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Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
Geller Gep   2007
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Geller Gep 2007

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Geller Gep 2007

Geller Gep 2007

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  • 1. Biodiesel Production and Research Daniel Geller – UGA Engineering Outreach http://www.engr.uga.edu/service/outreach
  • 2. FATS and OILS + ALCOHOL catalyst BIODIESEL + GLYCEROL Biodiesel Production
  • 3. Biodiesel – an established technology <ul><li>Studied since 1980s – solved issue of oil viscosity reduction in oils. </li></ul><ul><li>Established production methods and standardization ASTM D 6751 (2001). </li></ul>
  • 4. Biodiesel Advantages <ul><li>Increased Lubricity enhances ULSD </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Cetane Number than ULSD </li></ul><ul><li>Significant particulate matter and emission reductions from ULSD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Sulfur In Biodiesel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel is non-toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel is biodegradable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drastically reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carcinogenic emissions </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Biodiesel Advantages <ul><li>Renewable </li></ul><ul><li>Domestically Sourced </li></ul><ul><li>Domestically Produced </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY SECURITY </li></ul>
  • 6. Biodiesel Compatibility <ul><ul><li>Uses existing diesel refueling infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel can be used with most existing vehicles without modification in blends or at 100% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel is interchangeable with diesel fuel – can use biodiesel one day and petroleum the next </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Biodiesel Considerations <ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel solvent properties cleans fuel system = replacement of fuel filters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C old F ilter P lug P oint is higher in B100 – mixing with D2 compensates for elevated gel temperature </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. Preparing for Biodiesel Materials Compatibility <ul><ul><li>Biodiesel is NOT compatible with natural rubber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure your hoses and seals are made of synthetic rubber (Viton, Teflon etc). Most modern vehicles do not use natural rubber. Older vehicles beware! </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Preparing for Biodiesel Storage <ul><ul><li>Biodiesel is a powerful solvent. Tanks need to be clean before storing Biodiesel or the fuel will take the deposits with it into your engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanks must also be dry: water = microbes </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Quality Control – The ASTM Specification <ul><li>ASTM D6751 – 03a </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Membership in the National Biodiesel Board </li></ul><ul><li>required for sale of Biodiesel in US. Failure to </li></ul><ul><li>comply = $25,000/day fine from EPA </li></ul><ul><li>NBB enforces standard with quality checks. Failure to conform results in loss of membership </li></ul>
  • 11. Biodiesel – Retail Availability <ul><li>30 million gallons (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>75 million gallons (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>250 million gallons (2006) estimated </li></ul><ul><li>Currently available at 300+ stations ( http://www.biodiesel.org ). </li></ul>
  • 12. Biodiesel – Distribution <ul><li>10 distributors in GA </li></ul>
  • 13. Biodiesel – Production
  • 14. Biodiesel – GA Production 1 Major Producer: US Biofuels, Rome
  • 15. FATS and OILS + ALCOHOL catalyst BIODIESEL + GLYCEROL Biodiesel Production Simple to make Difficult to make right - Biodiesel is made by the transesterification of vegetable oils C R 1 + 3MeOH C C C OH OH OH Me Me Me + Triglyceride (fats and oils) Methanol (alcohol) Glycerol Methyl Ester (Biodiesel) KOH O C O C R 2 O C O C R 3 O C O R 1 O C O R 2 O C O R 3 O C O
  • 16. Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Simple to make, difficult to make right
  • 17. Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil. Mix and heat Simple to make, difficult to make right
  • 18. Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil. Mix and heat Allow tank to settle, decant bottom glycerol layer Simple to make, difficult to make right
  • 19. Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil. Mix and heat Allow tank to settle, decant bottom glycerol layer Tank 3 wash with water settle, decant bottom water layer - repeat Simple to make, difficult to make right
  • 20. Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil. Mix and heat Allow tank to settle, decant bottom glycerol layer Tank 3 wash with water settle, decant bottom water layer - repeat Simple to make, difficult to make right How Much? How Much? How Hot? How Fast? How Long? How Long? Reversible? SOAP? How Many Times? Centrifuge? Adsorbent?
  • 21. Biodiesel Challenges <ul><li>Feedstock Availability and Price </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Control - Meeting Spec. </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerol Byproduct Utilization </li></ul>
  • 22. Tax Incentives and Pricing <ul><ul><li>US Federal Tax Credit of $1.00/gal for virgin oils, $.50/gal for used oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel must be blended with petroleum diesel to receive credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit goes to the blender </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Tax Incentives and Pricing <ul><ul><li>Biodiesel pricing is linked to feedstock cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedstock can be 75 - 85% of fuel cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel pricing is also linked to petroleum costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel must compete with petrodiesel to be viable </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. Feedstock Shortage and Price Volatility <ul><li>Limited supply of Biodiesel feedstocks in the US. Most oils are used in foods and have associated high price </li></ul><ul><li>Fats and Oils as well as fuels are commodities and thus have volatile prices. </li></ul>
  • 25. Traditional Biodiesel Feedstocks <ul><li>The most common form of Biodiesel is that made by the transesterification of vegetable oils </li></ul>In the US, soybeans provide the most common feedstock
  • 26. Traditional Biodiesel Feedstocks <ul><li>The most common form of Biodiesel is that made by the transesterification of vegetable oils </li></ul>In Europe, rapeseed provides the most common feedstock
  • 27. Soy Oil Price Volatility Data from: Chicago Board of Trade (http://www.cbot.com/cbot/pub/page/1,3181,1272+chart,00.html?symb=BO&amp;month=1!)
  • 28. US Petroleum Consumption vs. Possible Oilseed Oil Production Data from: USDA (http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/reports/nassr/field/pcp-bban/cropan05.txt) DOE - Energy Information Administration (http://www.eia.doe.gov)
  • 29. Other Possible Feedstocks <ul><li>Tropical: </li></ul><ul><li>Palm </li></ul><ul><li>Jatropha </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging: </li></ul><ul><li>Sunflower </li></ul><ul><li>Mustard </li></ul><ul><li>Camelina </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast: </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Peanuts </li></ul><ul><li>Cottonseed Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Unique: </li></ul><ul><li>Cupeha </li></ul><ul><li>Castor </li></ul>
  • 30. High Output GA Feedstock - Peanuts <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>High Oil Yield ~50-60% Soy is only ~18% oil </li></ul><ul><li>Established GA Crop </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacles: </li></ul><ul><li>High Value Commodity </li></ul><ul><li>Shelling and sorting is costly process </li></ul>
  • 31. Inexpensive GA Feedstock – Poultry Fat <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Abundant commodity in GA </li></ul><ul><li>Historically low market price </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacles: </li></ul><ul><li>High Free Fatty Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Processing </li></ul><ul><li>High demand = price rise + scarcity </li></ul>
  • 32. Tropical Feedstocks – Palm, Jatropha <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH YIELD </li></ul><ul><li>LOW PRICES </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacles: </li></ul><ul><li>Poor cold flow properties </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal Domestic Production </li></ul><ul><li>Must import from other countries? </li></ul>
  • 33. Emerging Feedstocks – Sunflower, Mustard, Camelina <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Low Input </li></ul><ul><li>Good Domestic Agronomics </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacles: </li></ul><ul><li>Production Limited </li></ul><ul><li>No Historical Data </li></ul><ul><li>Unreliable Economics </li></ul>
  • 34. Newly Available SE Feedstock – Cottonseed Oil <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Recent changes in market = pricing? </li></ul><ul><li>Established SE Crop </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacles: </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold flow </li></ul></ul>
  • 35. University of Georgia Biodiesel Research <ul><li>Over 20 years of Biodiesel research at UGA </li></ul>
  • 36. University of Georgia Biodiesel Research <ul><li>Over 20 years of Biodiesel research at UGA </li></ul><ul><li>Bench scale production and testing of fuel properties </li></ul>
  • 37. Small Scale Reactor <ul><li>15 gallon reactor </li></ul><ul><li>Sight glass w/ 3 way valve for product separation </li></ul><ul><li>Electric Agitator provides continuous stirring </li></ul><ul><li>3-10 gallon batches </li></ul>
  • 38. Fuel Properties Analyses
  • 39. University of Georgia Biodiesel Research <ul><li>Over 20 years of Biodiesel research at UGA </li></ul><ul><li>Bench scale production and analysis of fuel properties </li></ul><ul><li>Small scale production and engine testing laboratory </li></ul>
  • 40. Engine Testing Facility
  • 41. Cold-Start Ignition Engines are equipped with dual-fuel system, fuel feed is switched from diesel to test fuel during starting sequence
  • 42. Engine Loading – Power, Durability, Efficiency Engines are loaded by dumping current from generator into resistor bank. Increased resistance = increased power output Peterson Test leads to accelerated engine wear
  • 43. Emissions Testing Real-Time analysis of CO, CO 2 , SOx, NOx, and Combustibles
  • 44. University of Georgia Biodiesel Research <ul><li>Over 20 years of Biodiesel research at UGA </li></ul><ul><li>Bench scale production and analysis of fuel properties </li></ul><ul><li>Small scale production and engine testing laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>GA Feedstock Selection </li></ul>

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