Social media: Are there adequate evidences to substantiate a redefinition of comprehensive consumer behaviour models? Focus on Leisure Tourism Products

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  • Ladies and gentlemen good morning,My name is John Fotis. I just started the second year of my PhD at the School of Tourism at Bournemouth University under the supervision of Prof Buhalis, Prof Fyall, and Dr Moital.My research focuses on the impact of social media in consumer behaviour and in particular in the decision making process, within the context of purchases of leisure tourism products.Today I would like to share some thoughts with you on whether social media provide adequate evidences to substantiate a redefinition of comprehensive consumer behaviour models.
  • Social media are “internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0 and allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (Kaplan and Haenlen 2010m, p.61 ). Web 2.0 and in particular social media: As social networks of consumer knowledge, affect consumer behaviour (De Valck et al. 2009) Complicate the buying behaviour process described in Inputs-Processing-Response models (Constantinides and Fountain 2008). Start replacing commercial sources of information and evidence limited replacement of reference groups (Jepsen 2006). Seem that are changing dramatically not only traditional mass media communications, but also the ways consumers communicate and exchange information with each other. Mass media and the interpersonal communications are so far considered as the cornerstones of information collection, a function of significance importance in the consumer decision making process. One can therefore argue that if social media are changing dramatically traditional mass media communications, and interpersonal communications these changes should have an impact on information collection and as a result also in the whole decision making process- Do social media change the way consumers’ are making decisions? - Do social media, due to their impact, substantiate a redefinition of the structure and the constructs involved in the decision making process, as depicted in comprehensive consumer behaviour models?Although there is a plethora of studies on social media, most focus on a specific (at a time) type of social medium, employing a micro and not a macro approach on their impact - as a whole - in consumers’ decision making
  • Aim: To develop a comprehensive framework / model describing the impact of social media on the purchase decision making process. Objectives:To investigate the relationship, and describe its nature, between social media and each of the stages described in comprehensive consumer behaviour decision making models.To examine whether the use of social media transforms, both in context and in content, the traditional role of the “information search” construct as depicted in comprehensive consumer behaviour models.To describe the impact of social media in terms of use and influence during each of the stages in the travel planning process.
  • An attempt to explain the “why” and “how” of consumer actions in the marketplace.Dominant theory: Cognitive approach. The study of human behaviour relates directly to “the investigation of consumers’ information processing mechanism, that is how consumers mentally process, store, retrieve and use marketing information in the decision making process” Comprehensive cognitive models attempt to depict the “grand picture” by suggesting a large number of variables, and their interrelationships, attempting to explain a given consumption behaviour Theory of Buyer Behaviour (Howard and Sheth 1969) Consumer Decision Process Model (Engel et al. 1968, Blackwell et al. 2006)Despite extensive criticism (assumption of a rational decision maker / generalization of dmp / detail included in models / positivistic approach) still today are used to provide comprehensive representations of the purchase dmp
  • The decision making process is one of the most significant elements of comprehensive consumer behaviour modelsFocusing in the dmp, what I am hypothesizing is that social media transform the information search construct More specifically what I will try to prove is that information search is not anymore located after need recognition and prior to pre-purchase evaluation of alternatives, but it runs in parallel with all other constructs of the decision making process.To my belief the information search is transformed to information exchange having relationships to NEED RECOGNITION, PRE-PURCHASE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES, THE PURCHASE, THE CONSUMPTION, THE POST CONSUMPTION EVALUATION. However, given that the context of my research is on leisure travel products, I will not be able to test a relationship to the DIVENSTMENT construct

Transcript

  • 1. Social media: Are there adequate evidences to substantiate a redefinition of comprehensive consumer behaviour models? Focus on Leisure Tourism Products
    John Fotis
    jfotis@bournemouth.ac.uk
    School of Tourism
    Bournemouth University, UK
  • 2. Problem Statement
    Impact on consumer behaviour, as social networks of consumer knowledge
    (De Valck et al. 2009)
    Social media
    Complicate the buying behaviour process described in Inputs-Processing-Response models (Constantinides and Fountain 2008).
    Start replacing commercial sources of information and evidence limited replacement of reference groups (Jepsen 2006).
    Are changing dramatically (a) traditional mass media communications,
    (b) the ways consumers communicate and exchange information.
    Consumer decision making process
    Information collection
    Mass media
    Interpersonal communications
    • Do social media change the way consumers are making decisions?
    • 3. Do social media, due to their impact, substantiate a redefinition of the structure and the constructs involved in the decision making process, as depicted in comprehensive consumer behaviour models?
    Plethora of studies in social media, but (a) with a micro approach, (b) do not examine their impact on the dmp as a whole process
    2
  • 4. Aim & Objectives
    Aim: To develop a comprehensive framework / model describing the impact of social media on the purchase decision making process.
    Objectives:
    To investigate the relationship, and describe its nature, between social media and each of the stages described in comprehensive consumer behaviour decision making models.
    To examine whether the use of social media transforms, both in context and in content, the traditional role of the “information search” construct as depicted in comprehensive consumer behaviour models.
    To describe the impact of social media in terms of use and influence during each of the stages in the travel planning process.
    ENTER 2011 RESEARCH TRACK
    3
  • 5. Theoretical background
    4
    Consumer behaviour theory & models
    An attempt to explain the “why” and “how” of consumer actions in the marketplace.
    Dominant theory: Cognitive approach (Foxall 1990; Marsden and Littler 1998).
    Focus on consumers’ information processing mechanism, mental process, storage, retrieval and use of marketing information in the decision making process” (Marsden and Littler 1998, p.6).
    Comprehensive cognitive models: The “grand picture” suggesting a large number of variables, and their interrelationships, attempting to explain a given consumption behaviour (Kassarjian 1982, Foxall 1990, Robertson and Kassarjian 1991, Chisnall 1995).
    Theory of Buyer Behaviour (Howard and Sheth 1969)
    Consumer Decision Process Model (Engel et al. 1968, Blackwell et al. 2006)
    Despite extensive criticism (assumption of a rational decision maker / generalization of dmp / detail included in models / positivistic approach) still today are used to provide comprehensive representations of the purchase dmp (Erasmus et all 2001, Constantinides 2004, Darley et al. 2010)
  • 6. , THE
    ENTER 2011 RESEARCH TRACK
    5
    INPUT
    INFORMATION
    PROCESSING
    DECISION PROCESS
    VARIABLES INFLUENCING DECISION PROCESS
    DREAMING
    NEED RECOGNITION
    ENVIRONMENTAL
    INFLUENCES
    Culture
    Social Class
    Personal influences
    Family
    Situation
    EXPOSURE
    INTERNAL SEARCH
    SEARCH
    SEARCH
    ACCUMMULATING
    KNOWLEDGE
    ATTENTION
    STIMULI:
    Marketer dominated
    Non-marketer
    dominated
    MEMORY
    INFORMATION EXCHANGE
    PRE-PURCHASE EVALUATION
    OF ALTERNATIVES
    COMPREHENSION
    PURCHASE
    INDIVIDUAL
    DIFFERENCES
    Consumer
    resources
    Motivation and
    involvement
    Knowledge
    Attitudes
    Personality
    Lifestyle
    Demographics
    ACCEPTANCE
    SHARING
    THE
    EXPERIENCE
    CONSUMPTION
    RETENTION
    POST-CONSUMPTION
    EVALUATION
    EXTERNAL SEARCH
    EXTERNAL SEARCH
    EXTERNAL SEARCH
    REFLECTING
    DISSATISFA-CTION
    SATISFACTION
    POST-EXPERIENCE
    SHARING
    CURRENT ROLE & POSITION
    OF THE INFORMATION SEARCH CONSTRUCT
    SEARCH
    PROPOSED HYPOTHETICAL
    RELATIONSHIPS
    (TO BE TESTED)
    DIVESTMENT
    PROPOSED REDEFINITION
    OF THE INFORMATION SEARCH CONSTRUCT
    Blackwell et al. 2006
  • 7. Proposed Methodology
    A mixed methods sequential exploratory design:1
    QUAL
    quan
    QUAL
    Data
    Collection
    QUAL
    Data
    Analysis
    quan
    Data
    Collection
    quan
    Data
    Analysis
    Interpretation
    of entire
    Analysis
    Survey Panel
    Holidaymakers who booked via an online travel agency (n=300), invited to complete 3 questionnaires:
    Focus Groups:
    Three to four focus groups to explore perceived issues and concepts, identify relationships and develop hypothesis.
    Before the trip: Describe interaction with social media measure impact (a) before booking (b) after booking-before trip.
    At the holiday destination: Describe the “during the trip” interaction with social media and measure impact on itinerary planning and destination experience.
    (1) Tashakkori and Teddlie 2003;
    Creswell 2009;
    Collins and O’Cathain 2009;
    Leech and Onwuegbuzie 2009
    After the trip: Describe the after the trip interaction with social media.
    6
  • 8. Expected Results
    Uncover the role, and measure the impact of different types of social media in leisure travel related consumer behaviour, both before, during and after the trip.
    Provide a contemporary, redefined role of the “information search” construct in consumer behaviour decision making models
    Research output valuable to:
    Industry: It will enable marketers to understand the impact of social media throughout the decision making process and therefore develop more efficient and effective marketing strategies and actions.
    Academia: Advance consumer behaviour theory at macro level by providing a comprehensive model demonstrating the influence of social media on the consumer decision making process and at the various stages of the travel planning process, thus enabling further research at micro level.
    7
  • 9. Originality
    Focus on the impact of social media as a whole, instead of studying individual applications and platforms.
    Examines the need for a redefinition of the information search construct as it is currently depicted in comprehensive consumer behaviour models.
    Examines the role and impact of social media to both (a) the various stages of the decision making process, and (b) the stages of the travel planning process.
    Involves a three stage research design, before, during and after the trip, employing the same panel of travellers throughout the research process.
    ENTER 2011 RESEARCH TRACK
    8
  • 10. Contribution
    Advance consumer behaviour theory at macro level by providing a comprehensive model demonstrating the influence of social media on the consumer decision making process.
    Provide a contemporary, redefined role of the “information search” construct in consumer behaviour decision making models.
    Enable marketing scholars to investigate further the specific relationships described in the model by researching at micro level.
    Provide to academia a contemporary educational tool to demonstrate the impact of social media in consumer behaviour.
    ENTER 2011 RESEARCH TRACK
    9
  • 11. Thank you
    ENTER 2011 RESEARCH TRACK
    10
  • 12. References
    Bray, J., Schetzina, C., & Steinbrick, S. (2006). Six travel trends for 2006: PhoCus Wright.
    Blackwell, R.D., Miniard, P.W., and Engel, J.F. (2007). Consumer Behavior 10th ed. Aufl., Mason: Thomson South-Western.
    Buhalis, D. and Law D. (2008). Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the Internet—The state of eTourism research. Progress in Tourism Management, 29 (4), 609-623.
    Buhalis, D. and O’Connor, P. (2005). Information Communication Technology - Revolutionizing Tourism. Tourism Recreation Research, 30 (3), 7-16.
    Constantinides, E. and Fountain, J.F. (2008). Web 2.0: Conceptual foundations and marketing issues. Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice 9, 231 – 244.
    eMarketer (2008). Online reviews Sway Shoppers. Accessed online on July 15, 2008 from http://www.eMarketer.com
    Erasmus, A., Boshoff, E., and Rousseau, G. (2001) Consumer decision-making models within the discipline of consumer science: A critical approach. Journal of Family Ecology, 29, 82-90.
    Fernback, J., & Thompson, B. (1995). Virtual Communities: Abort, Retry, Failure? Accessed online on 19 May, 2006, from http://www.well.com/user/hlr/texts/VCcivil.html
    Gretzel, U., Yoo, K., and Purifoy, M. (2007). Online travel review study: Role and impact of online travel reviews. Texas, AM University.
    Gretzel, U., Fosenmaier, D.R., & O’Leary, J.T. (2006). The transformation of consumer behaviour. In D. Buhalis & C. Costa (Eds.), Tourism Business Frontiers. Amsterdam; London; Butterworth Heinemann.
    Chung, J.Y., & Buhalis, D. (2008). Web 2.0: A study of online travel community. ENTER 2008 Proceedings, Innsbruck, Springer-Verlag, Wien.
    Lenhart, A., Madden, M.: Teens, privacy & online social networks. Pew Internet and American Life Project Report. Accessed online on Jan 31, 2008 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Privacy_SNS_Report_Final.pdf
    Litvin, S.W., Goldsmith, R.E. and Pan, B. (2008). Electronic word of mouth in the hospitality & tourism management. Tourism Management, 29 (3), 458-468
    Mack, R.W., Blose, J. and Pan, B. (2008). Believe it or not: credibility of blogs in tourism. Journal of Vacation Marketing 14 (2), 133–144.
    Mazanec, J., (1989). Consumer Behaviour in Tourism. In S.F. Witt & L. Moutinho (Eds.), Tourism Marketing and Management Handbook. Hertfordshire, Prentice Hall International (UK)
    McKinsey, (2007): How Businesses are Using Web 2.0, in: The McKinsey Quarterly, March 2007, Accessed online on December 15, 2007 from http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/
    Marketing/Digital_Marketing/How_businesss_are_using_Web_20_A_McKinsey_Global_Survey_1913_.
    Pan, B., MacLaurin, T. and Crotts, J. (2007). Travel blogs and their implications for destination marketing. Journal of Travel Research, 46 (1), 35–45.
    Qualman, E., (2009). It’s a people driven economy stupid. Socialnomics – Social media Blog. Accessed online on 9 September 2009 from:http://socialnomics.net/video/.
    Ricci, F. and Wietsma, R. (2006). ‘Product Reviews in Travel Decision Making’. In M. Hitz, M. Sigala and J. Murphy (eds.) Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism in 2006. Proceedings of the ENTER Conference in Lausanne, Switzerland, 2006, pp. 296-307. Vienna: Springer Computer Science.
    Richter A.; Koch M. (2007). Social Software – Status quo und Zukunft. TechnischerBericht Nr. 2007-01, FakultätfürInformatik, UniversitätderBundeswehrMünchen.
    Sidali, K.L., Schulze, H. and Spiller A. (2009). The Impact of Online Reviews on the Choice of Holiday Accommodations. In W. Hopken, U. Gretzel & R. Law (Eds.), Information and Communications Technologies in Tourism 2009 – Proceedings of the International Conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Springer Verlag, Wien
    Sirakaya, E., and Woodside, A. G. (2005). Building and testing theories of decision making by travellers. Tourism Management, 26 (6), 815-832.
    Solomon, M.R. (2007). Consumer Behaviour, Buying, Having and Being.Uper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall
    TripAdvisor (2009). Accessed online on March 18, 2009 from http://www.tripadvisor.com
    Vermeulen, I., and Seegers, D. (2009). Tried and tested: The impact of online hotel reviews on consumer consideration. Tourism Management, 30 (1), 123-127.
    Wang, Y., Yu, Q. and Fesenmaier, D. R. (2002). Defining the virtual tourist community: implications for tourism marketing. Tourism Management, 23 (4), 407-417.
    Yoo, K..-H., Lee, K.S. & Gretzel U. (2007). The role of Source Characteristics in eWOM: What makes online travel reviewers Credible and Likeable? In M. Sigala, L. Mich, J. Murphy and A. Frew (Eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2007, 23-34. Vienna, Austria: Springer
    11
  • 13. 12
    Traditional descriptions of the information search and the post purchase constructs neglect several information exchange functions that are brought out, and enlarged in volume, through social media, such as:
    The ongoing search related to recreational or hedonic motives (Bloch et al. 1986; Chung and Buhalis 2008) which may occurs before need recognition.
    The exchange of information during the pre-purchase evaluation of alternatives, such as posts in forums from consumers seeking advice on which product to buy among a short-list of few products.
    The exchange of information related to the purchase construct, i.e. posts to social networks of the type “I just bought my new iphone”.
    The exchange of information during the consumption/use stage, i.e. when consumers seek advice in forums on how to overcome a hardware problem in their laptop.
    The post-consumption exchange of feedback that create either symbolic stimuli (i.e. YouTube users’ review videos, hotel guests’ photos and videos in TripAdvisor), or social stimuli (i.e. uploads in social networks, blogs, user reviews etc) for other consumers.