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Second great-awakening

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  • Barbary war- America’s first need to defend itself as an independent nation from England. The Barbary Pirates were capturing, destroying, and holding ransom American ships. Jefferson (not yet president) waged war with the American Navy and support of Washington to gain control of the seas. The War of 1812 (in Britain, the American War of 1812 to 1815 ) was fought between the United States of America and Britain and its colonies in British North America (see Upper Canada and Lower Canada ) from 1812 to 1815 on land and sea. The Americans had hoped for a quick win as Britain was at war with Napoleon. Despite several notable successes by US frigates and the menace of American privateers to British trade, the Royal Navy established a strict blockade of American trade causing economic hardship; however, success on land see-sawed back and forth between the Americans and the British and Canadian forces. The war ended with the Treaty of Ghent , restoring North America to status quo ante bellum . Monroe Doctrine-The Monroe Doctrine , expressed in 1823, proclaimed the United States ' opinion that European powers should no longer colonize the Americas or interfere with the affairs of sovereign nations located in the Americas , such as the United States of America, Mexico , and others.
  • The first picture is of the cane ridge meeting house where the revival was to take place. The second picture is of the multitudes of people, covering acres.
  • Falling- The subject would fall with a piercing scream and lay for hours in a lifeless state. The Jerks- A member of the body would be jerked backward and forward, or from side to side, so quickly that the member could not be distinguished. “I have seen a person stand in one place, and jerk backward and forward in quick succession, his head nearly touching the floor behind and before. Dancing- Generally began after the jerks, the smile of heaven shone on the subject’s face. Barking- nothing but the jerks. A person affected with the jerks would often make a grunt, or bark, from the suddenness of the jerk. Laughing- The subject appeared rapturously solemn, and his laughter excited solemnity in saints and sinners. Running- Persons feeling something of these bodily agitations through fear, attempted to run away and thus escape from them. But it commonly happened that they ran not far before they fell or became so greatly agitated that they could proceed no farther. Singing- The subject in a very happy state of mind would sing most melodiously, not from the mouth or nose, but entirely in the breast, the sounds issuing thence. Such music silenced everything, and attracted the attention of all. It was most heavenly, and none could ever tire of hearing it.
  • Logan County Kentucky was where all sorts of refugees from the union fled to escape punishment. The area was a primitive frontier.
  • The Age of Reason was a book that ridiculed the Old and New Testaments as unworthy of a good God. “It would be more consistent that we called it the word of a demon than the word of God.” Paine’s other notable works, Common Sense (contributed to the atmosphere that fueled the writing of the Dec. of Ind. “These are the times that try men’s souls.), and American Crisis (16 papers describing his time in the continental army).
  • "Let him [the preacher] go right over against them, urge upon them their ability to obey God, show them their obligation and duty, and press them with that until he brings them to submit and be saved." Finney does not view Jesus' death as payment for the sins of human beings who cannot save themselves. Rather, Jesus' death demonstrates God's anger over sin and his great love for humankind. Jesus becomes merely an example of what we should do for God if we really love him - give ourselves totally up to him. This notion, the so-called "moral government" theory of the atonement, compromises the biblical doctrine of salvation, where Jesus came to offer his life as a ransom for imprisoned and helpless sinners (Matthew 20:28). "Sinners ought to be made to feel that they have something to do, and that is, to repent that it is something which no other being can do for them, neither God nor man; and something which they can do, and do now. Religion is something to do, not something to wait for. And they must do it now, or they are in danger of eternal death." 4 All ministers should be revival ministers, and all preaching should be revival preaching; that is, it should be calculated to promote holiness. People say: "It is very well to have some men in the Church, who are revival preachers, and who can go about and promote revivals; but then you must have others to indoctrinate the Church." Strange! Do they know that a revival indoctrinates the Church faster than anything else? And a minister will never produce a revival if he does not indoctrinate his hearers. The preaching I have described is full of doctrine, but it is doctrine to be practised. 5 Now, what is the design of the actor in theatrical representation? It is so to throw himself into the spirit and meaning of the writer, as to adopt his sentiments, and make them his own: to feel them, embody them, throw them out upon the audience as a living reality. Now, what is the objection to all this in preaching? The actor suits the action to the word, and the word to the action. His looks, his hands, his attitudes, and everything, are designed to express the full meaning of the writer. Now, this should be the aim of the preacher. And if by "theatrical" be meant the strongest possible representation of the sentiments expressed, then the more theatrical the sermon is, the better. "Without new measures it is impossible that the Church should succeed in gaining the attention of the world to religion. There are so many exciting subjects constantly brought before the public mind, such a running to and fro, so many that cry 'Lo here!' and 'Lo there!' that the Church cannot maintain her ground without sufficient novelty in measures, to get the public ear." 8 Theological Observer: Charles Finney on Theology and Worship Issues, Etc. ^ | Issues, Etc. | Lawrence R. Rast, Jr. http://209.157.64.200/focus/f-religion/1704946/posts
  • Finney was convinced that the gospel was for much more than just getting people saved, it was for cleaning up society. He founded the Benevolent Empire composed of a great network of volunteer societies organized to attack social problems. Finney’s organizations earned a total annual income of over 130 million dollars which rivaled the budget for the entire government in those days.

Second great-awakening Second great-awakening Presentation Transcript

  • The Second Great Awakening Mid-1790s to 1840
  • The Awakening
      War with the Barbary Pirates War of 1812 Monroe Doctrine Financial Panic
      World Wide Mission Movement Camp Meeting Revivals Circuit Riders
  • Did You Know?
    • Half of those who took up circuit riding died before the age of 33
    • The focal point of early camp meetings was receiving communion
    • Peter Cartwright, long-time circuit rider in Illinois, was defeated in a congressional race by the lanky Abraham Lincoln
  • Awakenings in the West
    • Revival at Cane Ridge
    • Piercing Screams and Heavenly Smiles
    • James McGready
    • Peter Cartwright
  • Revival at Cane Ridge
    • By the year 1800 nearly 1 million people had moved West
    (Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee)
    • Religion seemed to be fading in the rough wilderness
    • McGready, a fearless preacher, reminded his people that they had not left the eternal God behind them
    • McGready planned a camp meeting at Cane Ridge after some success with his pioneers
    • Over 25,000 people attended
    • The people were divided into congregations and great revival took place
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    • A LETTER FROM A GENTLEMAN, TO HIS FRIEND IN BALTIMORE, BOURBON-COUNTY, AUGUST 7, 1801. My dear friend,"I am on my way to one of the greatest meetings of the kind perhaps ever known; it is on a sacramental occasion. Religion has got to such a height here, that people attend from a great distance; on this occasion I doubt not but there will be 10,000 people, and perhaps 500 wagons. The people encamp on the ground, and continue praising God, day and night, for one whole week before they break up."
    • "The noise was like the roar of Niagara. The vast sea of human beings seemed to be agitated as if by a storm. I counted seven ministers, all preaching at one time, some on stumps, others in wagons and one standing on a tree which had, in falling, lodged against another. ... The scene that presented itself to my mind was indescribable. At one time I saw at least five hundred swept down in a moment as if a battery of a thousand guns had been opened upon them, and then immediately followed shrieks and shouts that rent the very heavens." - James Finley, later a Methodist circuit rider
  • Piercing Screams and Heavenly Smiles
    • Falling
    • The Jerks
    • Dancing
    • Barking
    • Laughing
    • Running
    • Singing
  • James McGready
    • Presbyterian Minister
    • Pastored three churches
    • This area was full of “Murderers, horse-thieves, highway robbers, and counterfeiters.”
    • His fearless preaching gained him many converts.
  • Peter Cartwright
    • One of the greatest frontier preachers and circuit riders
    • Grew up on the western frontier
    • Baptized almost 10,000 converts
    • Preached almost 15,000 sermons
    • Left Kentucky and Tennessee because of his distaste for slavery and went to Illinois
    • Elected for legislature and ran for congress only to lose to Abraham Lincoln
  • Peter Cartwright
  • Awakenings in the East
    • Gloom, Doom, and Deism
    • Timothy Dwight and Yale
    • Charles Grandison Finney
  • Gloom, Doom, and Deism
    • Romance of the West depleted populations in the East
    • Deism- God is not involved and human reason is the ultimate authority
    • Thomas Jefferson, a strong Deist, viewed religion as simply a moral code
    • Thomas Paine and The Age of Reason
  • Timothy Dwight and Yale
    • Grandfather was Jonathan Edwards
    • Chaplin in the Revolution
    • Before Dwight, Yale had very little use for the Christian faith.
    • As a new president, Dwight drew very strict battle lines, Christianity or infidelity.
  • Revival at Yale
    • Dwight earned admiration for his concern over the students’ souls
    • Two students were converted an made public professions of faith
    • 10 days before vacation 50 men declared themselves eager for Christianity
    • Over time Dwight witnessed the conversions of 80 of the 160 students at Yale
    • The new atmosphere at the college was one of concern for spiritual matters
  •  
  • Charles Grandison Finney
    • Described as tall and handsome with hypnotic blue eyes and a majestic voice.
    • In a day of formal preaching, Finney offended some with his direct, personal style.
    • Finney used the reasoning he learned as a courtroom lawyer to convince people of their need for Christ.
  • Finney’s Ministry
    • Traveled New York
    seeing hundreds of converts in each town.
    • New techniques and beliefs were criticized-
      • Praying for persons by name
      • Allowing women to pray and testify
      • Encouraging people to come forward
      • Revival is simply human choice
      • Man-centered religion
    • Although Finney’s preaching is said to have converted many, his personal beliefs may have done just the opposite.
      • Denied original sin (Psalm 51:5)
      • Claimed man was his own savior
      • Described Jesus as a moral example of what we should do if we really love God (Matthew 20:28).
      • Believed in a works based salvation
    (II Timothy 3:16).
  • In the Wake of the Second Great Awakening
    • Finney’s Benevolent Empire
    • Social Reform
    • Antislavery agitation