Caltanissetta
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Comenius Calaf

Comenius Calaf

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Caltanissetta Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Comenius Water a vital element 2nd. Meeting Caltanissetta (Sicily) 15th – 19th March
  • 2. Presentation
    • We are from... Calaf
    • The importance of water in:
      • Industry
      • Economy
      • Agriculture
      • Navigation
    • Use of fresh water or salt water.
  • 3. We are from... Calaf
    • Calaf is in the middle of Catalonia. It is in a district called Anoia and in the province of Barcelona. It has aproximately 3500 inhabitants. It is about 680 metres on the sea level. It has got Mediterranean climate.
  • 4. Calaf Barcelona Our situation E b r e r i v e r
  • 5. The most important monuments
    • The belfry of Calaf is the third tallest in Catalonia.
    • The market of Calaf is well-known in all the autonomous communities. In the past it was done on Saturday mornings in “Plaça gran” ->
  • 6. The economy of Calaf
    • The economy in Calaf is based on the dryness agriculture, specially cereals.
    • There are four main factories that make building material.
    • The market is important, too, for the economy of the village.
  • 7. Our school
    • Our school has aproximately 280 students .
    • These students are from Calaf and other villages like: Torà, Sant Martí, Prats, Segur, la Molsosa...
    • In our school work 30 teachers.
  • 8. The importance of water
    • The use of water in Catalonia is distributed like you can see in the graphic. The agriculture spends the 50 %, the second place is for the industry and finally there are the domestic and urban uses.
  • 9. The water in Catalonia and Spain
    • The most important river in Catalonia is the Ebro.
    • Other important rivers are Llobregat and Segre.
    • The bed’s river in Catalonia and Spain is unconstant.
    • The use of dams is a constant source of water in Catalonia and Spain.
    • There are importants dams in Catalonia like Sau, Siurana or Oliana.
    This is the map of the main rivers and dams in Catalonia.
  • 10. Universal exposition of Zaragoza 2009 Tower of water Ebro river in Zaragoza
  • 11. The importance of water in industry
    • The water is very important in Anoia district for the industry.
    • The most important industries of this area are textile, leather and manufacture of paper.
    • We can see in this photo the canal of water in Igualada. This canal distributed the water through different factories of leather.
  • 12. The importance of water in industry
    • The ancient factories were built near the river and this activity polluted a lot.
    • Now some of these factories are closed for the crisis of textile industry and the new factories try to pollute less.
    • Now there are new projects to clean the Anoia river.
    • We can see at this photo the leather museum in Igualada.
  • 13. The importance of water in economy
    • Spain is one of the most important turistic places in the world.
    • A lot of the villages in Catalonia coast have an important turistic industry.
    • The turistic activity increases the use of water: these villages increase their inhabitants in summer and there are a lot of leisure activities that need water.
    • The dams are used in Spain for hydroelectric power station.
  • 14. The importance of water in agriculture
    • In the area of Calaf the dry agriculture is very important.
    • In other parts of Catalonia and Spain there are irrigation agriculture, too.
    • All of these activities spend a lot of water.
    • Now there are new systems of irrigation to save water.
  • 15. The importance of water in navigation
    • The rivers are unnavigable in Catalonia and Spain (except Guadalquivir until Sevilla)
    • The rivers are few large and irregular.
    • The navigation is very important on the sea. Catalonia and Spain have a very important fishing fleet.
    • There are important commercial seaports, too, like Barcelona.
  • 16. Use of fresh water or salt water
    • The water of rivers is stored in dams and it is cleaned in water treatment plants for the human uses.
    • Nowadays it’s usual in Spain to clean the salt water of the sea for human uses.
    • The water of the sea is cleaned in salt water treatment plants.
  • 17. Use of fresh water
    • One of the water treatment plant in Catalonia is situated in Abrera.
    • This plant distributes water to 80 towns, aproximately and it’s very important in the area of Barcelona and the district of Anoia.
  • 18. Process of a fresh water treatment plant
    • Obtaining water from river and cleaning of the big materials like sand or stones.
    • Pumping water and adjustment of PH of water with dioxide of carbon.
    • Mixture and floculation. Clean water with chlorine and other reagents.
    • Filter water with sand. (Beds of sand above 70 cm)
    • Filter water with acti ve coal.
    • Reversible electric cycling pump. Eliminate the salt of water.
    • A dd chlorine again and store water for human use.
  • 19. Use of salt water
    • In 1950’s it was built the first salt water treatment plant in Spain. It was built in Canary islands.
    • Nowadays this system of water treatment is developing in Spain to solve the problem of water.
    • The salt water treatment plant of El Prat (near Barcelona) started to work in 2009 and it’s one of the biggest in Europe.
  • 20. Process of salt water treatment plant
    • Taking water from the system. It was built a pipe that enter s 5 km in the sea.
    • Pre-treatment. It clean s water of solid materials: sand, stones, seaweed… Filter of water and microfilter. Add chlorine and other ch e mic hal process.
  • 21. Process of salt water treatment plant
    • 3. Pump of high pressure. This pump separates the salts from the water.
    • 4. Reverse osmosis water. It separates the salt water and cleans water with the pressure in membranes.
    • 5. Post-treatment. It neutralizes the PH of water and disinfects the water with ozone.
  • 22. Advantages and disadvantages of salt water
    • ADVANTAGES:
    • - It can use a big quantity of water when the rivers are dry.
    • - After the treatment this water is as good as the fresh water from the rivers. The taste is similar than fresh water or even better.
    • DISADVANTAGES:
    • - The process of this treatment plant can harm marine life.
    • The cost of this process is more expensive than the process of fresh water.
    • This process moves the sand of the beaches and it can affect the sea ecosystem.
    • - When the process is finished: what I can do with the remainder salt?