IT Infrastructure Strategic Decision-makingabout Hardware and Software
Things to Know Assess contemporary hardware and software trends. Revisit Architecture & Infrastructure Evaluate the principal issues in managing hardware and software technology. Explore the types of strategic decisions needed to ensure implementation a success. 2
Infrastructure Components Computer hardware: HW Computer software: SW Data management technology Networking and telecommunications technology: blocks of code Technology services 3 IT Infrastructure: Computer Hardware
The Size of IT all! Bit : 0 /1, yes/no, on/ off Byte – 8 bits Kilobyte (103 bytes) Megabyte (106 bytes) Gigabyte (109 bytes) Terabyte (1012 bytes) Petabyte (1015 bytes) Exabyte (1018 bytes): Human genome (and the brain)…all about science Zettabyte(1021 bytes) Yottabyte (1024 bytes) Brontobyte(1027 bytes) Geopbyte(1030 bytes) 4
Types of Computers Computers come in different sizes with varying capabilities for processing information Measured in FLOPS (FLoating point OPerations per Second)…how fast it process commands per second. Personal computer (PC) 32-64 instructing per seconds (dual processors can handle more than that) Workstation: about 100X faster….but with specific purpose. May be PMS. Statler doesn’t have PCs anymore: it’s a keyboard, a screen and all units point to one place Midrange computers: Servers and minicomputers: Multiple access use. Most servers are these Mainframe: in corporations. Supercomputer: IBM. “A larger Mainframe” Mainframes working in unison 5 IT Infrastructure: Computer Hardware
The Need For Speed! The dominant chip architecture is multicore processors. Dual-core processors are also widely found in the TOP500 (the top 500 big computers). IBM and HP have sold the majority of the systems in the TOP500 (over 50% in the USA). The IBM BlueGene/L system claimed the Number 1 spot, which had been in first place since November 2004. Intel processors were used in a whopping 70% of the 2007 systems. AMD Opterons came in second place, while IBM POWER chips were third. Speed doubled! The 2007 winner achieved a Linpack benchmark performance of 478.2 teraFLOPS (TFLOPS), as compared to 280 TFLOPS just six months earlier, before a major upgrade. Top speed now is 596 TFLOPS In 2008, the Cell/AMD Opteron-based IBM Roadrunner at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was announced as the fastest operational supercomputer, with a sustained processing rate of 1.026 PFLOPS. It uses 2 different architectures (hybrid system). But in June of 2010 …. 6
Cray’s Jaguar: June 2010 7 1.75 PFLOPS or 1.75 Quadrillion operations per second!
Contemporary Hardware Trends Integration of computing and telecommunications platforms Edge computing Application processing load balancing capacity to corporate web servers. Load balancing: spread work between many computers or other resources get optimal efficiency Autonomic computing Becoming smarter: configure themselves to changing conditions and are self healing in the event of failure. If I didn’t save, it comes back on Updates 8 IT Infrastructure: Computer Hardware
Edge Computing 9
The Major Types of Software 10 IT Infrastructure: Computer Software
Summing Things up 11
Sniper Twins at work rapping about computers: all Mac computers
Operating System Software The software that :manages and controls the computer’s activities Unix Mainframe computers But the core of PC and Mac is based off of PC operating systems and graphical user interfaces GUIs Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7 Windows & Home Server 2003/2007 Macs OS X Puma, Jaguar, Panther, Tiger, Leopard, Snow Leopard Open-source Linux 12 IT Infrastructure: Computer Software
The Corporate World Migrates to Open-Source Review the Focus on Technology: What problems do Linux and other open-source software help companies address? How does open-source software help? What issues and challenges does deploying open-source software raise? What can be done to address these issues? Describe what you think is a sound strategy for deploying Linux and other open-source components at this stage of their evolution. 13 IT Infrastructure: Computer Software
Application Software and Desktop Productivity Tools Application programming languages for business Fourth-generation languages Software packages and desktop productivity tools Integrated software packages and software suites Word processing software Spreadsheets Data management software Presentation graphics E-mail software Web browsers Access the web JAVA: web apps, moving away from CSS Groupware Google Apps Microsoft Live 14 IT Infrastructure: Computer Software
GroupWare workflow 15 Workgroup (Groupware) Software that integrates work on a single project by several concurrent users at separated workstations. Workflow The automatic routing of documents to the users responsible for working on them. Workflow is concerned with providing the information required to support each step of the business cycle.
UPS World Port: main air shipping terminal It’s a workflow Process 300,000 packages per hour Process In and out in less than 15 minutes Deliverer scans the package when they drop it off. Entail to make this happen 16
Case: Sonic Corporation Visit Sonic’s Web site at www.sonicdrivein.com How does Sonic’s Web site enhance its business? Using consumer info Who is the target audience of the Web site? Is there more than one target audience? They can target you based on who you are and where you come from What would make the Web site better? How does Sonic’s Web site compare to the sites of its competitors, such as McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s, etc.? 18
Types of Computer Networks Client/Server Computing Web Server Application Server Multi-tiered (N-tier) client/server architectures Grid Computing Cloud Computing 19 IT Infrastructure: Computer Hardware
Client/Server Computing 20 client/server computing - computer processing is split between client machines and server machines linked by a network. Users interface with the client machines. IT Infrastructure: Computer Hardware
Web Server 21 A program that processes document requests; it also has a database, which is a repository of data and content.
Application Server 22 A computer that executes commands requested by a Web server to fetch data from databases. Also known as app server.
Multi-tiered Client/Server (N-tier) 23 Multitiered (N-tier) client/server architectures – a number (n) servers work on a business process, while another number of servers work on another process.
Virtual Machines (VMs) Virtual Machine - A software program that emulates a hardware (e.g. a server) 24 Virtual Server 1 Virtual Server 2 Mainframe with VM Software Workstation Virtual Server 3
Grid Computing 25 Grid Computing - the concurrent application of the processing and data storage resources of many computers in a network to a single problem.
Cloud Computing 26
Cloud Computing 27 Cloud Computing - Running applications within a network server or downloading the software from the network each time it is used. Internet/Cloud Servers
Data Storage & Technology Services Data Storage Formats & Enterprise Services & Integration
Input , Storage,and Output Technology Input devices gather data and convert them into electronic form Secondary storage technology Magnetic disk: hard drives, USB flash drives, RAID Optical disks: CD-ROM, CD-RW, DVD Magnetic tape Storage Area Networks (SANs) Output devices display data after they have been processed Batch and online processing (Grid Computing) 29 IT Infrastructure: Computer Hardware
SANs: Storage Area Network 30 RAID: Redundant Array of Independent Disks
Software for the Web: Java and HTML Hypertext markup language (HTML) Page description language for specifying how elements are placed on a Web page and for creating links to other pages and objects Java Operating system-independent, processor-independent, object-oriented programming language Leading interactive programming environment for the Web 31 IT Infrastructure: Computer Software
Software for Enterprise Integration Legacy systems: replace or integrate? Middleware Enterprise application integration (EAI) software Web services and service-oriented architecture: XML - EXtensibleMarkup Language SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol WSDL - Web Services Description Language UDDI - Universal Description, Discovery and Integration SOA - Service Oriented Architecture (KNOW!) 32 IT Infrastructure: Computer Software
Enterprise Application Integration Translating data and commands from the format of one application into the format of another. Middleware: Software that serves as an intermediary between systems software and an application. Interface: The point of interaction or communication between a computer and any other entity, such as a printer or human operator. (Translation software…my Word software can save in different formats) 33
Where Middleware Fits … 34
Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Versus Traditional Integration 35 EAI Traditional IT Infrastructure: Computer Software
Service - Oriented Architecture (SOA) The modularization of business functions for greater flexibility and reusability. 36
The World Wide Web A Brief Look 37
Web 1.0 Read‐only Web ‐ Static Web Pages Echoed the books and libraries of the past User Interaction was Controlled Traditional publishing / broadcast model Limited to e‐mail, guestbooks, forums Search was limited to old ways of organizing Keywords & Directories Lack of Standards Led to Proprietary Browser Wars Web Applications were Brittle Interface + Content (Data) + Program Logic From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson, HITEC 2009 38
Software Trends: Web 2.0 Web 2.0: perceived second generation of web-based communities and hosted services Social-networking sites, wikis and folksonomies The term became popular following the first O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in 2004. Does not refer to an update to any technical specifications to the WWW Changes in the ways software developers and end-users use the web. 39 IT Infrastructure: Computer Software
Web 2.0 (cont’d) The Network is the Platform is the Web The Read/Write Web ‐ The Social Web Rich Content, extensive user participation User Interaction Leverage collective intelligence, communication & collaboration Openness, transparency & respect Search Contextual (Bing / Wolfram|Alpha) Users organizing content with tagging From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson , HITEC 2009 40
Software Trends: Mashups, Web 2.0, and Distributed Software Applications Mashups: application that seamlessly combines content from more than one source depends on high-speed data networks, universal communication standards, and open-source code Web mashupscombine two or more online applications to create a new application or service that provides more value than the original pieces Distributed Computing: The use of multiple network-connected computers for solving a problem or for information processing Google: an extreme example of distributed computing 41 IT Infrastructure: Computer Software
The Social Side of Web 2.0 Era of Social Relationships (1995‐2007) People connect to others and share Era of Social Functionality (2007‐2012) Social networks become like operating system Era of Social Colonization (2009 ‐ 2011) Every experience can now be social Era of Social Context (2010‐2012) Personalized and accurate content Era of Social Commerce (2011-2013) Communities define future products and services Social Media Only One Aspect of Web 2.0 Five Eras of the Social Web (Jeremiah Owyang): From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson , HITEC 2009 42
Web 2.0 Success Characteristics Services, not packaged software, with cost‐effective scalability Scalability - Property of a system that can accommodate changes in transaction volume without major changes to the system. Control over unique, hard‐to‐recreate data sources that get richer as more people use them Trusting users as co‐developers Harnessing collective intelligence Leveraging the retail through customer self‐service Lightweight user interfaces, development models, AND business models From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson , HITEC 2009 43
What’s Coming Next? Well IT’s Only Logical … 44
Web 3.0 The Semantic Web - Systems Read and Categorize the Web Personalization - Web Contextualized Based on Individual Artificial Intelligence - Meaning Extracted from Web Interactions Dynamic Expert Communities - Leverages Collective Intelligence Mobility - Everything, Everywhere, All the Time The Logical Outcome? Relevant, Real‐time Search, Behavioral Targeting From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson , HITEC 2009 45
Web 3.0 - Knowledge RDF ‐ Resource Definition Format Need to Describe, Capture Knowledge & Define Relationships between “Stuff” Defines Semantic Web Relationships Through MetaData RDF Triplet Incorporates Property – Lecture Object – Preston Clark RDFS (RDF Schema) - Describes Properties & Classes of RDF’s OWL (Web Ontology Language) - Unified Language on Web Vocabulary Describes Characteristics of RDF Properties Relationships between RDF Classes From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson , HITEC 2009 46
Web Summary From: Robert Cole/Michael Robinson , HITEC 2009 47
Managing Hardware and Software Technology Capacity planning and scalability Total cost of ownership (TCO) of technology assets Using technology service providers Outsourcing On-demand computing Application service providers (ASPs) 48 Important issues faced by IT Managers
Business Continuity Planning (BCP) BCP is an approved set of preparations and sufficient procedures for responding to a range of disaster events, such as: Planning stage – alternative business recovery operating strategies are determined Emergency Response Procedures – designed to prevent/limit injury to personnel on site, damage to structures/equipment and the degradation if vital business functions Employee Awareness and Training Programs – must be well communicated throughout the organization 49 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Manager’s Role :Strategy to IS Implementation Business Strategy drives architecture. Managers must understand how to plan IT to realize business goals. Logical framework is used to guide the translation from business strategy to IS design. Know the state of existing architecture and infrastructure when translating strategy into architecture and then infrastructure. A business continuity plan is an approved set of preparations and sufficient procedures for responding to a disaster event. It is becoming more important that business managers effectively translate business strategy into IT infrastructure. 50 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.