Chapter 12 powerpoint


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Chapter 12 powerpoint

  1. 1. America Struggles with Post-War Issues Chapter 12: Sec 1
  2. 2. Fear of Communism  The Red Scare – 1919: Communist rebels take over Russian government – Communist Party formed in the U.S. – Had major influence in the labor movement of the early 20th century  Communist Fears Realized – The Palmer Raids – Sacco and Vanzetti Trial
  3. 3. Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti 2 Italian men who were famous victims of the nativism attitude May 1920: Found guilty of murder – sentenced to death. – Asserted innocence – Provided alibis – Evidence circumstantial
  4. 4. How did the Justice Dept.under A. Mitchell Palmer respond to this fear? Palmer Raids Hired J. Edgar Hoover to lead the “Anti- radical” division Targeted Communists, Socialists & Anarchists
  5. 5. Limiting Immigration The Klan Rises Again – Devoted to “100% Americanism ” – Reached 4.5 million by 1924 – Believed in keeping blacks “in their place ” – Second Klan also targeted Roman Catholics, Jews, and other foreign born peoples Quota System (1921) – Devised to attempt to control number of immigrants arriving in U.S. – Aimed at immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe – 1919-1921: Number of immigrants rose almost 600% from 141,000 to 805,000
  6. 6. Immigration Trends 1921-1929
  7. 7. Time of Labor and UnrestLabor Problems in 1919 The Boston Police Strike The Steel Mill Strike The Coal Miner’s Strike
  8. 8. Labor Movement Loses Appeal Much of the workforce consisted of immigrants willing to work in poor conditions Difficult to organize due to multitude of spoken languages Migrating farmers used to relying on themselves Most unions excluded African Americans
  9. 9. The Harding Presidency and the Business of America Chapter 12: Sec 2-3 President Warren G. Harding – Served from 1921-23 – Wanted to return America to a state of “normalcy ” – Exercised poor judgment while trying to influence international peace and domestic economic stability
  10. 10. Harding Struggles for Peace  Sec. of State Charles Evans Hughes proposes that the five international powers reduce their number of warships Kellogg Briand Pact (1928)  Agreement signed by fifteen nations that renounced war as a national policy  Could not be enforced; did not curb military build-ups that led to WWII
  11. 11. Harding’s Financial Blunders European Allies owe $10 billion to U.S. after WWI – Must be able to export products for profit to repay their debt Fordney McCumber Tariff (1922) – Raised taxes on imports by 60% – Hurt European businesses because Americans weren’t buying their products – Made it virtually impossible to repay their debts
  12. 12. Harding’s Financial Blunders cont…Dawes Plan French troops C.G. Dawes arranges march on Germany $2.5 billion loan from U.S. when they defaulted to Germany to repay Britain on reparation payment and France Britain and France use money to repay the United States In the end the U.S. was repaid with its own money!!
  13. 13. Scandal Hits Harding’s Administration Ohio Gang Corrupt politicians who were part of Harding ’s cabinet Were involved in many bribes and scandals while serving in presidential cabinet positions Embarrassed the administration and efforts of the Harding presidency
  14. 14. Teapot Dome Scandal Sec. of the Interior Albert Hall arranged for Federal oil reserves to be sold to a private company He received a $400,000 kick- back Became first American to be convicted of bribery while holding a cabinet post 1923: Pres Harding has stroke / heart attack and dies suddenly
  15. 15. President Harding Dies in Office  1923: Harding suffers stroke / heart attack and dies  V.P. Calvin Coolidge assumes presidency – Former Massachusetts that gained fame for ending the Boston Police Strike  Pres. Coolidge finishes Harding’s term of office and is elected president in 1924