Cultural achievements and african american achievements in the 1920’s 2010Presentation Transcript
Cultural Achievements and African American Achievements in the 1920’s
Many artists, writers, and intellectuals flocked to these areas to share ideas
People lead bohemian , or artistic and unconventional, lifestyles
European art began to influence American art.
Cubism and realism were new forms of art
Poets and writers of the 20’s were very different than previous times
Carl Sandberg used common speech to glorify the Midwest
T.S. Eliot described a world of ”empty men and hollow dreams," showing the 20s weren't perfect
Eugene O'neill was a playwright; wrote realistic, tragic plays
Ernest Hemingway - one of the most famous American writers of all time; wrote about anti-heroes (or flawed main characters); wrote in a direct or simple way
F. Scott Fitzgerald - wrote The Great Gatsby , a book that exposed the superficiality of the 1920s lifestyle.
Question: What seems different about these writers from the writers who came before them?
Thanks to radio and movies, baseball and boxing became incredibly popular.
Babe Ruth , baseball's homerun king (at the time), became a national hero
Jack Dempsey was boxing's heavyweight champ from 1919 to 1926.
Football, tennis, and golf all also gained in popularity.
The 1920s represent an important phase, in terms of innovations and inventions.
Lots of improvements were being made in technology, manufacturing, medical science, fashion and transportation.
Created a number of everyday inventions we now take for granted
Movies still had no sound yet. Someone in the theater played piano; movie had subtitles.
Charlie Chaplin was a famous silent movie star.
1927 - The Jazz Singer - the first "talkie" or movie with sound
In 1920 there was one radio station. In 1922 there were 400.
One popular radio show was Amos 'n' Andy. It was about two African Americans and the trouble they got into, yet it was acted out by two white actors; reinforced negative stereotypes.
Mass Media: radio, movies, newspapers, magazines. (Not TV yet).
These things did more than entertain. They unified the United States. They spread new ideas and attitudes.
Question: Why was mass advertising, the radio, and movies important in the 1920s?
An event is something that is heard about on the streets and read about in the papers for a week or two. However, if a series of related events should be strung together, one can be left with something monumental. What we bring to you is not a mere event that happened in Harlem in the 1920’s and 30’s, but a renaissance...
THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE
Thousands of blacks had moved northing during the Great Migration to escape segregation, find better jobs, and build better lives
New York City was one such place
In Harlem, a middle class grew quickly because real estate became available to African Americans,
They created an environment of art, racial pride, sense of community, and political organization
Which would become known as the Harlem Renaissance.
Claude McKay - from Jamaica; shocked by racism in America; wrote boldly, defiantly about racism in two books of poetry
Langston Hughes - born in Missouri; leading writer of African American experience in America. Wrote about African American achievements.
I, TOO BY LANGSTON HUGHES
I, too, sing America
I am the darker brother.
They send me to eat in the kitchen
When company comes,
But I laugh,
And eat well,
And grow strong.
Question: Artists during the Harlem Renaissance such as Langston Hughes and Claude McKay shared what common theme in their art?
Jazz - improvisational music introduced by Louis Armstrong
Duke Ellington had a ragtime sound
Many black musicians got their start at the Cotton Club , a famous Harlem nightclub.
Blues- soulful style of music that evolved from African American spirituals
Bessie Smith – famous blues singer; at one time the highest paid singer in U.S.
Blues – soulful style of music that involved themes of love, poverty, oppression
The postwar years saw the development of new attitudes among African Americans
Began to forge new roles in life and politics
The Great Migration has a significant impact on the political power of African Americans
As their numbers grew in certain neighborhoods, they became a power voting bloc that could now influence elections
The NAACP Battle Lynching
NAACP = National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Fought, often unsuccessfully, against discrimination
The main issue they fought for was anti-lynching laws (failed during 1920s and 30s)
One success: they were able to help block the nomination of a racist Supreme Court Justice, John Parker.
Marcus Garvey – a dynamic black leader from Jamaica
became very popular; argued for African American self-reliance.
Proposed a plan for black Americans to return to start a new country in Africa; became a “fringe movement” and failed.
He was eventually arrested and deported.
Question: Why did the NAACP and Marcus Garvey’s “Back to Africa” movement exist?