Managing as designing 1

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The slideshow is a presentation together with an academic lecture, focused on the difference and the overlap between problem solving in management and in design. It also reveals a part of the managing as designing discourse.

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Managing as designing 1

  1. 1. managing as designing <ul><li>Prof. Jurgen Faust </li></ul>
  2. 2. how to start? <ul><li>Various possibilities: </li></ul><ul><li>- historical </li></ul><ul><li>- fundamental (philosophical) </li></ul><ul><li>- personal </li></ul><ul><li>- searching/constructing for design discourse in management and visa versa </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>historical: </li></ul><ul><li>- initiated by Boland and Collopy (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>- published by Stanford Press </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- follow up conferences in Designing with a ‘Positive Lens’ and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Design, Convergence Managing as Designing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://convergence.case.edu/ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>personal: </li></ul><ul><li>- invited and joined the managing as designing workshop </li></ul><ul><li>- positive lens workshop </li></ul><ul><li>- positive design workshop </li></ul><ul><li>- published in all volumes </li></ul><ul><li>- ... </li></ul>
  5. 7. Fundamentally <ul><li>discourse: </li></ul><ul><li>- intention was to stimulate change in management practice and education (H. Simon) </li></ul><ul><li>- inspired by the work of Frank Gehry (P.B. Lewis Building) </li></ul>
  6. 8. Aspects of discourse <ul><li>Managing as Designing </li></ul><ul><li>- Both disciplines are problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>- Management is a design discipline </li></ul><ul><li>- But problem solving is different in the both fields </li></ul>
  7. 9. problem solving in management <ul><li>Four paradigms in management history: </li></ul><ul><li>- paternalistic/political paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>- accountability/authority paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>- workflow paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>- decision paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Huber and McDaniel, 1986, The decision-Making Paradigm of Organizational Design, in Management Science, V. 32, No. 5 </li></ul>
  8. 10. paternalistic/political paradigm <ul><li>- tribal leaders allocating tribal resources, blood ties and political allegiances </li></ul><ul><li>...origin of management, but still in place, SME, family driven enterprises, entire countries are managed in such ways </li></ul><ul><li>Huber and McDaniel, 1986, The decision-Making Paradigm of Organizational Design, in Management Science, V. 32, No. 5 </li></ul>
  9. 11. accountability/authority paradigm <ul><li>- the base of Roman Empire, central to classical organizations, central to Max Weber’s thinking about bureaucracies </li></ul><ul><li>...when designing organizations, it is important to specify who is accountable for fulfilling which responsibilities and to allocate resources so that they can fulfill these responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Huber and McDaniel, 1986, The decision-Making Paradigm of Organizational Design, in Management Science, V. 32, No. 5 </li></ul>
  10. 12. workflow paradigm <ul><li>- The workflow paradigm is triggered by the industrial revolution, where organizational structures and processes are designed around the flow of work </li></ul><ul><li>Huber and McDaniel, 1986, The decision-Making Paradigm of Organizational Design, in Management Science, V. 32, No. 5 </li></ul>
  11. 13. Decision paradigm <ul><li>- decisions are driven by making rational choices among alternatives using tools like: economic analysis, risk management, multiple criteria decision making, simulation and the time value of money. </li></ul><ul><li>- therefore the focus is on analysis instead of creating alternatives to existing solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>- a decision attitude assumes that the alternatives are already at hand </li></ul><ul><li>Boland and Collopy, 2004, in Managing as Designing, Stanford press </li></ul>
  12. 14. designing <ul><li>is different... </li></ul><ul><li>- designers are not primarily concerned in making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>- designers are concerned to find the possible best solution </li></ul><ul><li>Boland and Collopy, 2004, in Managing as Designing, Stanford press </li></ul>
  13. 15. discourse about managing as designing: <ul><li>- designers are always in the midst of something </li></ul><ul><li>- thrown into a situation (Geworfenheit from Heidegger) </li></ul><ul><li>- without the opportunity of acting and function as a detached observer </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Weick, ,Rethinking Organizational Design’, in Managing as Designing, ed. Boland and Collopy, Stanford press, 2004, 36 </li></ul>
  14. 16. designing limitations <ul><li>- extremely difficult decisions </li></ul><ul><li>- ambiguous and conflicting information </li></ul><ul><li>- shifting goals </li></ul><ul><li>- time pressure </li></ul><ul><li>- dynamic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>- complex operational team structures </li></ul><ul><li>- poor communication </li></ul><ul><li>- every course of action carries significant risk </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Weick, ,Rethinking Organizational Design’, in Managing as Designing, ed. Boland and Collopy, Stanford press, 2004, 36 </li></ul>
  15. 17. thrownness <ul><li>is a useful vocabulary for design </li></ul><ul><li>- accepts a different set of background assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>a limited amount of options, unreflective submission, occasional interruptions, unquestioned answers, readymade categories for expression and interpretation and disjunction between understanding and explanation </li></ul><ul><li>- design is only incremental </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Weick, ,Rethinking Organizational Design’, in Managing as Designing, ed. Boland and Collopy, Stanford press, 2004, 36 </li></ul>
  16. 18. designing <ul><li>...gains meaning from thrownness </li></ul><ul><li>- situation can’t be determined </li></ul><ul><li>- design enlarges the set of options </li></ul><ul><li>- reduce blind spots </li></ul><ul><li>- facilitate brief reflection </li></ul><ul><li>- reduce the disruptiveness of interruptions </li></ul><ul><li>- encourage trial and error with safety </li></ul><ul><li>- refine primitive categories </li></ul><ul><li>- tighten the coupling between existence and interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Weick, ,Rethinking Organizational Design’, in Managing as Designing, ed. Boland and Collopy, Stanford press, 2004, 36 </li></ul>
  17. 19. Good design <ul><li>is reflection in action </li></ul><ul><li>, In a good process of design, this conversation with the situation is reflective. In answer to the situation’s back-talk, the designer reflects-in-action on the construction of the problem, the strategies of action, or the model of the phenomena, which have been implicit in his moves.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Donald Schoen, The reflective Practitioner, How Professional think in Action, Perseus Books, 1982, p. 79 </li></ul>
  18. 20. design thinking <ul><li>in Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>- is based on interaction design (Buchanon, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>- how people relate to other people </li></ul><ul><li>- how products mediate these relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Buchanon, Management and Design: Interaction Pathways in Organizational Life, in Managing as Designing, ed. R. Boland and F. Collopy, Stanford Press, 2004, p. 54-64 </li></ul>
  19. 21. interaction design process <ul><li>various steps: </li></ul><ul><li>- vision </li></ul><ul><li>- strategic planning </li></ul><ul><li>- preparing and planning a strategic brief for interaction design </li></ul><ul><li>- generating ideas for design and selecting valuable solutions </li></ul><ul><li>- planning and prototyping for the ultimate design </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Buchanon, Management and Design: Interaction Pathways in Organizational Life, in Managing as Designing, ed. R. Boland and F. Collopy, Stanford Press, 2004, p. 54-64 </li></ul>
  20. 22. difference <ul><li>between management and design </li></ul><ul><li>- designers visualize in order to make complexity accessible for the team </li></ul><ul><li>- collaborative and participatory designing </li></ul><ul><li>- rapid and frequent prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>- user research and user testing </li></ul><ul><li>- task based scenario building </li></ul><ul><li>- in general --- designing looks for horizontal distribution of responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Buchanon, Management and Design: Interaction Pathways in Organizational Life, in Managing as Designing, ed. R. Boland and F. Collopy, Stanford Press, 2004, p. 54-64 </li></ul>
  21. 23. design thinking <ul><li>in implicit in management and organizational theory </li></ul><ul><li>Buchanon sees as well the domination of the analytical tools in the 20th century dominating management: </li></ul><ul><li>- scientific management </li></ul><ul><li>- management of human relations </li></ul><ul><li>- management through structural analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Guillen, M, Models of Management: Work, authority, and organization in a comparative perspective, University of Chicago Press, 1994 </li></ul>
  22. 24. Managing as designing <ul><li>the key issue </li></ul><ul><li>The analytical tools have dominated in management and there is a clear lack of synthetic skills in new programs of human-centered action. That is a clear underdeveloped area of management as designing. </li></ul>
  23. 25. change <ul><li>in system understanding </li></ul><ul><li>... the change in system understanding: we are no longer </li></ul><ul><li>focusing on material systems, on systems of things, </li></ul><ul><li>we are focusing on human systems, the integration of information, physical artifacts, and interactions in environment of living, working, playing and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>(Buchanon, 2001) </li></ul>
  24. 26. the order of design <ul><li>by R. Buchanon </li></ul><ul><li>1st order: design of symbols and signs </li></ul><ul><li>2nd order: things and artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>3rd order: design of experiences and interactions </li></ul><ul><li>4th order: systems and environments </li></ul>
  25. 27. decision paradigm Deciding choice-intelligence-design etc.
  26. 28. managing as designing <ul><li>process </li></ul><ul><li>Simon 1960 </li></ul>Designing intelligence-design-choice intelligence-design-choice
  27. 29. designing Faust, 2004
  28. 30. thank you <ul><li>all rights reserved: Prof. Jurgen Faust </li></ul><ul><li>Slides of lecture to be found at slideshare: </li></ul>

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