Plant Structures

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Plant parts

Plant parts

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  • 1. Plant Structures By SJ Photography (http://search.creativecommons.org/#)
  • 2. Three types of plant tissues
    • Ground tissue – make up bulk of plant
    • Vascular tissue – distribute water and solutes (carbohydrates, nutrients)
    • Dermal tissue – cover and protect plant surface
  • 3. Angiosperm body plan
    • Aboveground: shoots
      • Leaves, stems : produce
      • sugars by photosynthesis
      • Flowers : Reproduction
    • Belowground: roots
      • Absorb water and minerals
      • Store sugars/carbohydrates
    SHOOT SYSTEM ROOT SYSTEM
  • 4. Meristems
    • Regions of cell division producing growth
    • Apical meristems
      • Responsible for primary growth (lengthening)
      • At shoot and root tip
    • Lateral meristems
      • Responsible for secondary growth (thickening)
  • 5. Stem apical meristem
  • 6. Root apical meristem
  • 7. Lateral meristems
  • 8. Aboveground: Stem and Leaf
    • Major stem
      • Secondary stems branch off
    • Terminal bud : shoot tip
    • Auxiliary bud : location of secondary stem growth
    • Petiole : stalk attaching leaf to stem
    • Node : location on stem of leaf attachment
    • Internode : distance between two leaves on a stem
  • 9. Leaf
    • Blade: thin, flattened part
      • Collects lights for photosynthesis
      • Exchanges gases
  • 10. Leaf Tissues
    • Epidermis: Single layer of cells on top and bottom
      • Secretes waxes onto the outer surface forming the cuticle
  • 11. Leaf Tissues
    • Mesophyll: Photosynthetic tissue between the epidermis
      • Palisade : attached to the upper epidermis
        • Columnar shaped
        • Contains 80% of chloroplasts
      • Spongy : attached to lower epidermis
        • Loose cells with air spaces
        • Fewer chloroplasts
  • 12. Stomata and Guard Cells
    • Stomata: pores in the epidermis
      • Allow water and gas diffusion
      • Help cool the leaf
    • Guard cells: control stomata opening and closing
      • Contain chloroplasts
      • Expand and contract
      • with water gain and loss
        • Gain water : open
        • Lose water : closed
  • 13. Vascular tissues
    • Xylem
      • Conducts water and dissolved minerals
      • Provides mechanical support for plants
      • Dead at maturity (vessels & tracheids)
    • Phloem
      • Conducts sugars and other solutes
      • Alive at maturity (sieve tubes)
  • 14. Xylem Phloem