Cells are the basic unit of all living
IF IT IS ALIVE, IT HAS CELLS!
– All organisms are made up of one or more
– The cell is the basic unit of all organisms
– all cells come from cells
Parts in common
This is a prokaryotic cell
Is a single celled organism that does
not have a nucleus or membrane
Its DNA is locked in the cytoplasm.
Four “Classes” of Eukaryotic
There are 4 classes of eukaryotic cells.
Will only discuss 2; Plant & Animal
Plant cells Animal Cells
Each kind of cell has a DIFFERENT job to
do…it is specialized.
I am a
I am a
When you hear the new vocabulary,
just think of a TURTLE!
The cell membrane holds the cell
together and allows nutrients into the
It’s just like a turtle’s skin - the cell
membrane is on the edge of a cell.
Cytoplasm is the watery gel (Jello!)
inside a cell….it’s goop! It holds the
Cytoplasm is like the turtles blood and
Mitochondria is an ORGANelle that releases energy from
Every type of cell has a different amount of mitochondria.
There are more mitochondria in cells that have to
perform lots of work, for example - your leg muscle cells.
Other cells need less energy to do their work and have
Mitochondria is like a turtle’s stomach.
The nucleus controls the cell.
It is the largest organelle in the cell and
contains the cell’s DNA.
The nucleus is like the turtle’s brain.
Inside the nucleus is another organelle
called the nucleolus.
It is responsible for making ribosomes.
It is similar to all the neuron pathways inside
a turtle’s brain.
Chromosomes are inside the nucleus and
are made of genes (DNA).
Genes decide the cells traits and activities
(heart cell, eye cell - such as color).
The nuclear membrane allows
substances to pass in and out of the
It surrounds the nucleus (the brain) like
the turtle’s skull…protects it.
Vacuoles are spaces in the
cytoplasm (gel) where food and
chemicals are stored
It’s like “fat” on a turtle
I am NOT
just a little
It is a network of membranes throughout the cytoplasm
of the cell.
It helps to move materials around the cell.
It is much like the blood vessels throughout a turtle.
It is organelle in the cell that is responsible for sorting and
correctly shipping the proteins produced in the ER.
The Golgi apparatus are stacks of membrane-covered
They also package proteins to be moved out of the cell.
It’s like the digestive system of a turtle.
It is a small sac that surrounds material
to be moved into or out of a cell
Organelles that help in the synthesis of proteins.
Some ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm, but most are
attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. While attached to
the ER, ribosomes make proteins that the cell needs and
also ones to be exported from the cell for work elsewhere
in the body.
• Lysosomes function as the cell's recycling
• Lysosomes contain digestive chemicals that help
break down food molecules, wastes, and worn out
• It’s similar to the turtle’s digestive system!
Cell Walls are only in plant cells
They make the cell strong and rigid
They are like a turtle’s shell (but only
plants have them…that’s why grass
stands straight up!)
Chloroplasts are only in plant cells
They contain chlorophyll, which helps
make energy/food from sunlight
Chlorophyll is green in color.
What’s the Difference?
So what are two things that Plant cells
have that animal cells don’t?
Chloroplasts & Cell Walls
This PowerPoint presentation has been adapted and modified by Dorothy Moore.
Obtained from Biology PowerPoints: Cell Vocabulary, by Mr. Ryan submitted
12/09/06 at www.worldofteaching.com/biologypowerpoints.html