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Geller Gep   2007
 

Geller Gep 2007

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Geller Gep 2007

Geller Gep 2007

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    Geller Gep   2007 Geller Gep 2007 Presentation Transcript

    • Biodiesel Production and Research Daniel Geller – UGA Engineering Outreach http://www.engr.uga.edu/service/outreach
    • FATS and OILS + ALCOHOL catalyst BIODIESEL + GLYCEROL Biodiesel Production
    • Biodiesel – an established technology
      • Studied since 1980s – solved issue of oil viscosity reduction in oils.
      • Established production methods and standardization ASTM D 6751 (2001).
    • Biodiesel Advantages
      • Increased Lubricity enhances ULSD
      • Higher Cetane Number than ULSD
      • Significant particulate matter and emission reductions from ULSD
        • No Sulfur In Biodiesel
        • Biodiesel is non-toxic
        • Biodiesel is biodegradable
        • Drastically reduced
        • carcinogenic emissions
    • Biodiesel Advantages
      • Renewable
      • Domestically Sourced
      • Domestically Produced
      • ENERGY SECURITY
    • Biodiesel Compatibility
        • Uses existing diesel refueling infrastructure
        • Biodiesel can be used with most existing vehicles without modification in blends or at 100%
        • Biodiesel is interchangeable with diesel fuel – can use biodiesel one day and petroleum the next
    • Biodiesel Considerations
          • Biodiesel solvent properties cleans fuel system = replacement of fuel filters
          • C old F ilter P lug P oint is higher in B100 – mixing with D2 compensates for elevated gel temperature
    • Preparing for Biodiesel Materials Compatibility
        • Biodiesel is NOT compatible with natural rubber
        • Make sure your hoses and seals are made of synthetic rubber (Viton, Teflon etc). Most modern vehicles do not use natural rubber. Older vehicles beware!
    • Preparing for Biodiesel Storage
        • Biodiesel is a powerful solvent. Tanks need to be clean before storing Biodiesel or the fuel will take the deposits with it into your engine
        • Tanks must also be dry: water = microbes
    • Quality Control – The ASTM Specification
      • ASTM D6751 – 03a
      • Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel
      • Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels
      • Membership in the National Biodiesel Board
      • required for sale of Biodiesel in US. Failure to
      • comply = $25,000/day fine from EPA
      • NBB enforces standard with quality checks. Failure to conform results in loss of membership
    • Biodiesel – Retail Availability
      • 30 million gallons (2004)
      • 75 million gallons (2005)
      • 250 million gallons (2006) estimated
      • Currently available at 300+ stations ( http://www.biodiesel.org ).
    • Biodiesel – Distribution
      • 10 distributors in GA
    • Biodiesel – Production
    • Biodiesel – GA Production 1 Major Producer: US Biofuels, Rome
    • FATS and OILS + ALCOHOL catalyst BIODIESEL + GLYCEROL Biodiesel Production Simple to make Difficult to make right - Biodiesel is made by the transesterification of vegetable oils C R 1 + 3MeOH C C C OH OH OH Me Me Me + Triglyceride (fats and oils) Methanol (alcohol) Glycerol Methyl Ester (Biodiesel) KOH O C O C R 2 O C O C R 3 O C O R 1 O C O R 2 O C O R 3 O C O
    • Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Simple to make, difficult to make right
    • Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil. Mix and heat Simple to make, difficult to make right
    • Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil. Mix and heat Allow tank to settle, decant bottom glycerol layer Simple to make, difficult to make right
    • Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil. Mix and heat Allow tank to settle, decant bottom glycerol layer Tank 3 wash with water settle, decant bottom water layer - repeat Simple to make, difficult to make right
    • Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil. Mix and heat Allow tank to settle, decant bottom glycerol layer Tank 3 wash with water settle, decant bottom water layer - repeat Simple to make, difficult to make right How Much? How Much? How Hot? How Fast? How Long? How Long? Reversible? SOAP? How Many Times? Centrifuge? Adsorbent?
    • Biodiesel Challenges
      • Feedstock Availability and Price
      • Quality Control - Meeting Spec.
      • Glycerol Byproduct Utilization
    • Tax Incentives and Pricing
        • US Federal Tax Credit of $1.00/gal for virgin oils, $.50/gal for used oils
        • Biodiesel must be blended with petroleum diesel to receive credit
        • Credit goes to the blender
    • Tax Incentives and Pricing
        • Biodiesel pricing is linked to feedstock cost
        • Feedstock can be 75 - 85% of fuel cost
        • Biodiesel pricing is also linked to petroleum costs
        • Biodiesel must compete with petrodiesel to be viable
    • Feedstock Shortage and Price Volatility
      • Limited supply of Biodiesel feedstocks in the US. Most oils are used in foods and have associated high price
      • Fats and Oils as well as fuels are commodities and thus have volatile prices.
    • Traditional Biodiesel Feedstocks
      • The most common form of Biodiesel is that made by the transesterification of vegetable oils
      In the US, soybeans provide the most common feedstock
    • Traditional Biodiesel Feedstocks
      • The most common form of Biodiesel is that made by the transesterification of vegetable oils
      In Europe, rapeseed provides the most common feedstock
    • Soy Oil Price Volatility Data from: Chicago Board of Trade (http://www.cbot.com/cbot/pub/page/1,3181,1272+chart,00.html?symb=BO&month=1!)
    • US Petroleum Consumption vs. Possible Oilseed Oil Production Data from: USDA (http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/reports/nassr/field/pcp-bban/cropan05.txt) DOE - Energy Information Administration (http://www.eia.doe.gov)
    • Other Possible Feedstocks
      • Tropical:
      • Palm
      • Jatropha
      • Emerging:
      • Sunflower
      • Mustard
      • Camelina
      • Southeast:
      • Poultry Fat
      • Peanuts
      • Cottonseed Oil
      • Unique:
      • Cupeha
      • Castor
    • High Output GA Feedstock - Peanuts
      • Advantages:
      • High Oil Yield ~50-60% Soy is only ~18% oil
      • Established GA Crop
      • Obstacles:
      • High Value Commodity
      • Shelling and sorting is costly process
    • Inexpensive GA Feedstock – Poultry Fat
      • Advantages:
      • Abundant commodity in GA
      • Historically low market price
      • Obstacles:
      • High Free Fatty Acids
      • Increased Processing
      • High demand = price rise + scarcity
    • Tropical Feedstocks – Palm, Jatropha
      • Advantages:
      • HIGH YIELD
      • LOW PRICES
      • Obstacles:
      • Poor cold flow properties
      • Minimal Domestic Production
      • Must import from other countries?
    • Emerging Feedstocks – Sunflower, Mustard, Camelina
      • Advantages:
      • Low Input
      • Good Domestic Agronomics
      • Obstacles:
      • Production Limited
      • No Historical Data
      • Unreliable Economics
    • Newly Available SE Feedstock – Cottonseed Oil
      • Advantages:
      • Recent changes in market = pricing?
      • Established SE Crop
      • Obstacles:
      • Variable Quality
      • Chemical issues
        • Polymers
        • Cold flow
    • University of Georgia Biodiesel Research
      • Over 20 years of Biodiesel research at UGA
    • University of Georgia Biodiesel Research
      • Over 20 years of Biodiesel research at UGA
      • Bench scale production and testing of fuel properties
    • Small Scale Reactor
      • 15 gallon reactor
      • Sight glass w/ 3 way valve for product separation
      • Electric Agitator provides continuous stirring
      • 3-10 gallon batches
    • Fuel Properties Analyses
    • University of Georgia Biodiesel Research
      • Over 20 years of Biodiesel research at UGA
      • Bench scale production and analysis of fuel properties
      • Small scale production and engine testing laboratory
    • Engine Testing Facility
    • Cold-Start Ignition Engines are equipped with dual-fuel system, fuel feed is switched from diesel to test fuel during starting sequence
    • Engine Loading – Power, Durability, Efficiency Engines are loaded by dumping current from generator into resistor bank. Increased resistance = increased power output Peterson Test leads to accelerated engine wear
    • Emissions Testing Real-Time analysis of CO, CO 2 , SOx, NOx, and Combustibles
    • University of Georgia Biodiesel Research
      • Over 20 years of Biodiesel research at UGA
      • Bench scale production and analysis of fuel properties
      • Small scale production and engine testing laboratory
      • GA Feedstock Selection