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  • Architeture: Strategy is “blueprint” for IS
  • The Floppy: kilobyteAt what point do you turn over your old software for the new
  • Roadrunner uses Opteron chips from AMD and IBM’s Power Architecture (RISC – reduced instruction set) as opposed to CISC (complex instruction set).Intel makes Multi-core. Lots of chips that process and interact with each other on one board. Beats IBM
  • Though peaked at 2.33 petaflops
  • Each frame has a certain function(task).Platform looks for what computers along network can perform for me. (sharing processes of data). Job gets down faster
  • groupwareSoftware that integrates work on a single project by several concurrent users at separated workstations.workflowThe automatic routing of documents to the users responsible for working on them. Workflow is concerned with providing the information required to support each step of the business cycle. The documents may be physically moved over the network or maintained in a single database with the appropriate users given access to the data at the required times. Triggers can be implemented in the system to alert managers when operations are overdue.Workflow Keeps Documents MovingThe manual flow of documents in an organization is prone to errors. Documents can get lost or be constantly shuffled to the bottom of the in-basket. Automating workflow sets timers that ensure that documents move along at a prescribed pace and that the appropriate person processes them in the correct order.Workflow IntegrationIntegrating workflow into existing software applications may require extensive reprogramming, because although independent workflow software can launch a whole application, a workflow system must be able to invoke individual routines within the application. As a result, vendors of application software have teamed up with workflow vendors to provide the appropriate interfaces and/or they have developed their own workflow capability. Workflow standards developed by the Workflow Management Coalition provide interoperability between workflow software and applications as well as between different workflow systems (see Wf-XML).Workflow Vs. WorkgroupWorkflow software is not the same as workgroup software, otherwise known as groupware. Workflow deals with the step-by-step processes, whereas workgroup systems are concerned with information sharing and threaded discussions among users.
  • Work Flow:Package at UPS> Tagged> Scanned> Sort> Trucked> Worldport>Sorted> Plane/truck> DeliveredIT:HW/SW: Scan, print labels, Weighing, terminalAt Scanned: People SorterAt WorldPort: Tech for moving, conveyer belt, sorters, scanners
  • Web Server - A program that processes document requests; it also has a database, which is a repository of data and content. Application Server - A computer that executes commands requested by a Web server to fetch data from databasesComputer Server
  • Request…server gives it back to youTCP: Transition control protocolIP: Internet Protocol
  • Web serverInternetIntranet: internal to organization
  • Virtual machineSales and banquets is on same machine as other sections of business.1 Mainframe, 3 virtual servers
  • Grid Computing – Talbert’s screen saverSend out little bits to lots of computers. The computers process it and send back the little bits to the main project.More bit depth, more colors for each pixel
  • SaaS: Software as a service
  • USB Flash: Electric charged, not magnetic…that’s why USB has a power outsourceRAID: bank of hard: drives
  • RAID - redundant array of independent disksSAN – Storage Area Network
  • (EXtensibleMarkup Language) An open standard for describing data from the W3C. It is used for defining data elements on a Web page and business-to-business documents. Simple Object Access Protocol) A message-based protocol based on XML for accessing services on the Web. Initiated by Microsoft, IBM and others, it employs XML syntax to send text commands across the Internet using HTTP.Web Services Description Language) An XML-based language for defining Web services. Developed by Microsoft and IBM, WSDL describes the protocols and formats used by the service.Universal Description, Discovery and Integration) An industry initiative for a universal business registry (catalog) of Web services turned over to the stewardship of OASIS in 2002 as the version 3 specification of UDDI was released. Service Oriented Architecture) The modularization of business functions for greater flexibility and reusability. Instead of building monolithic applications for each department, an SOA organizes business software in a granular fashion so that common functions can be used interchangeably by different departments internally and by external business partners as well. EX: HR will outsource Payroll. Buy a service that provides that function.EX: PeopleSoft…only buy the models that we need
  • Data Mark is subset of Data Warehouse: Unique to function
  • EX: Dollarrent-a-car
  • EX: Second Life
  • Stopped here 1140.
  • MetaData - Data that describes other data. The term may refer to detailed compilations such as data dictionaries and repositories that provide a substantial amount of information about each data element.
  • Infrastructure student

    1. 1. IT Infrastructure<br />Strategic Decision-makingabout Hardware and Software<br />
    2. 2. Things to Know <br />Assess contemporary hardware and software trends.<br />Revisit Architecture & Infrastructure<br />Evaluate the principal issues in managing hardware and software technology.<br />Explore the types of strategic decisions needed to ensure implementation a success.<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Infrastructure Components<br />Computer hardware: HW<br />Computer software: SW<br />Data management technology<br />Networking and telecommunications technology: blocks of code<br />Technology services <br />3<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Hardware<br />
    4. 4. The Size of IT all!<br />Bit : 0 /1, yes/no, on/ off<br />Byte – 8 bits<br />Kilobyte (103 bytes)<br />Megabyte (106 bytes)<br />Gigabyte (109 bytes)<br />Terabyte (1012 bytes)<br />Petabyte (1015 bytes)<br />Exabyte (1018 bytes): Human genome (and the brain)…all about science <br />Zettabyte(1021 bytes)<br />Yottabyte (1024 bytes)<br />Brontobyte(1027 bytes)<br />Geopbyte(1030 bytes)<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Types of Computers<br />Computers come in different sizes with varying capabilities for processing information<br />Measured in FLOPS (FLoating point OPerations per Second)…how fast it process commands per second. <br />Personal computer (PC) 32-64 instructing per seconds (dual processors can handle more than that)<br />Workstation: about 100X faster….but with specific purpose. May be PMS. Statler doesn’t have PCs anymore: it’s a keyboard, a screen and all units point to one place<br />Midrange computers: Servers and minicomputers: Multiple access use. Most servers are these<br />Mainframe: in corporations. <br />Supercomputer: IBM. “A larger Mainframe” Mainframes working in unison<br />5<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Hardware<br />
    6. 6. The Need For Speed!<br />The dominant chip architecture is multicore processors. Dual-core processors are also widely found in the TOP500 (the top 500 big computers). <br />IBM and HP have sold the majority of the systems in the TOP500 (over 50% in the USA). <br />The IBM BlueGene/L system claimed the Number 1 spot, which had been in first place since November 2004. <br />Intel processors were used in a whopping 70% of the 2007 systems. AMD Opterons came in second place, while IBM POWER chips were third.<br />Speed doubled! The 2007 winner achieved a Linpack benchmark performance of 478.2 teraFLOPS (TFLOPS), as compared to 280 TFLOPS just six months earlier, before a major upgrade. Top speed now is 596 TFLOPS<br />In 2008, the Cell/AMD Opteron-based IBM Roadrunner at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was announced as the fastest operational supercomputer, with a sustained processing rate of 1.026 PFLOPS. It uses 2 different architectures (hybrid system).<br />But in June of 2010 ….<br />6<br />
    7. 7. Cray’s Jaguar: June 2010<br />7<br />1.75 PFLOPS or <br />1.75 Quadrillion operations per second!<br />
    8. 8. Contemporary Hardware Trends<br />Integration of computing and telecommunications platforms<br />Edge computing<br />Application processing load balancing capacity to corporate web servers. <br />Load balancing: spread work between many computers or other resources get optimal efficiency <br />Autonomic computing<br />Becoming smarter: configure themselves to changing conditions and are self healing in the event of failure. <br />If I didn’t save, it comes back on<br />Updates<br />8<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Hardware<br />
    9. 9. Edge Computing<br />9<br />
    10. 10. The Major Types of Software<br />10<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Software<br />
    11. 11. Summing Things up<br />11<br /><ul><li>Sniper Twins at work rapping about computers: all Mac computers
    12. 12.</li></li></ul><li>Operating System Software<br />The software that :manages and controls the computer’s activities<br />Unix<br />Mainframe computers<br />But the core of PC and Mac is based off of<br />PC operating systems and graphical user interfaces<br />GUIs<br />Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7<br />Windows & Home Server 2003/2007<br />Macs OS<br />X<br />Puma, Jaguar, Panther, Tiger, Leopard, Snow Leopard<br />Open-source<br />Linux<br />12<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Software<br />
    13. 13. The Corporate World Migrates to Open-Source<br />Review the Focus on Technology:<br />What problems do Linux and other open-source software help companies address?<br />How does open-source software help?<br />What issues and challenges does deploying open-source software raise?<br />What can be done to address these issues?<br />Describe what you think is a sound strategy for deploying Linux and other open-source components at this stage of their evolution.<br />13<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Software<br />
    14. 14. Application Software and Desktop Productivity Tools<br />Application programming languages for business<br />Fourth-generation languages<br />Software packages and desktop productivity tools<br />Integrated software packages and software suites<br />Word processing software<br />Spreadsheets<br />Data management software<br />Presentation graphics<br />E-mail software<br />Web browsers<br />Access the web<br />JAVA: web apps, moving away from CSS<br />Groupware<br />Google Apps<br />Microsoft Live<br />14<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Software<br />
    15. 15. GroupWare workflow<br />15<br />Workgroup (Groupware)<br />Software that integrates work on a single project by several concurrent users at separated workstations.<br />Workflow<br />The automatic routing of documents to the users responsible for working on them. <br />Workflow is concerned with providing the information required to support each step of the business cycle.<br />
    16. 16. UPS World Port: main air shipping terminal<br />It’s a workflow Process<br />300,000 packages per hour<br />Process<br />In and out in less than 15 minutes<br />Deliverer scans the package when they drop it off.<br />Entail to make this happen<br />16<br />
    17. 17. Networks<br />17<br />
    18. 18. Case: Sonic Corporation<br />Visit Sonic’s Web site at<br />How does Sonic’s Web site enhance its business?<br />Using consumer info<br />Who is the target audience of the Web site? Is there more than one target audience?<br />They can target you based on who you are and where you come from<br />What would make the Web site better?<br />How does Sonic’s Web site compare to the sites of its competitors, such as McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s, etc.? <br />18<br />
    19. 19. Types of Computer Networks<br />Client/Server Computing<br />Web Server <br />Application Server<br />Multi-tiered (N-tier) client/server architectures <br />Grid Computing<br />Cloud Computing<br />19<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Hardware<br />
    20. 20. Client/Server Computing<br />20<br />client/server computing - computer processing is split between client machines and server machines linked by a network. Users interface with the client machines.<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Hardware<br />
    21. 21. Web Server<br />21<br />A program that processes document requests; it also has a database, which is a repository of data and content. <br />
    22. 22. Application Server<br />22<br />A computer that executes commands requested by a Web server to fetch data from databases. Also known as app server.<br />
    23. 23. Multi-tiered Client/Server (N-tier)<br />23<br />Multitiered (N-tier) client/server architectures – a number (n) servers work on a business process, while another number of servers work on another process.<br />
    24. 24. Virtual Machines (VMs)<br />Virtual Machine - A software program that emulates a hardware (e.g. a server)<br />24<br />Virtual Server 1<br />Virtual Server 2<br />Mainframe with VM Software<br />Workstation<br />Virtual Server 3<br />
    25. 25. Grid Computing<br />25<br />Grid Computing - the concurrent application of the processing and data storage resources of many computers in a network to a single problem. <br />
    26. 26. Cloud Computing<br />26<br />
    27. 27. Cloud Computing<br />27<br />Cloud Computing - Running applications within a network server or downloading the software from the network each time it is used.<br />Internet/Cloud<br />Servers<br />
    28. 28. Data Storage & Technology Services<br />Data Storage Formats<br /> & Enterprise Services & Integration<br />
    29. 29. Input , Storage,and Output Technology<br />Input devices gather data and convert them into electronic form<br />Secondary storage technology<br />Magnetic disk: hard drives, USB flash drives, RAID<br />Optical disks: CD-ROM, CD-RW, DVD<br />Magnetic tape<br />Storage Area Networks (SANs)<br />Output devices display data after they have been processed<br />Batch and online processing (Grid Computing)<br />29<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Hardware<br />
    30. 30. SANs: Storage Area Network<br />30<br />RAID:<br />Redundant Array of Independent Disks<br />
    31. 31. Software for the Web: Java and HTML<br />Hypertext markup language (HTML)<br />Page description language for specifying how elements are placed on a Web page and for creating links to other pages and objects<br />Java<br />Operating system-independent, processor-independent, object-oriented programming language<br />Leading interactive programming environment for the Web<br />31<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Software<br />
    32. 32. Software for Enterprise Integration<br />Legacy systems: replace or integrate? <br />Middleware<br />Enterprise application integration (EAI) software<br />Web services and service-oriented architecture:<br />XML - EXtensibleMarkup Language<br />SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol<br />WSDL - Web Services Description Language<br />UDDI - Universal Description, Discovery and Integration<br />SOA - Service Oriented Architecture (KNOW!)<br />32<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Software<br />
    33. 33. Enterprise Application Integration<br />Translating data and commands from the format of one application into the format of another. <br />Middleware: Software that serves as an intermediary between systems software and an application.<br />Interface: The point of interaction or communication between a computer and any other entity, such as a printer or human operator. (Translation software…my Word software can save in different formats)<br />33<br />
    34. 34. Where Middleware Fits …<br />34<br />
    35. 35. Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Versus Traditional Integration<br />35<br />EAI<br />Traditional<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Software<br />
    36. 36. Service - Oriented Architecture (SOA)<br />The modularization of business functions for greater flexibility and reusability. <br />36<br />
    37. 37. The World Wide Web<br />A Brief Look<br />37<br />
    38. 38. Web 1.0<br />Read‐only Web ‐ Static Web Pages<br />Echoed the books and libraries of the past<br />User Interaction was Controlled<br />Traditional publishing / broadcast model<br />Limited to e‐mail, guestbooks, forums<br />Search was limited to old ways of organizing<br />Keywords & Directories<br />Lack of Standards Led to Proprietary Browser Wars<br />Web Applications were Brittle<br />Interface + Content (Data) + Program Logic<br />From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson, HITEC 2009 38<br />
    39. 39. Software Trends: Web 2.0<br />Web 2.0: perceived second generation of web-based communities and hosted services<br /> Social-networking sites, wikis and folksonomies <br />The term became popular following the first O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in 2004. <br /> Does not refer to an update to any technical specifications to the WWW<br />Changes in the ways software developers and end-users use the web. <br />39<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Software<br />
    40. 40. Web 2.0 (cont’d)<br />The Network is the Platform is the Web<br />The Read/Write Web ‐ The Social Web <br />Rich Content, extensive user participation<br />User Interaction<br />Leverage collective intelligence, communication & collaboration<br />Openness, transparency & respect<br />Search<br />Contextual (Bing / Wolfram|Alpha)<br />Users organizing content with tagging<br />From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson , HITEC 2009 40<br />
    41. 41. Software Trends: Mashups, Web 2.0, and Distributed Software Applications<br />Mashups: application that seamlessly combines content from more than one source<br />depends on high-speed data networks, universal communication standards, and open-source code<br />Web mashupscombine two or more online applications to create a new application or service that provides more value than the original pieces<br />Distributed Computing: The use of multiple network-connected computers for solving a problem or for information processing <br />Google: an extreme example of distributed computing<br />41<br />IT Infrastructure: Computer Software<br />
    42. 42. The Social Side of Web 2.0<br />Era of Social Relationships (1995‐2007)<br />People connect to others and share<br />Era of Social Functionality (2007‐2012)<br />Social networks become like operating system<br />Era of Social Colonization  (2009  ‐ 2011)<br />Every experience can now be social<br />Era of Social Context (2010‐2012)<br />Personalized and accurate content<br />Era of Social Commerce  (2011-2013)<br />Communities define future products and services<br />Social Media Only One Aspect of Web 2.0<br />Five Eras of the Social Web (Jeremiah Owyang):<br />From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson , HITEC 2009 42<br />
    43. 43. Web 2.0 Success Characteristics<br />Services, not packaged software, with cost‐effective scalability<br />Scalability - Property of a system that can accommodate changes in transaction volume without major changes to the system. <br />Control over unique, hard‐to‐recreate data sources that get richer as more people use them<br />Trusting users as co‐developers<br />Harnessing collective intelligence<br />Leveraging the retail through customer self‐service<br />Lightweight user  interfaces, development models, AND  business models<br />From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson , HITEC 2009 43<br />
    44. 44. What’s Coming Next?<br />Well IT’s Only Logical …<br />44<br />
    45. 45. Web 3.0<br />The  Semantic  Web - Systems  Read  and  Categorize  the  Web<br />Personalization - Web  Contextualized  Based  on  Individual<br />Artificial  Intelligence - Meaning  Extracted  from  Web  Interactions<br />Dynamic  Expert  Communities - Leverages  Collective  Intelligence<br />Mobility - Everything,  Everywhere,  All  the  Time<br />The  Logical  Outcome? Relevant,  Real‐time  Search,  Behavioral  Targeting<br />From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson , HITEC 2009 45<br />
    46. 46. Web 3.0 - Knowledge<br />RDF  ‐ Resource  Definition  Format<br />Need  to  Describe, Capture Knowledge & Define Relationships between “Stuff”<br />Defines Semantic Web Relationships Through  MetaData<br />RDF  Triplet  Incorporates<br />Property  – Lecture <br />Object  – Preston Clark<br />RDFS  (RDF  Schema) - Describes  Properties  &  Classes  of  RDF’s<br />OWL  (Web  Ontology  Language) - Unified Language on Web<br />Vocabulary  Describes  Characteristics  of  RDF  Properties<br />Relationships  between  RDF  Classes<br />From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson , HITEC 2009 46<br />
    47. 47. Web Summary<br />From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson , HITEC 2009 47<br />
    48. 48. Managing Hardware and Software Technology<br />Capacity planning and scalability<br />Total cost of ownership (TCO) of technology assets<br />Using technology service providers<br />Outsourcing<br />On-demand computing<br />Application service providers (ASPs)<br />48<br />Important issues faced by IT Managers<br />
    49. 49. Business Continuity Planning (BCP)<br />BCP is an approved set of preparations and sufficient procedures for responding to a range of disaster events, such as:<br />Planning stage – alternative business recovery operating strategies are determined<br />Emergency Response Procedures – designed to prevent/limit injury to personnel on site, damage to structures/equipment and the degradation if vital business functions<br />Employee Awareness and Training Programs – must be well communicated throughout the organization<br />49<br />Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.<br />
    50. 50. Manager’s Role :Strategy to IS Implementation <br />Business Strategy drives architecture.<br />Managers must understand how to plan IT to realize business goals.<br />Logical framework is used to guide the translation from business strategy to IS design.<br />Know the state of existing architecture and infrastructure when translating strategy into architecture and then infrastructure.<br />A business continuity plan is an approved set of preparations and sufficient procedures for responding to a disaster event.<br />It is becoming more important that business managers effectively translate business strategy into IT infrastructure.<br />50<br />Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.<br />