competition

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  • The Soviet Union suffered an estimated 25 million WWII deaths, half of whom were civilian As a result they felt justified in their claim to Eastern Europe Furthermore, they felt they needed Eastern Europe as a buffer against future German aggression
  • the FBI along with British intelligence began questioning Fuchs in 1949. He ultimately confessed and was convicted of espionage in a two-day trial. He spent fourteen years in Wormwood Scrubbs prison. After his release, he moved to East Germany.

Day 2 Cold War Competition Day 2 Cold War Competition Presentation Transcript

  • What are some ways that countries compete with each other? Unit: The Cold War Cold War Competition
  • Cold War Competition
    • Harry Truman Joseph Stalin
    The Cold War rivalry between the two superpower unfolded into multiple arenas: military, espionage, sports industrial, and technological developments Cold War Competition
    • World’s Nations grouped politically into 3 groups:
    • 1. Industrialized
    • Capitalist nations
    • 2. Communist nations
    • 3. Developing
    • nations-not aligned with the first two
    Setting the Stage
    • The U.S. and Russia used variety of techniques to gain influence around the world
    • CIA and KGB used covert secret activities such as spying and assassination attempts as well as gave aid and helped develop nations
    Cold War Strategies
    • Foreign Aid
    • Propaganda
    • Espionage
    • Brinkmanship
    • Multinational Alliances
    • Proxy Wars
    Major Strategies
    • 1948- Berlin Airlift
    • 1949- China
    • 1950- Korean War
    • 1951- Arms Race
    • 1957-Space Race
    • 1959- Cuba
    • 1960- U-2 Spy Plane
    • 1961- Berlin Wall
    • 1964- Vietnam War
    Major Events of the Cold War
    • Stalin installed “satellite” communist governments in the Eastern European countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and East Germany.
    • Because of Stalin’s influence in these regions Europe countries were caught in a tug of war between democracy and communism
    In a 1946 speech, Stalin said communism and capitalism were incompatible – and another war was inevitable Competition: Influence in Europe
    • NATO
    • Warsaw Pact
    Two sides of Cold War
    • What was the goal of NATO?
    Checking for Understanding
    • To stop the spread of communism
    • Berlin Airlift
    • Soviet Union blocked access to West Berlin hoping to force West Berlin to become Communist.
    • The Airlift was an issue of American integrity and an exercise of it's Airforce might. The Airlift helped solidify America as an emerging super power in the 1940's.
    Competition: Who gets Berlin?
    • Soviet-Communist ideology inspired China, Communist forces and Nationalist forces had been battling since the late 1920s, led by Mao.
    • The United States was backing the Nationalist forces.
    • The two had stopped their war during World War II in an effort to resist Japanese occupation. With the end of World War II, civil war broke out again.
    • The Nationalists were defeated causing the United States to stop sending aid. In October 1949, Communists set up the People’s Republic of China.
    Competition: Influence in China
  • Competition: Influence in Korea
  • Where is Korea?
    • Keeping in line with Truman’s Doctrine of Containment, Korea split at the 38 th Parallel with a Communist North and a Democratic South.
    • By 1949, the Soviet Union had withdrawn from North Korea, but had generously supplied the North Korean army with tanks, airplanes, and MONEY, encouraging them to take over South Korea.
    • The Russian hope… The U.S. won’t defend the South Koreans. (They were wrong)
    Containment USSR- Stalin China- Mao N. Korea-Il Sung http:// www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/ushistory/koreanwar /
    • On June 25, North Korean communist forces cross the 38th parallel and invade South Korea.
    • On June 27, Truman orders U.S. forces to assist the South Koreans while the U.N. Security Council condemns the invasion
    • On Sept.15 1950, MacArthur ordered a daring invasion behind enemy lines
    Korean War 1950-1953
    • China, feeling threatened, sends over a huge army (about 300,000 men) greatly outnumbering the United States and United Nation forces.
    • MacArthur’s idea… Nuclear weapons on the Chinese armies.
    • Truman says NO!
    • Why do you think he would say no?
    China Enters the War No one embarrasses me!!
    • MacArthur doesn’t like being told no. He goes to Congress and the press to try to win support for his strategy.
    • What is the big problem here?
    • Just one problem… He forgot
    • who his boss was.
    • What do you think is going to happen to MacArthur?
    You better check yourself! Wipe that smile off your face! Have you forgotten who I am?
  • You're FIRED!
    • Stalemate ensues for the next 2 years.
    • After 5 million soldiers and civilians are dead, at the peace table the boundary lines were set almost where the war started.
    • Eisenhower hinted about possibly using a Nuclear attack– China and Korea were scared ( brinkmanship )
    • In July of 1953, an armistice (cease fire) was signed.
    • Today Korea is still divided at the 38 th parallel with communist N. Korea and a democratic S. Korea.
    • The United States still maintains an army of 40,000 to this day in South Korea to keep the peace.
    Korean War Ends
    • What was a cause of the Korean War?
    Checking for Understanding
    • Communist North Korea (backed by USSR) invade South Korea
    • Why was MacArthur fired?
    Checking for Understanding
    • For subordination, not listening to the President (Truman)
    • What is brinkmanship?
    Checking for Understanding
    • The willingness to go to the brink of war to force an opponent to back down
    • Soviets tested their first atomic bomb in 1949
    • US Test the new more powerful H-Bomb in 1952
    • Soviets Test their own H-Bomb 1953
    • The Competition continued…
    • The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States allies, the Soviet Army and their respective allies during the Cold War.
    • During the Cold War, in addition to the American and Soviet nuclear stockpiles, other countries also developed nuclear weapons
    Competition: Arms Race
    • 4 major types of
    • nuclear testing:
    • 1. atmospheric,
    • 2. underground,
    • 3.exoatmospheric
    • 4. underwater.
  • Nuclear Missiles!
    • Less money $ a large army
    • More money for atomic weapons of all kinds.
    • From 1,000 to18,000 bombs by 1961
    • Fighting small wars to stop the spread of Communism were too expensive (like Korea)
    • Instead threaten to use nuclear weapons, this policy is called Massive Retaliation
    "More BANG for the Buck" Massive Retaliation
    • What is the idea behind “More BANG for your Buck”?
    Checking for Understanding
    • Less money $ a large army
    • More money for atomic weapons
    • What is Massive Retaliation?
    Checking for Understanding Threatening to use nuclear weapons to get our way
    • The competition of space exploration between the Soviet Union and the US
    The Space Race was used by government leaders to instill hope in the future of their country for their people Competition: Space Race
  • 1957 Sputnik – 1st Satellite October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first rocket to reach space from Kazakhstan. It was the first satellite that orbited the earth .
    • To counter this, the United States Government established the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) on July 29, 1958
    We feel stupid!
    • The wound deepened when the United States' tried to impress the world with a rocket called Vanguard
    • Vanguard exploded on the launch pad, while the entire world was watching
    http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v = MxWxjFCqUzE
    • Score:
    • One for
    • the
    • Soviets
    First man in space
    • USA spent the 60s trying to catch up to the Soviets.
  • 1969- Armstrong lands on moon! Conspiracy? ...but what if we never really made it?
  • QW 3-8-10
    • Answer the following review questions:
    • 1. Why was Douglas MacArthur fired?
    • 2. What was goal of NATO?
    • 3. What 3 groups did nations become divided into during the Cold War?
  • Asking the question: What if…?
    • There was enormous pressure to catch the Soviets
    • What if the moon landing could be faked?
    • Would people really question such a miraculous achievement?
    • It would once and for all show that the US had not only caught up to the Soviets, but passed them…
    • 1963 – longest space flight so far – 98hours – Gemini 4
    • 1966 – first orbital docking of 2 spacecrafts in space
    • May 1969 – first spacecraft to leave earth’s orbit – Apollo 10
    • July 1969 – first moon landing – Apollo 11 – Neil Armstrong
    • 1957 – First satellite in space – Sputnik
    • 1957 – First animal (dog) in space
    • 1961 – First human in space – Yuri Gagarin
    • 1962 – the woman in space – Valentina Tereshkova
    • 1962 – first space walk – Alexi Leonov
    United States Soviet Union Major "Wins" of the Space Race
    • It ended in 1975 when a US spacecraft docked with a Soviet spacecraft and the astronauts and cosmonauts aboard met each other in space and exchanged flags and gifts
    Space Race Ended
    • Why was Sputnik a wake up call to the United States?
    Checking for Understanding
    • that the U.S. was falling behind the Soviet Union in missile/space technology.
    • In 1959 Cuba turned to communism which was supported by the Soviet Union
    • Bay of Pigs: In 1961 under Kennedy CIA trained anti-Castro Cuban exiles and invaded Cuba
    • Goal was to over throw Castro
    • We failed!
    Competition: Cuba You can’t touch me
  • Cold War Competition2 Part 2
    • The U.S. failed Bay of Pigs invasion led Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev to believe expansion in Latin America would be easy
    • 1962 secretly built 42 missiles in Cuba
    Competition: Cuban Missille Crisis
  •  
    • President Kennedy’s demand for the removal of the missiles put the U.S. and U.S.S.R. on a collision course
    • World feared nuclear war
    • Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles if U.S. would not invade Cuba
    Lets Make a Deal Don’t invade
    • What was the goal of Bay of Pigs?
    Checking for Understanding
    • To over throw Castro and eliminate communism from Cuba
    • Why was the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 was significant?
    Checking for Understanding
    • it was the closest the U.S. and Soviet Union ever came to nuclear warfare.
  • Competition: Espionage
    • Distrust of one another led to espionage (spying)
    • During WWII Stalin acquired top secret information concerning the development of the Atomic Bomb at Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Soviets has a spy working covertly inside the laboratories.
    • FBI along with British intelligence began questioning Fuchs in 1949. He ultimately confessed and was convicted of espionage in a two-day trial. He spent fourteen years in prison. After his release, he moved to East Germany.
    • U-2 Affair
    • Cold War tensions increased when in 1960 the USSR shot down a US spy plane over Russia
    • At first, the United States government denied everything
    • US was forced to admit when the USSR produced its remains (largely intact) and surviving pilot
    Competition: Espionage
    • Why was the U2 Affair an embarrassment?
    Checking for Understanding
    • We denied spying on the USSR yet they had our pilot alive as proof
    • The Berlin Wall was erected in the night of August 13, 1961. To keep East Germans in.
    • If communism was so great why did so many East Germans try to flee
    WEST: Prosperous, helped by US, attracted people from the East. Seen by USSR as infection in the heart of Communist East Germany. EAST: Much less prosperous and under Communist control Berlin Wall
  • Built in 1961
  • Berlin Wall
  • Berlin Wall
  •  
    • Barbed wire fence 6 feet high
    • Replaced with concrete blocks
    • 6ft high and 66 miles long
    1st Stage
    • 1962- a second fence was added, parallel to the first one
    • Area 100 yards further in
    • “Death Strip”- Area between the 2 strips
    2nd Stage
    • 1965- Concrete slabs between steel
    • Concrete Sewage pipe on top
    3rd Stage
    • 1975 new concrete segments
    • 4.5 feet wide
    • 12 feet high
    4th Stage
  • Berlin opens in 1989 Wall torn down 1990
  • Berlin Wall Today
  •  
  •  
    • The tearing down of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 are two events that signaled the end of what?
    Checking for Understanding
    • The End of the Cold War
    • The Communist North Vietnamese threw out the French in 1954
    • The United States was heavily supporting the French and President Eisenhower was worried if one fell they all would
    • Stated in the Truman Doctrine, the United States would have to step in here.
      • This was our major justification for U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War
    • By 1965, we have 185,000 troops in Vietnam under President Johnson.
    • The last U.S. forces left in 1973 with nothing to show for it and within two years, Communists overran South Vietnam.
    My Doctrine to the RESCUE! Competition: Influence in Vietnam
    • What did the Truman Doctrine pledge to do?
    Checking for Understanding
    • Aid any country threatened by communist aggression
    • the Olympic Games have strived to represent the highest ideals of sport as diplomacy—the power of friendly competition to transcend world politics.
    • But during the Cold War the Olympics were a symbol of which nation was superior
    • plus it was an arena to make a political statement
    Competition: Olypmics
    • Due to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, President Jimmy Carter announced that the United States would boycott the 1980 Moscow Summer Games
    Competition: Olypmics
    • The 1980 boycott set the stage for the Soviet Union and its satellite states to hold their own boycott of the 1984 Los Angles Summer Games
    Competition: Olypmics
    • 1980 Olympic Games in New York was a major accomplishment for the United States.
    • We were the underdog men's hockey team, facing off against the highly favored Soviet Squad.
    • After being badly beaten by the Soviets 10–3 in a pre-Olympic exhibition game, the U.S. team came back and beat the mighty Russians, going on to win the gold medal.
    • The "Miracle on Ice" became much more than a game in America. It was a jolt of national pride and proof to many American's that a democratic society could produce better players than the athlete "factory" of the state-sponsored communist system.
    Miracle on Ice
    • How were the Olympics viewed by the Soviet Union and the United States?
    Checking for Understanding
    • during the Cold War the Olympics were a symbol of which nation was superior plus it was an arena to make a political statements
    • The United States and Soviet Union continued to compete with one another in multiple areas to prove their dominance in the world.
    • As we will learn later, communism in the Soviet Union eventually collapsed in 1991.
    Competition Continues
  • Chipmunks and the Cold War