Insomnia PSY 492 Instructor James Liggett Jonathan Moretti December 14, 2009
ABSTRACT <ul><li>Insomnia is a sleep disorder where one is unable to obtain sufficient sleep for at least 30 days in a row (DSM IV, 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia can be caused by either psychological factors or as a side effect from taking medications (DSM IV, 1994). </li></ul>
REASON <ul><li>I picked the topic of insomnia because I have a friend who has experienced insomnia in the past, and may currently be experiencing it again. I am not sure if it is true insomnia, but she has told me that she has had a very difficult time sleeping in the past several weeks. She has just started grad school and at the same time her boyfriend of 3 years broke up with her for no apparent reason. She told me she was drinking more and taking antidepressants. I would like to see if she is experiencing insomnia from the stress of going to grad school and breaking up with her boyfriend or from taking antidepressants and drinking alcohol. </li></ul>
FACTS <ul><li>When you first think of Insomnia you think of someone that can not sleep. You picture this person not being able to sleep because they have had an over abundance of energy caused by caffeine or sugar. Although this may be a reason for not being able to achieve normal sleep, the problem is most likely psychological. The lack of regular sleep patterns is known as primary sleep disorders. Insomnia can also be brought on by having other types of mental disorders like depression or it can be a result of drugs that one is taking that is to disrupting their sleeping patterns (Multiple Authors, DSM IV). </li></ul><ul><li>While researching the topic of Insomnia the biggest argument that seems to come up is whether or not it is caused by psychological effects or from chemical effects. Insomnia is a sleep disorder where one is unable to sustain the proper amount of sleep for at least 1 month (Millet, 1938). They either have trouble falling asleep or trouble staying asleep, or could be a combination of both falling and staying asleep. </li></ul>
FACTS CONT. <ul><li>Those that argue that insomnia is caused by psychological causes define this as primary insomnia (DSM-IV, 1994). It is referred to as primary insomnia because there appears to be no outside source causing the person to have trouble sleeping. They usually are tired through out the day, and will frequently fall asleep for short amounts of time during the day. At night time insomniacs concentrate so hard on falling to sleep that they can not fall asleep. Someone may also be depressed or be suffering from anxiety and this will cause them not to be able to sleep as well. As you can see their insomnia is being caused by mental disorders they may have (Lyman, 2009). </li></ul>
FACTS CONT. <ul><li>Insomnia may also be caused by chemical factors. People who are abusing drugs will most likely be on irregular sleep patterns. It will either be from staying up all hours of the night partying or from the inability for your body to reach REM sleep. For instance alcohol suppresses melatonin which is a neurotransmitter that regulates sleep (Pinel, 2009). Without a sufficient amount of melatonin your body will have trouble sleeping. At the same time someone going through alcohol withdrawal, usually an alcoholic, could experience insomnia. Since the alcoholics body is so used to having this substance in their body, suddenly not having this substance in their body will cause an interruption in their REM sleep. Alcohol is not the only substance that could cause this. The substances range from alcohol to aspirin and from cocaine to Prozac (Doweiko, 2009). </li></ul>
FACTS CONT. <ul><li>In the end, no matter the causes of insomnia, the subject will experience inefficient social and occupational interactions. I would have to lean on that insomnia is caused initially by stress and depression, unless the subject is abusing drugs. Some one can not physically and cognitively continue to function normally while experiencing insomnia. In conclusion I would have to say that my friend is experiencing insomnia due to depression and anxiety. To add to it she is both self medicating and using prescription drugs for both depression and anxiety. She will need to stop drinking so much in order for her anti depressants to work properly. </li></ul>
REFERENCES <ul><li>Doweiko, H., E. (2009). Concepts of Chemical Dependency. (7th ed.). Canada: Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Lyman, Henry M. (2009). Insomnia and Other Disorders of Sleep. Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL. </li></ul><ul><li>Millet, J.A.P. (1938). Insomnia: Its Causes and Treatments. Greenburg, NY. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Authors. (1994). DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. </li></ul><ul><li>Pinel, John P. (2009). Biopsychology. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc . </li></ul>
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.