Alemanya copia

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Alemanya copia

  1. 1. Comenius Water a vital element 5th. Meeting Datteln (Germany) 11th – 15 th April 2011
  2. 2. Index <ul><li>Fresh aquatic ecosystems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh water microorganisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salt water ecosystems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Fresh water microorganisms <ul><li>Plankton: organisms that live over the water (usually microscopic) </li></ul><ul><li>Nekton: organisms that swim (fishes) </li></ul><ul><li>Bentos: organisms that live in the bottom of rivers or lakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Neuston: organisms that swim or walk over the surface of water </li></ul><ul><li>Seston: alive or dead organisms that float on water. </li></ul><ul><li>Perifiton: vegetables or animal organisms that stick to stem and leaves of plants with roots in the bottom. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fresh water microorganisms
  5. 5. Rivers <ul><li>Function: The river has a big relation with the earth ecosystems, from these take part of energy like: MOPG, MOPF, MOD </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous functional. Parts of the river: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final part </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rivers
  7. 7. Rivers of Catalonia <ul><li>Rivers of Pyrenees: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ebre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardedeu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noguera Pallaresa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noguera Ribagorçana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Llobregat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean rivers : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Besòs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foix </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Rivers: communities of the top of rivers <ul><li>General characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dip of more than 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forest basin (alocton material), basin no forest (more primary production) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granitic and calcareous rivers of the Pyrenees (+ dissolved salts, + nutrients, + primary producers) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Rivers: communities of the top of rivers <ul><li>Rivers of Pyrenees: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low water temperature 7-8 ºC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong pendent between 15-30% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low mineralization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good oxygenation </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Rivers: communities of the top of river <ul><li>Rivers of Pyrenees – communities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beaters: plecopters, tricopters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters: simulids, chironomids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predators: invertebrates (insects), little vertebrates (tritons), warms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishes: trouts </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Trouts
  12. 12. Rivers: communities of the top of river <ul><li>Calcareous rivers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary production: moss and diatoms and seaweed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweeping: efemeropters, molluscs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters: chironomids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predators: invertebrates (insects), little vertebrates (tritons), warms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishes: trouts </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Rivers: communities of the middle part <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant temperature and hotter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More salts and more nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More polluted for man action (more nutrients, more pollution, canals, salt pollution and water and arid extraction . </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Rivers: communities of the middle part <ul><li>Communities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary producers: seaweeds (diatoms), macrofits, moss (Phanerogams) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters: simulids and tricopters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweeping: chironomids and efemeropters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predators: insects, bloodsucker. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishes: barbels, carps, gudgeon, catfish… </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Rivers: communities of the final part <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very polluted by man action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception: Final part of Ebre river: more quality of water, changed by man for the regulation of damming of water, final part invasion of sea salt water, like salt lake </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Rivers: communities of the final part <ul><li>Communities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few diatoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrofits (moss) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chironomids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macroinvertebrates that resist the pollution: warms and larvas of beettles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communities of Delta of Ebre: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More seaweeds on suspension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters: tricopter and efemeropter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweeping: molluscs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishes: more than 37 species </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Delta of Ebre
  18. 18. Rivers: communities of Mediterranean rivers <ul><li>They pass for three periods: </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion (inundation) </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction (middle period) </li></ul><ul><li>Low water level (isolation of parts of the rivers) </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born on Prelitoral mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities interrupted by flows and drought </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Rivers: communities of Mediterranean rivers <ul><li>Communities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seaweeds (diatoms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plecopter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efereropter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters: chironomids and simulids (tricopters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of sweeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larvas of beettles </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Lakes <ul><li>Origen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glacial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human: damming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function: important providing of nutrients of earthly ecosystems for biological, geological and meteorological way; nutrients de detritic kind (carbons) </li></ul><ul><li>Zones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limnetic zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep zone </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Lakes of Catalonia <ul><li>Pyrinees: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aigües tortes (Sant Maurici) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estany Redó </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estany de Toro </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Karstic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banyoles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Montcortès </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Damms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oliana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sau </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Lakes of Catalonia: communities <ul><li>Lakes of Pyrenees: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitoplankton: flagellatae (crisophicies),dinoflagellatae,diattomaceae(nanoplankton): clorophicies,criptophicies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zooplankton: rotifers, cladocers, diaptomides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bentos (coastal z.): macrophits, water viola, ranuncles, algues; crustacis (cladocers), molluscs, spongs, larvas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish: trouts, red barbels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebrates: amphibious and triton </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Lakes of Catalonia
  24. 24. Lakes of Catalonia: communities <ul><li>Karstic lakes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitoplànkton: few seaweed and little (diatoms), crisophices, clorophices, dinoflagellatae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zooplankton: crustaceae (copepodes), filters (diaptomids), depredators (ciclopids) and rotiphers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bentos (coastal z.): reed, rush, snails, rotiphers, spongs, crustaceae. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish (introduced by men): carp, beech marten, American perch, wolf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities of bacterium. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Sea ecosystems (salt water) <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of dissolved substances: chlorine, bromine, iodine, boron, nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral salts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients provided by the rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communities of organisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plankton: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phitoplankton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities of bacterium. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish and other vertebrates </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Mediterranean sea: communities <ul><li>Phitoplankton: microcospic seacreed (dinoflagellatae, diattomaceae) </li></ul><ul><li>Zooplankton: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular Organisms: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreminífers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radiolarium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acantariae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rizòpodes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ciliated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pluricellular organisms: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cnidariae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quetonatae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tunicae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crustacieae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cnetariae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annelids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molluscs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Mediterranean sea: communities <ul><li>Fish: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flying fish: tuna fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swordfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White king of ray </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharks planktophags (migrating) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sardines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anchovy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squid(cefalopodes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other vertebrates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turtles (green, lute) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planators birds (gannet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dolphins and sperm whale </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Mediterranean sea
  29. 29. Mediterranean sea
  30. 30. Invader species <ul><li>Main invader species of aquatic Catalan ecosystems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crayfish of American river </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zebra mussel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reed and false acacia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catfish and sun fish </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Invader species

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