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Womens Group Afghanistan–Pakistan War

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  • REFERENCING TO GROUP : ' DISCOVER ASIA '

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    http://www.slideshare.net/group/29-discover-asia

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  • I you invite to join the groups Slideshare (If not already):

    - ' Beauty of Pakistan' - http://www.slideshare.net/group/beauty-of-pakistan
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  • 1. Afghanistan – Pakistan War It’s significance
  • 2. AFGHANISTAN PAKISTAN
  • 3. Our questions
    • What is the war all about in the local context?
    • Why should we care? Is it worth American lives?
  • 4. Fundamental questions
    • What’s at stake in the war with the Taliban / Al Qaeda?
    • Why should we put our young people there?
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10. Below Shibar Pass
  • 11. Bottom of Shibar Pass
  • 12. Above the Shibar Pass
  • 13.  
  • 14. Village in Bamian ( Qala-e-Sabzi).
  • 15. Historical Background
    • 1993 – 1973 Zaher Shah
    • 1973 – 1978 Da’ud Khan
    • 1978 – 1992 Afghan Communists
    • 1979 [Dec 25] Soviet Union invades
  • 16. Mujahedin – Soviet War 1980 – 1989
    • “ Mujahedin” form [1978-1980]
    • American and Saudi support
    • Pakistan’s function as conduit of American and Saudi support
    • The seven “organizations” [“Parties”]
  • 17. Pakistan’s great idea [with CIA approval]
    • Invite other zealous Muslims to join the holy war
    • The “Arab Afghans” [from Arab world, Chechnya, Bosnia, Uzbekistan, Philippines, etc.
    • Osama Bin Laden
  • 18. The final throes of the war and of the Soviet Union
    • 1989 Soviets withdraw from Afghanistan
    • 1991 December, Soviet Union vanishes
    • “ Arab Afghans” rejoice, believe they defeated the second greatest power on earth, begin to think about attacking the U.S.
  • 19. Mujahedin – Afghan Communist War [1989- 1992]
    • 1989- 1992 [spring] Kabul regime hold’s out against the Mujahedin
    • 1992 Collapse of the Kabul Communist regime [After Soviet collapse in December, 1991]
  • 20. Mujahedin Internecine War 1992-1996
    • 1992 Spring Mas’ud’s army [Tajiks] takes over Kabul
    • 1992 Spring-Summer the Hazaras demand a better place in government
  • 21.
    • Fighting among the Mujahedin in several places, especially Kabul
    • Breakdown of social order:
      • Fighting in Kabul wrecks the city
      • Mujahedin leaders take over the provincial areas > “Warlords”
  • 22. Rise of the Taliban
    • 1994 In Kandahar, Mullah Muhammad Omar and his students [“taliban”] to attack an abusive warlord
    • 1994-1995 Young Pashtun men from many places rally to the “Taliban,” many of them from Pakistan
  • 23.
    • 1994 - 1995 Many other groups join them:
      • Young men from Pakistani Islamic schools [taught by Saudi teachers]
      • Pakistan military appropriates them
      • The Pakistan shipping industry provides money and support
      • Benazir Bhutto opens the whole institutional system of Pakistan to them.
  • 24. Taliban advances
    • Taliban arise as a Pashtun coalition [Afghan and Pakistani, supported by others], vs non-Pashtuns
    • Taliban easily take Herat and move north;
    • They are opposed by a new coalition of warlords, the “Northern Alliance”
  • 25. Critical events of 1996
    • 1996 Taliban take Kabul [with the help of Pakistani military]
    • 1996 [late summer] Osama Bin Laden arrives with two planeloads of seasoned and devoted followers
  • 26. Osama Bin Laden declares war
    • 1996 August, Osama issues a fatwa against the US
    • 1998 spring, Osama’s group declares war against the United States:
    • “ to kill the Americans and their allies – civilian and military – is an individual duty of every Muslim…”
  • 27.
    • 1998 August, simultaneous attacks on US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania
    • 2000 Oct 12, Attack on the USS Cole
  • 28. September 11, 2001 and its immediate implications for Afghanistan
    • The American response began Oct 7
    • Taliban are crushed and flee into Pakistan
    • Pakistan gets permission to extract its troops out of the war [!]
    • Osama Bin Laden and his men flee into Pakistan
  • 29. The American distraction
    • American administration turns its attention to Iraq [In 2002 pulls its key military “assets” out of Afghanistan to prepare for war in Iraq]
    • 2003 American troops race into Iraq
    • 2003 + Taliban begin reconstituting themselves in Pakistan
  • 30. Pakistan’s Problems: 1. Tribal Areas
    • Tribal areas are only loosely controlled
      • Are historically autonomous zone along the northwest frontier of the country; the old northwest frontier of India
      • Physically rugged terrain
  • 31. Our questions
    • What is the war all about in the local context?
    • Why should we care? Is it worth American lives?
  • 32.  
  • 33. Modern Tangi Gharu Gorge
  • 34. Khan Shahur Pass in Waziristan
  • 35. The prince pointed out plaques on the mountainside identifying many of the British regiments including the Khyber Rifles, that served in the area . He said they were a memorial to the twelve-hundred- ninety-six British solders who were massacred by Pathan tribesmen in 1847.
  • 36.  
  • 37. Pakistan’s problems 2. India
    • The real war to the Pakistan military is with India
    • The quarrel over Kashmir
      • Pakistan claims it according to the rule that its population is largely Muslim
  • 38.
    • Pakistan’s strategy:
      • To cultivate Islamists who will fight for Kashmir
      • Pakistan creates and nourishes several extreme Islamist organizations
  • 39. Pakistan’s Problems 3. Need for Energy
    • Turkmenistan’s gas reserves
    • Plans for a pipeline through Afghanistan
    • Iran’s competing plans
    • Two key port cities: Which will it be?
      • Gwadar in Pakistan
      • Chaha Bahar in Iran
  • 40. TAP Pipeline Project
  • 41. The importance of the Taliban for Pakistan
    • Pakistan military regarded the Taliban as the most promising militia in Afghanistan.
    • So in 1994-1995 Pakistanis engaged with them very early.
  • 42.
    • Also, the Taliban are essentially Pashtuns, whom the Pakistanis believe they understand since about half of all Pashtuns live in Pakistan and many of the Pakistan military are Pashtuns
  • 43. Current Profile of the Taliban
    • A disparate organization
      • Mullah Muhammad Omar’s group
      • Young Pashtuns from Tribal Areas
      • Foreigners: from Chechnya, Arab world, Bosnia, Philippines
  • 44.
    • The evident split over agendas:
      • “ Afghan Taliban” [vs Kabul]
      • “ Pakistani Taliban” [vs Islamabad]
      • The emerging profile of Pakistan’s radicalized young men
  • 45.
    • Al Qaeda
      • Leadership: Osama and Ayman Zawahiri
      • OBL’s statement of fealty to Mullah M. Omar [Taliban]
      • Non-local groups: from Arab world, Chechnya, Uzbekistan, Xingjian, Philippines
  • 46. Current Pakistan view
    • Pakistan
      • Need for Islamist cadres for the war on India
      • Regards Afghanistan is under influence of India
      • Internally conflicted over many unresolved issues in its structure:
  • 47. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE CONFLICT
    • The Gulf
    • The Caucasus and Russia
    • Central Asia
    • China
    • The Indian Ocean
  • 48. THE GULF
  • 49.  
  • 50. Arab world
    • Except for Lebanon, none of the other Arab states are ruled by elected officials.
    • Most Arab leaders crave legitimacy but don’t have it.
    • Most seek legitimacy by claiming to lead the struggle against Israel.
  • 51.
    • Saudi Arabia:
      • Internal instability [w/in the Royal Family;
      • Fear of internal pressures from its “religious right” = strict Islamism
      • Fear of Iran
  • 52.
    • Iran:
      • huge supplies of oil and gas
      • Threat of nuclear power
      • Evident unpopularity of current administration
      • Nuclear power as means of attracting popular support
  • 53. CAUCASUS STATES
  • 54.
    • Caspian area
      • Caucasus as strategic
        • Oil
        • Pipelines
      • Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan
        • Huge oil and gas reserves
        • Struggle over pipelines
  • 55.  
  • 56. RUSSIA
  • 57.
    • Russia
      • Oil and gas resources
      • Strategic location
        • Conduit of gas, oil from Central Asian states
        • Intermediate position between Europe and China
      • A dangerous problem: population
        • The advance of the Chinese
  • 58. Russia
    • Map of oil and gas pipeline in former soviet union, from loose handout
  • 59. CENTRAL ASIA
  • 60.  
  • 61.  
  • 62. CHINA
  • 63.
    • China
      • Thirst for energy
      • Pipelines into Central Asia
      • Strategic site on the Indian Ocean: Gwadar Pakistan
  • 64.  
  • 65. THE INDIAN OCEAN
  • 66.
    • Indian Ocean
      • Vulnerability of the Gulf
      • Strategic ports in Iran and Pakistan
      • Amerian presence
      • Somalian Pirates
  • 67. TAP Pipeline Project
  • 68. TAP-I, IPI & QP-I Pipeline Routes
  • 69. The Wider Setting of the Afghanistan / Pakistan War
    • The demand for Central Asian resources
      • India’s need for energy [linking up with Iran]
      • Pakistan’s need for energy
      • Chinese need for energy
      • Chinese need for other minerals
        • Chinese purchase of copper rights
        • Chinese bids on iron ore rights
  • 70.
    • The pipeline diplomatic struggles
      • Pipelines from Turkmenistan
      • Ocean ports on the Indian Ocean [Gwadar vs Chah Bahar]
    • Pushtun ethnic issues in Afghanistan / Pakistan: How shall they integrate?
  • 71.
    • Al Qaeda: How to contain this movement?
    • Nuclear powers in South Asia: India, Pakistan
  • 72.