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Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773
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Mgmt 734 ass3 final version-jess maher 3328773

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  1. qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmMGMT 734Diversity in OrganizationsAssessment ThreeSeptember Two, 2008Jess Maher | 3328773<br /><ul><li>Table of ContentsAssessment Question One 3-8Embracing and Managing Diversity in Organisations’ Moore (1999, p.208) observes: “The highly diverse workplaces heralded for the future contain new possibilities and opportunities, but also imply working environments that pose markedly different challenges than do the moderately diverse contexts which currently prevail.” Describe the possible benefits organisations that learn to effectively manage diversity may accrue as well as the challenges they confront. Include references to demographic diversity (e.g. age, race, gender and disability) as well as organisational diversity (e.g. organisation size, work location, organisational culture, type and duration of employment) in your answer.Appendix 1.1 | The Diverse environments within which organisations operate….………..9Assessment Question Two 10-16Homosexuality and Workplace Barriers Equal Employment Opportunities (EEO) acknowledges that target groups (i.e. women, single parents, ethnic minorities, older employees, people with disabilities and so on) face barriers in the work place not faced by their “non EEO” counterparts. Select one EEO target group and describe specific barriers they may face as well as the factors (personal, organizational and societal) which create these barriers. Critically evaluate effectiveness of the THREE approaches to Diversity management addressed in MGMT 734 this semester (i.e. Amalgamation, Assimilation and Accommodation) for effectively reducing the impact of these barriers. Include references to organizational culture, leadership, employee education and legislative requirements in your discussion. References 17-18</li></ul>Assessment Question One<br />Embracing and Managing Diversity in Organisations <br />Figure 1.0 | The Diverse environments within which organisations operate The increased efforts of globalisation and internationalisation of firm activity, especially rapidly throughout the 1980s and 1990s, has seen the general nature of the environment within which organisations operate become increasingly diverse ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gröschl</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>204</RecNum><Pages>230</Pages><record><rec-number>204</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">204</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gröschl, Stefan </author><author>Doherty, Liz</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Diversity management in practice</title><secondary-title>International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management</full-title></periodical><pages>262 - 268</pages><volume>11</volume><number>6</number><dates><year>1999</year></dates><isbn>0959-6119 </isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=76AA291381C0ABE5C0CB1E47D8A0736B?contentType=Article&amp;contentId=867299</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1108/09596119910281757</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gröschl & Doherty, 1999, p. 230). As the diversity within such environments increases so does the differences between the way firms organise work, structures, processes and systems in an attempt to represent their environments ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Guillen</Author><Year>1998</Year><RecNum>171</RecNum><record><rec-number>171</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">171</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Guillen, Mauro F</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Cooper, C. L.</author><author>Rousseau, Denise M.</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>International Management and the Circulation of Ideas</title><secondary-title>Trends in Organizational Behavior</secondary-title></titles><pages>47-63</pages><volume>5</volume><section>3</section><dates><year>1998</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>John Wiley &amp; Sons Ltd</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Guillen, 1998). In order to remain competitive in markets today, organisations need to consider diversity within their markets and organisation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c). The diversity encountered in and between organisations is initially explored, and then the benefits of embracing and managing diversity are highlighted along with potential challenges experienced by firms. Multinationals help to add to understanding of diversity within such structures, systems and processes both within the demographics they serve and employ but also between the various branches of operation.<br />-3529330496570Diversity and Organisations <br />Developed with reference to Carla Houkamau (2008), Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case. Unpublished PowerPoint Slides University of Auckland CECIL- further expansions see Appendix 1.1By nature of the universal definition, when referring to “organisations” we refer to a diverse and varied range of work designs and business structures ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Rousseau</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>42</RecNum><record><rec-number>42</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">42</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Rousseau, Denise M.</author><author>Fried, Yitzhak</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Location, location, location: contextualizing organizational research</title><secondary-title>Journal of Organizational Behavior</secondary-title><alt-title>Journal of Organizational Behavior</alt-title></titles><pages>1-13</pages><edition>22</edition><keywords><keyword>ORGANIZATIONAL behavior</keyword><keyword>ORGANIZATION</keyword><keyword>RESEARCH</keyword><keyword>DATA analysis</keyword><keyword>EXPERIMENTAL design</keyword><keyword>PSYCHOLOGY, Industrial</keyword><keyword>COMMUNICATION in organizations</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2001</year></dates><isbn>08943796</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&amp;db=bah&amp;AN=13641522&amp;site=ehost-live</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Rousseau & Fried, 2001). Figure 1.0 further demonstrates the various areas within the environment organisations operate in where diversity occurs. Globally the way work is organised within firms differs in accordance with the local understanding of business systems; the American ‘corporations’ vary greatly when compared to Turkish family holdings, Indian business houses or German Kozern ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Guillen</Author><Year>1998</Year><RecNum>171</RecNum><Pages>54</Pages><record><rec-number>171</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">171</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Guillen, Mauro F</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Cooper, C. L.</author><author>Rousseau, Denise M.</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>International Management and the Circulation of Ideas</title><secondary-title>Trends in Organizational Behavior</secondary-title></titles><pages>47-63</pages><volume>5</volume><section>3</section><dates><year>1998</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>John Wiley &amp; Sons Ltd</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Guillen, 1998, p. 54). Business systems can be defined by three characteristics within which diversity between organisations’ occurs; market structure, firm organisation and authority systems ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Whitley</Author><Year>1992</Year><RecNum>215</RecNum><Pages>242</Pages><record><rec-number>215</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">215</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Whitley, R</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Business Systems in East Asia: Firms, Markets and Societies</title></titles><section>242</section><dates><year>1992</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Sage</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Whitley, 1992, p. 242). The global economic environment (Figure 1.0, reference point 1.1) has within it a variety of different and sometimes overlapping markets (1.2). The difference between the structures of these markets refers to the difference in number, size, degree of interdependence and scope of exchange between the various organisations (1.3) within the market ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Whitley</Author><Year>1992</Year><RecNum>215</RecNum><Pages>242</Pages><record><rec-number>215</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">215</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Whitley, R</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Business Systems in East Asia: Firms, Markets and Societies</title></titles><section>242</section><dates><year>1992</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Sage</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Whitley, 1992, p. 242). <br />Various firms within the same market each work to reach their portion of the customer market (1.4) and the way they organise their structures and systems varies. Whitley (1992) refers to the differences in firm organisation with concern for the level of managerial discretion from owners and the interplay between specialisation and integration of activities (p. 242). The structure adopted by the various firms along with considerations of the differences between firms found at market structure level has considerable impact on the nature and culture of the organisations independently and provides another area to demonstrate difference in comparison between firms. The approach and processes taken by these firms to reach their customer market and deal with other external agencies also varies (1.5). Some of the processes taken by organisations, especially those in the same industry or market, may follow some kind of best practise and therefore overlap (1.6), however the difference in management philosophy adopted, alone is enough to cause diversity in the way these are approached. Whitley (1992) has referred to the difference between various authority systems as possibly the one of highest concern and draws reference to the degrees of centralization, delegation, autonomy and commitment (p242). <br />The classical conceptualisation of how firms organised themselves, their structure and strategy overlooked any diversity between organisations, especially those within the same market or industry, however Purdue (1980) highlighted the considerable and underestimated heterogency between firms ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Rumelt</Author><Year>1994</Year><RecNum>182</RecNum><Prefix>as cited in </Prefix><Pages>21</Pages><record><rec-number>182</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">182</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Rumelt, Richard P.</author><author>Schendel, Dan</author><author>Teece, David J.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Fundamental issues in strategy : a research agenda</title></titles><pages>xiii, 636 p.</pages><section>9-47</section><keywords><keyword>Strategic planning.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>1994</year></dates><pub-location>Boston, Mass.</pub-location><publisher>Harvard Business School Press</publisher><isbn>0875843433 (acid-free paper)</isbn><call-num>TAMAKI LIBRARY 658.4012; R93 GENERAL LIBRARY 658.4012; R93</call-num><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(as cited in Rumelt, Schendel, & Teece, 1994, p. 21). Since then a more contingent understanding of organisations has continued to develop within the planning and strategy fields ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Rumelt</Author><Year>1994</Year><RecNum>182</RecNum><Suffix>, p.22-25</Suffix><record><rec-number>182</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">182</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Rumelt, Richard P.</author><author>Schendel, Dan</author><author>Teece, David J.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Fundamental issues in strategy : a research agenda</title></titles><pages>xiii, 636 p.</pages><section>9-47</section><keywords><keyword>Strategic planning.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>1994</year></dates><pub-location>Boston, Mass.</pub-location><publisher>Harvard Business School Press</publisher><isbn>0875843433 (acid-free paper)</isbn><call-num>TAMAKI LIBRARY 658.4012; R93 GENERAL LIBRARY 658.4012; R93</call-num><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Rumelt et al., 1994, p.22-25), yet the concern for demographic diversity between such firms has drawn less attention ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Jarzabkowski</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>156</RecNum><Pages>6</Pages><record><rec-number>156</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">156</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Jarzabkowski, Paula</author><author>Balogun, Julia</author><author>Seidl, David</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Strategizing: The challenges of a practice perspective</title><secondary-title>Human Relations</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Human Relations</full-title></periodical><pages>5</pages><volume>60</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><isbn>00187267</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1230885971&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Jarzabkowski, Balogun, & Seidl, 2007, p. 6). The diversity experienced within the demographics of the population in which the organisations operate varies in a number of ways, both in their consideration of their customers (1.4) and employees (1.7) whom service them. <br />Globalisation is increasingly encouraging migration of people within different environments, creating much more ethnically diverse workforces internationally. With baby boomers reaching middle age, the population in general is aging and definitions of age stereotypes, such as “middle age”, continue to extend and redefine limits ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Stein</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>221</RecNum><record><rec-number>221</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">221</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Stein, David</author><author>Rocco, Tonette S</author><author>Goldenetz, Kelly A</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Age and the University Workforce: A Case Study of Remaining, Retiring or Returning Older Workers</title><secondary-title>Human Resource Development Quarterly</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Human Resource Development Quarterly</full-title></periodical><pages>61-79</pages><volume>11</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2000</year></dates><label>Cross Cultural Communication </label><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Stein, Rocco, & Goldenetz, 2000). The increases in technology mean people, regardless of physical ability are able to contribute to workplaces, seeing an increase in disabled members and considerations for them in the workforce. As political views, social rules and cultural “norms” continue to evolve and develop many organisations are beginning to place strong emphasis on diversity and managing and allowing for it within their cultures, structure, planning and development. Dell state that they ‘not only celebrate diversity across individuals but also rely on it’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Dell</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>176</RecNum><record><rec-number>176</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">176</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Dell, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Dell&apos;s Global Diversity Program</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Oct, 10</number><dates><year>2008</year></dates><publisher>Cresent Strategic Resources</publisher><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.strategicdiversity.com/strategic_diversity_Diverse_Company_Profile_DELL_1.htm</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Dell, 2008). <br />Benefits of Embracing Diversity <br />The continuing diversification within markets means the need to consider diversity amongst customers is critical for achieving competitive advantage for many organisations ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><Pages>12</Pages><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c, p. 12). In order to understand and identify with customers, organisations are requires to consider them as diversified. An assimilation approach whereby customers are assumed to all be the same, despite various nationalities, age groups, genders, sexual preference and physical ability among other factors, no longer suits such markets. ‘Customers want to be served by a company they can identify with, so a white male sales force might be too limiting’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Spiers</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>205</RecNum><Pages>27</Pages><record><rec-number>205</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">205</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Spiers, Carole</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The business benefits of diversity</title><secondary-title>Management Services</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Management Services</full-title></periodical><pages>26</pages><volume>52</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>Workplace diversity</keyword><keyword>Research</keyword><keyword>Performance evaluation</keyword><keyword>Training</keyword><keyword>Effectiveness</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>03076768</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1507581611&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Spiers, 2008, p. 27). By representing the diverse markets in which they operate by a diverse range of employees within any organisation, they are provided opportunity for the workforce to be more able to identity with customers ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Spiers</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>205</RecNum><record><rec-number>205</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">205</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Spiers, Carole</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The business benefits of diversity</title><secondary-title>Management Services</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Management Services</full-title></periodical><pages>26</pages><volume>52</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>Workplace diversity</keyword><keyword>Research</keyword><keyword>Performance evaluation</keyword><keyword>Training</keyword><keyword>Effectiveness</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>03076768</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1507581611&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c; Spiers, 2008). A diverse workforce can further assist the organisation to understand not only needs of its customers but also have the potential to identify what appeals to them. By embracing what their customers wanted through the advertising campaign, Real Beauty, Johnson & Johnson managed to increase sales by eight percent in one quarter ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Bowe</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>207</RecNum><record><rec-number>207</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">207</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bowe, Christopher </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>FT.com site : J&amp;J reaps benefits from diversity</title><secondary-title>FT.com</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>FT.com</full-title></periodical><pages>1</pages><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1147774691&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Bowe, 2006). <br />By ignoring the diversity within customers, organisations are likely to offend some minority ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><Pages>11</Pages><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c, p. 11), such marketing blunders can be incredibly detrimental to an organisation. Advertising company Draft FCB has caused controversy on numerous occasions for offence caused through advertising Prime Televisions shows ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Calman</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>217</RecNum><record><rec-number>217</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">217</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Calman, Matt</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>The Dominion Post </author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Prime TV billboards axed after complaint </title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 3</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>June 5 </date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.stuff.co.nz/4573211a1860.html </url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Calman, 2008), which has done little to improve the company’s reputation. The most recent of which when they “crossed the line from being provocative to being offensive” (Tony O’Brien, Prime Spokesman) with their reference to the Jewish community while advertising television show, Madmen: The Glory Years of Advertising ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Calman</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>217</RecNum><record><rec-number>217</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">217</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Calman, Matt</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>The Dominion Post </author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Prime TV billboards axed after complaint </title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 3</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>June 5 </date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.stuff.co.nz/4573211a1860.html </url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Calman, 2008). Presumably with more perspective in planning this campaign, especially from the Jewish community, Prime TV and Draft FCB would have recognised its blatant inappropriateness before running it. By a similar token, by embracing the diversity within their markets, organisations are able to avoid alienating any potential customers and are even able to connect or identity with markets that are potentially largely profitable ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><Pages>11</Pages><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c, p. 11). In recent years more and more organisations have recognised the potential value presented by advertising to “DINKs”- ‘Double Income, No Kids’, a name given to the gay consumer market in the 1980s ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Evan</Author><Year>2002 </Year><RecNum>220</RecNum><record><rec-number>220</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">220</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Evan, G. Russell</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>DINKs Have Double Incomes and No Kids</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 3</number><dates><year>2002 </year><pub-dates><date>April 2</date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://archive.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/4/1/183032.shtml</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Miller</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>219</RecNum><record><rec-number>219</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">219</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Miller, Toby</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Queer Eye for the Metrosexual Guy</title><secondary-title>GLQ: A Journal of Gay and Lesbian Studies </secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>GLQ: A Journal of Gay and Lesbian Studies</full-title></periodical><pages>112-117</pages><volume>11</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2005</year></dates><label>On File Advertising &amp; Society </label><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Evan, 2002 ; Miller, 2005). Levi Strauss Dockers campaign featured a gay theme, while Toyota, Ikea and Volkswagen have all featured same sex couples in their advertising campaigns ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Miller</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>219</RecNum><Pages>115</Pages><record><rec-number>219</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">219</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Miller, Toby</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Queer Eye for the Metrosexual Guy</title><secondary-title>GLQ: A Journal of Gay and Lesbian Studies </secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>GLQ: A Journal of Gay and Lesbian Studies</full-title></periodical><pages>112-117</pages><volume>11</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2005</year></dates><label>On File Advertising &amp; Society </label><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Miller, 2005, p. 115). The homosexual community is just one example of the kind of markets which organisations have appealed to by embracing this diversity in their market, allowing them to reach sections of the consumer market which their competitors have not ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Spiers</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>205</RecNum><record><rec-number>205</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">205</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Spiers, Carole</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The business benefits of diversity</title><secondary-title>Management Services</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Management Services</full-title></periodical><pages>26</pages><volume>52</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>Workplace diversity</keyword><keyword>Research</keyword><keyword>Performance evaluation</keyword><keyword>Training</keyword><keyword>Effectiveness</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>03076768</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1507581611&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Miller</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>219</RecNum><record><rec-number>219</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">219</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Miller, Toby</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Queer Eye for the Metrosexual Guy</title><secondary-title>GLQ: A Journal of Gay and Lesbian Studies </secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>GLQ: A Journal of Gay and Lesbian Studies</full-title></periodical><pages>112-117</pages><volume>11</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2005</year></dates><label>On File Advertising &amp; Society </label><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Miller, 2005; Spiers, 2008). <br />By representing diversity, organisations have the ability to build their reputation both with consumers in their marketplace but also as prospective employers ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c). The HR function within many organisations have long recognised the ability to increase the potential pool for recruitment and access to greater opportunities by embracing greater diversity, especially in recruitment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Spalding</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>208</RecNum><record><rec-number>208</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">208</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Spalding, Dawn</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Diversity divas need to sing about the benefits</title><secondary-title>Personnel Today</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Personnel Today</full-title></periodical><pages>16</pages><dates><year>2008</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1472229291&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Spalding, 2008). Organisations are also able to create creative and innovative environments by involving people from diverse backgrounds, whereby they have access to a wider range of skills, resources and ideas among employees ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Spiers</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>205</RecNum><record><rec-number>205</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">205</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Spiers, Carole</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The business benefits of diversity</title><secondary-title>Management Services</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Management Services</full-title></periodical><pages>26</pages><volume>52</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>Workplace diversity</keyword><keyword>Research</keyword><keyword>Performance evaluation</keyword><keyword>Training</keyword><keyword>Effectiveness</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>03076768</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1507581611&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Spiers, 2008). The increased representation of diversity provides more ideas and perspectives that can contribute, generally leading to better decision making 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Gröschl & Doherty, 1999; Houkamau, 2008c; Spiers, 2008), especially at the top level of decision making ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Burr</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>206</RecNum><record><rec-number>206</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">206</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Burr, Barry B. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Diversity benefits boardrooms, too</title><secondary-title>Pensions &amp; Investments</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Pensions &amp; Investments</full-title></periodical><pages>8</pages><volume>35</volume><number>23</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><isbn>10504974</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1383851651&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Burr, 2007). <br />Another advantage experienced within the workforce of an organisation embracing diversity is an increase in the satisfaction 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Colgan, Creegan, McKearney, & Wright, 2007; Houkamau, 2008c, p. 10) and motivation of employees ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Spiers</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>205</RecNum><record><rec-number>205</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">205</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Spiers, Carole</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The business benefits of diversity</title><secondary-title>Management Services</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Management Services</full-title></periodical><pages>26</pages><volume>52</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>Workplace diversity</keyword><keyword>Research</keyword><keyword>Performance evaluation</keyword><keyword>Training</keyword><keyword>Effectiveness</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>03076768</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1507581611&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Spiers, 2008). Effectively managing diversity organisations can create productive work environments where individuals feel valued and that their talents are being utilised ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gröschl</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>204</RecNum><record><rec-number>204</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">204</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gröschl, Stefan </author><author>Doherty, Liz</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Diversity management in practice</title><secondary-title>International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management</full-title></periodical><pages>262 - 268</pages><volume>11</volume><number>6</number><dates><year>1999</year></dates><isbn>0959-6119 </isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=76AA291381C0ABE5C0CB1E47D8A0736B?contentType=Article&amp;contentId=867299</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1108/09596119910281757</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gröschl & Doherty, 1999) ultimately creating more productive employees ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><Pages>10</Pages><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c, p. 10). Higher retention of satisfied employees leads to a decrease in the cost of recruitment and training for many organisations ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Spiers</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>205</RecNum><record><rec-number>205</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">205</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Spiers, Carole</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The business benefits of diversity</title><secondary-title>Management Services</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Management Services</full-title></periodical><pages>26</pages><volume>52</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>Workplace diversity</keyword><keyword>Research</keyword><keyword>Performance evaluation</keyword><keyword>Training</keyword><keyword>Effectiveness</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>03076768</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1507581611&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c; Spiers, 2008). There are further additional benefits achieved by managing and embracing diversity in organisations ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Spiers</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>205</RecNum><record><rec-number>205</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">205</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Spiers, Carole</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The business benefits of diversity</title><secondary-title>Management Services</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Management Services</full-title></periodical><pages>26</pages><volume>52</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>Workplace diversity</keyword><keyword>Research</keyword><keyword>Performance evaluation</keyword><keyword>Training</keyword><keyword>Effectiveness</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>03076768</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1507581611&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Spiers, 2008), especially in concern to customers. Through the use of their ‘real women’ campaign, Dove recognised that their customers wanted advertising which related to them personally and in doing so manager to increase their market share from 1% to 6% while also successfully questioning stereotypes and perceptions of women in society and the media ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Brook</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>226</RecNum><record><rec-number>226</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">226</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Brook, Stephen</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>MediaGuardian</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>&apos;Real women&apos; ads do wonders for Dove figures</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 3</number><dates><year>2004</year><pub-dates><date>July 29 </date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2004/jul/29/marketingandpr.advertising1</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Brook, 2004). <br />Challenges in Managing Diversity <br />There are a number and variety of challenges encountered by organisations attempting to represent the diversity in their environment within any business which can create potential further complications for the management of organisations in a variety of ways. When facing the concern of embracing and managing diversity in an organisation, the issues of what and how to best approach it, present a large challenge for many organisations ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><Pages>14</Pages><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c, p. 14). The historical approach taken within organisational planning has followed a model where diversity is commonly overlooked and historically strategists and management within most organisations have taken an assimilation approach, whereby all individuals are assumed to fit the same model. While many organisations and theorists recognise that this is the case, there are few examples or models to which reference can be drawn. The accommodation approach adopted by EEO still arguably falls short of the ideal approach to embracing diversity. Some multinationals are leading the way but the current approaches suggested in the literature are objective and diverse. This can make it increasingly difficult for organisations to make decisions about employees, customers and the general direction of the organisation and the process of maintaining effective contingencies in both operations and approach can be difficult. <br />The existing structure and processes of organisations and society have been established by those historically in power, generally straight, white males, during the development of which they have assumed that their perceptions and “norms” to be that of the human in general 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Acker, 1990; Houkamau, 2008b; Skidmore, 2004). In doing so they have ignored many of the differences between themselves and the rest of the world’s population ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004). One commonly referenced example of this is found in the nature of work environments not being supportive of a concern for the balance between home and work, making it difficult for women, whom are commonly the caregivers, to participate in the same way within the organisation as their male counterparts ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Spiers</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>205</RecNum><record><rec-number>205</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">205</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Spiers, Carole</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The business benefits of diversity</title><secondary-title>Management Services</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Management Services</full-title></periodical><pages>26</pages><volume>52</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>Workplace diversity</keyword><keyword>Research</keyword><keyword>Performance evaluation</keyword><keyword>Training</keyword><keyword>Effectiveness</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>03076768</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1507581611&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Spiers, 2008). This highlights the distinct requirement to consider diversity and the changes and challenges in embracing it on two levels; systemic and interpersonal ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><Pages>15-16</Pages><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c, pp. 15-16). <br />Within the systemic levels of consideration, organisations need to ensure that processes are enabled to support the diversity represented. There is no point hiring working mothers with the incentive of honouring work life balance and not providing appropriate structural support for it. The current structure of work design and organisational systems do not support balance between theses and as such structural changes are requires to really embrace diversity, for example flexible working arrangements. The approaches themselves taken by the organisation to embrace diversity must intrinsically adopt a diversified form, after all individuals have individual requirements. For example; the more individualistic, masculine cultures of the United States, Australia or New Zealand ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Hofstede</Author><Year>1980</Year><RecNum>10</RecNum><record><rec-number>10</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">10</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hofstede, G.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Motivation, Leadership &amp; Organization: Do American Theories Apply Abroad?</title><secondary-title>Organisational Dynamics</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Organisational Dynamics</full-title></periodical><pages>42-63</pages><volume>9</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>1980</year><pub-dates><date>1980</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0090-2616</isbn><accession-num>5143098</accession-num><work-type>Article</work-type><urls><related-urls><url>http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login.aspx?direct=true&amp;db=buh&amp;AN=5143098&amp;site=ehost-live</url></related-urls></urls><remote-database-name>Business Source Premier</remote-database-name><remote-database-provider>EBSCO Host</remote-database-provider><language>English</language></record></Cite></EndNote>(Hofstede, 1980) may prefer to be direct or possibly aggressive in their problem solving approach, suiting IBMs Diversity Council, where decisions can be robustly debated and discussed ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>IBM</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>179</RecNum><record><rec-number>179</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">179</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>IBM,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>IBM Diversity Profile</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Oct 2</number><dates><year>2008</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.strategicdiversity.com/strategic_diversity_Diverse_Company_Profiles_IBM.htm</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(IBM, 2008). However a member with a collectivist, feminine cultural orientation, such as an individual from Taiwan or Singapore ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Hofstede</Author><Year>1980</Year><RecNum>10</RecNum><record><rec-number>10</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">10</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hofstede, G.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Motivation, Leadership &amp; Organization: Do American Theories Apply Abroad?</title><secondary-title>Organisational Dynamics</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Organisational Dynamics</full-title></periodical><pages>42-63</pages><volume>9</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>1980</year><pub-dates><date>1980</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0090-2616</isbn><accession-num>5143098</accession-num><work-type>Article</work-type><urls><related-urls><url>http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login.aspx?direct=true&amp;db=buh&amp;AN=5143098&amp;site=ehost-live</url></related-urls></urls><remote-database-name>Business Source Premier</remote-database-name><remote-database-provider>EBSCO Host</remote-database-provider><language>English</language></record></Cite></EndNote>(Hofstede, 1980) would probably prefer something like Johnson & Johnson’s Global Office of Diversity and Inclusion where issues involve all areas of the organisation and may adopt a more collectivist perspective where issue could be raised in a less direct manner ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Johnson &amp; Johnson</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>178</RecNum><record><rec-number>178</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">178</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Johnson &amp; Johnson, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Company Diversity Profile</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Oct 7</number><dates><year>2008</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.strategicdiversity.com/strategic_diversity_Diverse_Company_Profiles_johnson_&amp;_johnson.htm</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Johnson & Johnson, 2008). To effectively embrace diversity and truly experience this, the implementation and adoption of changes approach must be experiences throughout all levels and areas of the organisation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c).<br />Incidentally, there is little effect if the structural support is provided and processes installed to embrace diversity yet the perceptions and mindsets of employees, especially managers responsible for implementing these processes, do not embrace such concepts or demonstrate prejudice. The culture of organisations are required to embrace diversity throughout the different levels, groups, planning and structure ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c). Embracing diversity in a realistic sense throughout the firm can present a challenge in itself. Dell attempt to ‘continue to drive diversity throughout the organisation, making it central part of global strategy’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Dell</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>176</RecNum><record><rec-number>176</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">176</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Dell, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Dell&apos;s Global Diversity Program</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Oct, 10</number><dates><year>2008</year></dates><publisher>Cresent Strategic Resources</publisher><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.strategicdiversity.com/strategic_diversity_Diverse_Company_Profile_DELL_1.htm</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Dell, 2008). The perpetuated barriers presented by diversity in culture, age, gender, physical ability of the mindsets surrounding them between members of the organisation need to be overcome, the most effective, debatably only way to do so being through the use of communication and education ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c). Johnson & Johnson recognise that education is essential for promoting the benefits of a diverse workplace globally. They established the Johnson & Johnson Diversity University which is a dynamic internal resource designed to help employees by providing ‘best-in-class diversity training and developmental tools and resources ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Johnson &amp; Johnson</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>178</RecNum><record><rec-number>178</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">178</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Johnson &amp; Johnson, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Company Diversity Profile</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Oct 7</number><dates><year>2008</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.strategicdiversity.com/strategic_diversity_Diverse_Company_Profiles_johnson_&amp;_johnson.htm</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Johnson & Johnson, 2008) A classical challenge for pioneers of diverse workplaces is a difficulty gaining buy in from the rest of the organisation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Spalding</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>208</RecNum><record><rec-number>208</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">208</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Spalding, Dawn</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Diversity divas need to sing about the benefits</title><secondary-title>Personnel Today</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Personnel Today</full-title></periodical><pages>16</pages><dates><year>2008</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1472229291&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Spalding, 2008). The engrained attitudes of senior managers especially, make it difficult to embrace such structural initiatives within some organisations ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Spiers</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>205</RecNum><record><rec-number>205</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">205</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Spiers, Carole</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The business benefits of diversity</title><secondary-title>Management Services</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Management Services</full-title></periodical><pages>26</pages><volume>52</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>Workplace diversity</keyword><keyword>Research</keyword><keyword>Performance evaluation</keyword><keyword>Training</keyword><keyword>Effectiveness</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>03076768</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1507581611&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Spiers, 2008), requiring emphasis of such communication and education at all levels of the organisation. <br />The challenges presented in embracing diversity are incredibly complex for any organisation, regardless of size, structure, authority systems, work design, location, organisational culture or population. Despite the lack of extensive frameworks or formats to follow in dealing with these challenges, the potential benefits presented to the organisation cannot be overlooked. By successfully embracing and managing diversity within any organisation they are presented the opportunity to better represent and understand their diverse markets, build their reputation, avoid alienating or offending minorities and potential customers within the market, improve employee satisfaction and productivity and gain financial benefits from the improvements of both the sales and recruitment processes. Organisations are requires to continue making required systemic changes within firms to support diversity and use education and communication to continue challenging the prejudices and stereotypes of individuals, organisations and societies. The challenges in adopting such approaches must also be considered on an interpersonal level by fostering an environment of communication and education to embrace diversities presented in today’s economies and environments. <br />Appendix 1.1 <br />Figure 1.0 | Diverse environment within which organisations operate <br />Key<br /><ul><li>– The World Environment
  2. - The Specific Market
  3. - The organisations & Structure
  4. - The customers of that market
  5. - The process & approach of specific organisations
  6. - Some overlap in processes & approaches taken by individual organisations
  7. – The individuals within the specific organisations </li></ul>Assessment Question Two<br />Homosexuality & Workplace Barriers<br />There are existing stereotypes and evidence of prejudice against people whose sexual orientation varies from the traditional conceptualisations of the heterosexual family units as the “norm” in society 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ADDIN EN.CITE 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 ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Embrick, Walther, & Wickens, 2007; Moelker, 2008). When considering how these stereotypes and prejudices effect people whose sexual orientation differs from this, particularly within the homosexual community, a number of barriers are presented to them in the workforce. Many homosexual individuals involve themselves into a gay and lesbian sub-culture and for many of them, the workplace is the ‘most constant and obvious reminder of ‘heterosexual space’ and its disciplining pressures ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>235</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 235). As discussed when referring to the barriers presented to other minority groups in the workforce, the effect of the limited perception of difference from the people whom historically established these systems in considering their own behaviour and perception as representative of humans in general ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Acker</Author><Year>1990</Year><RecNum>77</RecNum><record><rec-number>77</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">77</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Acker, Joan</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Heirarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A theory of Gendered Organisations</title><secondary-title>Gender and Society</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender and Society</full-title></periodical><pages>139-156</pages><volume>4</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>1990</year><pub-dates><date>June, 1990</date></pub-dates></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Acker, 1990) also effects the homosexual community. <br />Just as women are disadvantaged by the patriarchal nature of society and organisations, the heteronormative discourse in organisations and society disadvantage and create barriers for homosexual members of the population ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>234</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 234). The discrimination against homosexuals has been explored in terms of the three levels, individual, organisational and society (demonstrated by Figure 2.0). These individual layers act as both the product and function of the other layers, continuing the perpetuation of them throughout. A number of approaches (assimilation, accommodation and amalgamation) have been taken by organisations to reduce the impact of these barriers yet the influences from society continue to perpetuate the same prejudices.Figure2.0 | Levels & Types of DiscriminationDeveloped with reference to Houkamau, C. (2008) Recognising power, inclusion & exclusion; Racism & Sexism in organisations. [PowerPoint slides], Retrieved August 1, 2008, from The University of Auckland University CECIL, MGMT 734 Diversity in Orgs31686501754505<br />Diversity in sexual orientation may limit homosexuals gaining access to workplaces ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>234</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 234) and if access is gained their chances of maintaining employment are often slim ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Embrick</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>224</RecNum><Pages>764</Pages><record><rec-number>224</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">224</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Embrick, David G</author><author>Walther, Carol S</author><author>Wickens, Corrine M</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Working Class Masculinity: Keeping Gay Men and Lesbians out of the Workplace</title><secondary-title>Sex Roles</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Sex Roles</full-title></periodical><pages>757-766</pages><volume>56</volume><number>11-12</number><edition>May 29 </edition><dates><year>2007</year></dates><isbn>0360-0025 </isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1007/s11199-007-9234-0</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Embrick et al., 2007, p. 764). Palmer (1993) found evidence of dismissals being motivated by sexuality (p7-8). While career progression may also be halted for homosexuals in many organisations ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>235</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 235) suggesting possibly the existence of a similar phenomena to the “glass ceiling” experienced by women. Equally distressing is the experience of ostracization for homosexuals in the work environment which can be found at various levels and to varying degrees ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Embrick</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>224</RecNum><Pages>764</Pages><record><rec-number>224</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">224</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Embrick, David G</author><author>Walther, Carol S</author><author>Wickens, Corrine M</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Working Class Masculinity: Keeping Gay Men and Lesbians out of the Workplace</title><secondary-title>Sex Roles</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Sex Roles</full-title></periodical><pages>757-766</pages><volume>56</volume><number>11-12</number><edition>May 29 </edition><dates><year>2007</year></dates><isbn>0360-0025 </isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1007/s11199-007-9234-0</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Embrick et al., 2007, p. 764). Depending on the nature of the work, the dimensions can be ‘quite corporeal’, for example, avoiding or refusing to have direct contact with a homosexual member of the organisation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>234</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 234). Alternatively another method of exclusion or ostracization identified by Skidmore (2004) is found in social scenarios which are organised in overtly “straight locations” (p234). <br />The exclusion of homosexuals in a heternormative workplace also takes place through the medium of language ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>234</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 234). The tacit assumption of shared heterosexuality is commonly encountered by the homosexual community creating uncomfortable situations for them in the workplace in everyday conversations ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>235</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 235). The majority of homosexual workers had experienced homophobic comments within workplaces either in a direct or indirect manner ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Colgan</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>243</RecNum><record><rec-number>243</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">243</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Colgan, Fiona</author><author>Creegan, Chris</author><author>McKearney, Aidan</author><author>Wright, Tessa</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Equality and diversity policies and practices at work: lesbian, gay and bisexual workers</title><secondary-title>Equal Opportunities International</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Equal Opportunities International</full-title></periodical><pages>590</pages><volume>26</volume><number>6</number><keywords><keyword>Studies</keyword><keyword>Employment discrimination</keyword><keyword>Sexual orientation discrimination</keyword><keyword>Gays &amp; lesbians</keyword><keyword>Regulation</keyword><keyword>Employment policies</keyword><keyword>Workplace diversity</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year></dates><isbn>02610159</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1329363051&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Colgan et al., 2007). The use of insults and “jokes” is the most common reports of ostracizing or alienating behaviour experienced by the homosexual community ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>235</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 235). Embrick, et. al., (2007) concluded in their study of the vending industry that ‘homosexual jokes were used to increase the collective practise of white males solidarity in their performance of hegemonic masculinity and to exclude any homosexuals from employment in their workplace’ (p.764). <br />Developed with reference to Houkamau, C. (2008). Recognising power, inclusion & exclusion; Racism & Sexism in organisations. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved June 24, 2008,  from The University of Auckland University CECIL, MGMT 317'734 Diversity in OrganisationsHistorically the ‘policy benefits, sometimes with considerable pecuniary worth, have been denied by employers in respect of same-sex partners which are granted for opposite sex partners’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>235</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 235). Skidmore (2004) stated that ‘same-sex partners are rarely viewed as a functional equivalent’ (p.235), a position reinforced by recent discussions in the media of schools forcing the signing of contracts before allowing same-sex partners to school balls ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>NZPA</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>210</RecNum><record><rec-number>210</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">210</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>NZPA, </author></authors><secondary-authors><author>New Zealand Herald </author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Gay students made to sign school ball &apos;contracts&apos; </title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 1,</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 30 </date></pub-dates></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&amp;objectid=10529806</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(NZPA, 2008) or even banning homosexual couples all together ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>AAP</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>212</RecNum><record><rec-number>212</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">212</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>AAP</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Sydney Morning Herald </author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Gay Student partners banned from dance </title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 1</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>April 12 </date></pub-dates></dates><pub-location>Sydney </pub-location><urls><related-urls><url>http://news.smh.com.au/national/gay-student-partners-banned-from-dance-20080412-25pc.html#</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Ironside</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>211</RecNum><record><rec-number>211</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">211</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ironside, Robyn</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>The Courier-Mail</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Anglican Church Grammar School bans gay partners at formal</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 1 </number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>April 12 </date></pub-dates></dates><work-type>Newspaper article </work-type><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,23525256-2,00.html</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(AAP, 2008; Ironside, 2008). The support from co-workers or availability of discretionary leave granted for heterosexual partners in time of bereavements or breakups is often not extended to the same degree for same-sex couples ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>235</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 235). There is further evidence of same-sex partnerships not receiving the same valence as heterosexual partnerships in organisations and society, demonstrated by reports of same-sex partners being denied access in hospital situations as not allowed to be considered family or next of kin ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Friedman</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>213</RecNum><record><rec-number>213</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">213</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Friedman, Richard </author></authors><secondary-authors><author>The Observer Online</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Stop justifying prejudice against homosexuals</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 2</number><dates><year>2004</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 27 </date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://media.www.ndsmcobserver.com/media/storage/paper660/news/2004/10/27/Viewpoint/Stop-Justifying.Prejudice.Against.Homosexuals-782057.shtml</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Friedman, 2004). The casual factors of these barriers have been explored within the three levels of discrimination. <br />Individual (represented in Figure 2.1)<br />Within the individual level of discrimination the concerns of socialisation are derived from the conceptualisations and understandings of the gender roles and norms of behaviour ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Acker</Author><Year>1990</Year><RecNum>77</RecNum><record><rec-number>77</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">77</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Acker, Joan</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Heirarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A theory of Gendered Organisations</title><secondary-title>Gender and Society</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender and Society</full-title></periodical><pages>139-156</pages><volume>4</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>1990</year><pub-dates><date>June, 1990</date></pub-dates></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>74</RecNum><Pages>18</Pages><record><rec-number>74</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">74</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 2: Recognising Power, inclusion &amp; exclusion: Racism &amp; Sexism in organisations</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><number>Lecture 2</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 1</date></pub-dates></dates><publisher>The University of Auckland University CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides</work-type><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Acker, 1990; Houkamau, 2008a, p. 18). This socialisation occurs through a number of mediums and models; however there is evidence of advertising working to promote and perpetuate images and myths, particularly those stereotypes of gender cultures and what is expected from men ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Strate</Author><Year>1992</Year><RecNum>227</RecNum><record><rec-number>227</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">227</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Strate, L</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Craig, S</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Beer Commericals: A Manual on masculinity</title><secondary-title>Men, Masculinity and the Media</secondary-title></titles><pages>78-92</pages><dates><year>1992</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Sage</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Strate, 1992). Although sexuality is not the same as gender it cannot be understood without reference to it ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>231</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 231) making these stereotypes important in perpetuating conceptions of what a “real man” is, excluding homosexual orientation in the understanding of this ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Embrick</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>224</RecNum><Pages>764</Pages><record><rec-number>224</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">224</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Embrick, David G</author><author>Walther, Carol S</author><author>Wickens, Corrine M</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Working Class Masculinity: Keeping Gay Men and Lesbians out of the Workplace</title><secondary-title>Sex Roles</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Sex Roles</full-title></periodical><pages>757-766</pages><volume>56</volume><number>11-12</number><edition>May 29 </edition><dates><year>2007</year></dates><isbn>0360-0025 </isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1007/s11199-007-9234-0</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Embrick et al., 2007, p. 764). <br />Identity theories tend to refer to the process of the majority of an organisation selecting members with whom they identity, we expect members of other social groups to be “like” our group ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>74</RecNum><Pages>19</Pages><record><rec-number>74</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">74</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 2: Recognising Power, inclusion &amp; exclusion: Racism &amp; Sexism in organisations</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><number>Lecture 2</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 1</date></pub-dates></dates><publisher>The University of Auckland University CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides</work-type><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008a, p. 19). This theory also explains the dominance of subcultures within the homosexual communities as well as among other minority groups. The trepidation expressed by many homosexual individuals on openly drawing reference to their sexuality within the workplace is derived from this factor, as this generally the most common place where the homosexual subculture maybe inaccessible ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004). The existing belief, especially emphasised historically, that ‘heterosexuality is the only normal, valid and moral basis for relationships’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Johnson</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>223</RecNum><record><rec-number>223</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">223</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Johnson, James </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Sexual orientation in the workplace</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 2</number><dates><year>2005</year><pub-dates><date>June</date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.bma.org.uk/ap.nsf/Content/Sexualorientation</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Johnson, 2005) provides foundations for understanding how this cognitive categorisation of homosexuals as something ‘wrong’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Friedman</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>213</RecNum><record><rec-number>213</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">213</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Friedman, Richard </author></authors><secondary-authors><author>The Observer Online</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Stop justifying prejudice against homosexuals</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 2</number><dates><year>2004</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 27 </date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://media.www.ndsmcobserver.com/media/storage/paper660/news/2004/10/27/Viewpoint/Stop-Justifying.Prejudice.Against.Homosexuals-782057.shtml</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Friedman, 2004) continues to perpetuate creating sustained homophobia especially in the workplace. The matter of sexuality is categorised as ‘private’, meaning it has nothing to do with the workplace ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>237</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 237), yet as we know, this distinction is rarely objectively offered to any minority group. <br />Organisational (represented in Figure 2.2)<br />Developed with reference to Houkamau, C. (2008). Recognising power, inclusion & exclusion; Racism & Sexism in organisations. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved June 24, 2008,  from The University of Auckland University CECIL, MGMT 317'734 Diversity in OrganisationsSkidmore (2004) describes the workforce as view through a lens of heternormative sexuality, which is shaped by a particular form of gender categorisation (p232). Just as the patriarchal nature of organisations negatively affects women ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Acker</Author><Year>1990</Year><RecNum>77</RecNum><record><rec-number>77</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">77</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Acker, Joan</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Heirarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A theory of Gendered Organisations</title><secondary-title>Gender and Society</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender and Society</full-title></periodical><pages>139-156</pages><volume>4</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>1990</year><pub-dates><date>June, 1990</date></pub-dates></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Acker, 1990), the dominant discourse and culture of heteronormativity within organisations is an underlying factor when considering a majority of the barriers presented to homosexuals in the workforce ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004). The policy of organisations to support equal opportunity and the culture of the organisation should ensure that non-discriminatory language is utilised ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Vorster</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>240</RecNum><record><rec-number>240</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">240</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Vorster, Gareth</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Employers tackling barriers to sending gay staff abroad</title><secondary-title>Personnel Today</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Personnel Today</full-title></periodical><pages>3</pages><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>April 22</date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login.aspx?direct=true&amp;db=buh&amp;AN=32434792&amp;site=ehost-live</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Vorster, 2008). <br />The influence of human capital theory refers to the preference or tendency of organisation to invest more into the skill formation of employees from the majority ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>74</RecNum><Suffix>, p23</Suffix><record><rec-number>74</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">74</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 2: Recognising Power, inclusion &amp; exclusion: Racism &amp; Sexism in organisations</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><number>Lecture 2</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 1</date></pub-dates></dates><publisher>The University of Auckland University CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides</work-type><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008a, p23). This tendency demonstrates negative effects on the homosexual community as it does other minorities. Members of the homosexual community have more difficulty maintaining employment as their sexuality maybe seen as a reason to motivate dismissal and often find it more difficult to progress through the ranks of the organisation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004). Ensuring that training and opportunities are presented to employees on the basis of skill or performance minimises the inherent nature to select “like” people from the perspective of the majority for Developed with reference to Houkamau, C. (2008). Recognising power, inclusion & exclusion; Racism & Sexism in organisations. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved June 24, 2008,  from The University of Auckland University CECIL, MGMT 317'734 Diversity in Organisationsdevelopment and training. <br />Social Structure (represented in Figure 2.3) <br />There are a number of influences from the societal level which work to perpetuate these stereotypes and prejudice of homosexuality leading to the continuation of this minority facing the workplace barriers and struggles presented to them. When considering power is structural, the influences of the legal and judicial systems as well as the contribution from the church in western society cannot be overlooked. When considering the law and legal systems of society as a mechanism to perpetuate common understandings and preconceptions ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>230</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 230) it is important to consider how homosexuality is perceived in the wider context. When referencing the judgement from the European courts, Skidmore quotes, ‘stable relationships between two persons of the same sex are not regarded as equivalent to marriages or stable relationships outside marriage between persons of the opposite sex’ (p245). Yet in New Zealand, same sex couples can unite under a civil union; the equality legislation on sexual orientation differs from country to country, often dependant on local religious considerations ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Vorster</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>240</RecNum><record><rec-number>240</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">240</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Vorster, Gareth</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Employers tackling barriers to sending gay staff abroad</title><secondary-title>Personnel Today</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Personnel Today</full-title></periodical><pages>3</pages><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>April 22</date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login.aspx?direct=true&amp;db=buh&amp;AN=32434792&amp;site=ehost-live</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Vorster, 2008)<br />The majority of societies in the western world feature an understanding of the world which is strongly rooted in the Christian lessons of the church ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Guillen</Author><Year>1998</Year><RecNum>171</RecNum><record><rec-number>171</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">171</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Guillen, Mauro F</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Cooper, C. L.</author><author>Rousseau, Denise M.</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>International Management and the Circulation of Ideas</title><secondary-title>Trends in Organizational Behavior</secondary-title></titles><pages>47-63</pages><volume>5</volume><section>3</section><dates><year>1998</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>John Wiley &amp; Sons Ltd</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Guillen, 1998). Homosexuals have long fought prejudice within religious settings with the some bishops basing reasoning for prejudice on the recognition of the sexual acts of homosexuals as a sign, yet no attempt has ever been made to screen out heterosexuals based on their sexual acts ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Friedman</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>213</RecNum><record><rec-number>213</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">213</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Friedman, Richard </author></authors><secondary-authors><author>The Observer Online</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Stop justifying prejudice against homosexuals</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 2</number><dates><year>2004</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 27 </date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://media.www.ndsmcobserver.com/media/storage/paper660/news/2004/10/27/Viewpoint/Stop-Justifying.Prejudice.Against.Homosexuals-782057.shtml</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Friedman, 2004). Yet people’s perceptions of how homosexuality is viewed religiously are often misguided ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Friedman</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>213</RecNum><record><rec-number>213</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">213</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Friedman, Richard </author></authors><secondary-authors><author>The Observer Online</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Stop justifying prejudice against homosexuals</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 2</number><dates><year>2004</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 27 </date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://media.www.ndsmcobserver.com/media/storage/paper660/news/2004/10/27/Viewpoint/Stop-Justifying.Prejudice.Against.Homosexuals-782057.shtml</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Friedman, 2004). The church have continued in recent years to emphasise their progressive understanding of sexuality recognising, ‘homosexual orientation is experienced as a given, not something freely chosen. Therefore as homosexual orientation cannot be considered sinful for morality presumes the freedom to choose’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Allies</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>214</RecNum><record><rec-number>214</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">214</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Allies, </author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Holy Cross University </author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Catholic Viewpoints on Homosexuality </title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 3 </number><dates><year>2008</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.scu.edu/safespace/viewpoints.html</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Allies, 2008). Yet as experienced within organisations, making the systemic and top level changes to embrace diversity does not automatically mean that the existing mindsets or prejudices of all bishops, priests and religious organisations have also changed. In Australia earlier this year, Queensland’s prestigious boys’ school, Anglican Church Grammar School put an outright ban on gay partners at their schools formal claiming religious reasons ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>AAP</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>212</RecNum><record><rec-number>212</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">212</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>AAP</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Sydney Morning Herald </author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Gay Student partners banned from dance </title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 1</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>April 12 </date></pub-dates></dates><pub-location>Sydney </pub-location><urls><related-urls><url>http://news.smh.com.au/national/gay-student-partners-banned-from-dance-20080412-25pc.html#</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Ironside</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>211</RecNum><record><rec-number>211</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">211</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ironside, Robyn</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>The Courier-Mail</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Anglican Church Grammar School bans gay partners at formal</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 1 </number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>April 12 </date></pub-dates></dates><work-type>Newspaper article </work-type><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,23525256-2,00.html</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(AAP, 2008; Ironside, 2008). In New Zealand students taking same-sex partners to school balls have been forced to sign contracts confirming they are homosexual ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>NZPA</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>210</RecNum><record><rec-number>210</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">210</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>NZPA, </author></authors><secondary-authors><author>New Zealand Herald </author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Gay students made to sign school ball &apos;contracts&apos; </title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 1,</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 30 </date></pub-dates></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&amp;objectid=10529806</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(NZPA, 2008). Events such as these continue to reinforce the stereotypes of homosexuality being something that is wrong in society ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>AAP</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>212</RecNum><record><rec-number>212</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">212</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>AAP</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Sydney Morning Herald </author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Gay Student partners banned from dance </title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 1</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>April 12 </date></pub-dates></dates><pub-location>Sydney </pub-location><urls><related-urls><url>http://news.smh.com.au/national/gay-student-partners-banned-from-dance-20080412-25pc.html#</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(AAP, 2008). <br />Figure2.4 4552950673100The approaches taken to incorporate, embrace and manage diversity differ and the consideration of the effectiveness of each of the three approaches to remove the barriers presented to the homosexual community in the workplace has been considered individually. <br />Assimilation <br />Figure2.5 44894503208020The assimilation approach (represented in Figure 2.4) is based on a stable industry conditions and adopts the philosophy that there is one best way to conduct business ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>238</RecNum><Pages>11-12</Pages><record><rec-number>238</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">238</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 3: Diversity Managment: Assimilation, amalgamation and accomodation approaches, Discrimination in Organizations</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><number>Lecture 2</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 8 </date></pub-dates></dates><publisher>The University of Auckland University CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides</work-type><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008b, pp. 11-12),. By approach adopted by this model, we would be asking people to deny who they are and express what their sexuality means to them. Some homosexuals in the workforce, especially within particular industries where there is still a large amount of prejudice, may chose not to reveal their sexuality to co-workers, yet in doing so are denying a part of themselves ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004). This approach confines everyone to the same standards and norms of the straight, white male whom established the structure and processes of the organisation and still generally hold majority power in organisations ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>238</RecNum><Pages>14</Pages><record><rec-number>238</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">238</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 3: Diversity Managment: Assimilation, amalgamation and accomodation approaches, Discrimination in Organizations</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><number>Lecture 2</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 8 </date></pub-dates></dates><publisher>The University of Auckland University CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides</work-type><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008b, p. 14). This however has severe implications for no-conformists, who not only find it difficult to ‘fit-in’ or compete, but may also face isolation from the majority ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>238</RecNum><Pages>13</Pages><record><rec-number>238</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">238</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 3: Diversity Managment: Assimilation, amalgamation and accomodation approaches, Discrimination in Organizations</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><number>Lecture 2</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 8 </date></pub-dates></dates><publisher>The University of Auckland University CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides</work-type><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008b, p. 13). Not only is an assimilation approach inappropriate when dealing with minority groups but treats them as second rate citizens, doing little if anything to assist removing barriers face by homosexuals or any other minority group. <br />Accommodation <br />This approach is adopted by the EEO New Zealand and attempts to accommodate the needs of specific groups through a variety of programmes that operate within the status quo ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>238</RecNum><Pages>16</Pages><record><rec-number>238</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">238</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 3: Diversity Managment: Assimilation, amalgamation and accomodation approaches, Discrimination in Organizations</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><number>Lecture 2</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 8 </date></pub-dates></dates><publisher>The University of Auckland University CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides</work-type><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008b, p. 16). Figure 2.5 demonstrates how the accommodation approach is perceived; in essence it is placing particular minority groups on a pedestal so their voices can be heard over the majority. Fundamentally however this approach is based on the recognition that discrimination is wrong ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Thomas</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>89</RecNum><Pages>125</Pages><record><rec-number>89</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">89</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thomas, David A.</author><author>Ely, Robin J.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Making Differences Matter; A New Paradigm for Managing Diversity</title><secondary-title>Harvard business review on women in business</secondary-title></titles><pages>vii, 213 p.</pages><section>125-157</section><keywords><keyword>Women in the professions.</keyword><keyword>Women executives.</keyword><keyword>Businesswomen.</keyword><keyword>Women Employment re-entry.</keyword><keyword>Career development.</keyword><keyword>Work and family.</keyword><keyword>Achievement motivation.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2005</year></dates><pub-location>Boston, Mass.</pub-location><publisher>Harvard Business School Publishing</publisher><isbn>1591397170</isbn><call-num>GENERAL LIBRARY 331.425; H33</call-num><label>Mgmt 734</label><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0514/2005017056.html</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Thomas & Ely, 2005, p. 125) and ultimately perpetuates the ideology that one group in society is inherently “subordinate” or “inferior” to another ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Chater</Author><Year>1995</Year><RecNum>87</RecNum><record><rec-number>87</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">87</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Chater, Kerry</author><author>Gaster, Roma</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The equality myth : a guide for women who want to make a difference in the world of business and for men who are ready for change</title></titles><pages>xv, 229 p.</pages><section>1-19</section><keywords><keyword>Businesswomen.</keyword><keyword>Career development.</keyword><keyword>Interpersonal communication.</keyword><keyword>Women executives.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>1995</year></dates><pub-location>St. Leonards, N.S.W.</pub-location><publisher>Allen &amp; Unwin</publisher><isbn>1863738304</isbn><call-num>GENERAL LIBRARY 331.4816584; C49</call-num><label>Mgmt734</label><urls></urls><research-notes>&quot;we believe men and women are created differently, the differences are complementary, its time to value the difference&quot; p6 &apos;patriarchial system survived by ordinary people internalising the rules&apos; p3 Living in A Partiarchy. </research-notes></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Eichler</Author><Year>1989</Year><RecNum>48</RecNum><record><rec-number>48</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">48</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Eichler, Margrit </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Equality in Employment</title><secondary-title>Humanomics</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Humanomics</full-title></periodical><pages>52-63</pages><volume>5</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>1989</year></dates><isbn>0828-8666</isbn><label>Mgmt734 Assignment 1</label><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1108/eb006096</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Chater & Gaster, 1995; Eichler, 1989).<br />The enforcement processes and legislative effort to accommodate diversity or difference within the demographics of populations often cause discrimination to “go underground” ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><Pages>8</Pages><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c, p. 8). Employers are discriminating still in more cunning ways and discrimination is not being removed or barriers overcome but instead just converted from overt to covert with no “real change”. Homosexual doctors have had difficulty despite legislative requirements being in place, a lack of awareness and understanding among many employers has resulted in many homosexual doctors concealing their sexuality for fear of being discriminated against if their sexual orientation is known ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Conn</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>244</RecNum><Pages>6</Pages><record><rec-number>244</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">244</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Conn, Fleur</author><author>Hogg, Rachel</author><author>Lakey, Louise</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>British Medical Association </author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Sexual orientation in the workplace</title><secondary-title>Equal Opportunities Committee</secondary-title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 2</number><dates><year>2005</year><pub-dates><date>June</date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.bma.org.uk/ap.nsf/Content/Sexualorientation</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Conn, Hogg, & Lakey, 2005, p. 6) . The liberal changes suggested to have been made within many areas of environment are often contradicted by the words and actions of the majority ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Embrick</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>224</RecNum><record><rec-number>224</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">224</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Embrick, David G</author><author>Walther, Carol S</author><author>Wickens, Corrine M</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Working Class Masculinity: Keeping Gay Men and Lesbians out of the Workplace</title><secondary-title>Sex Roles</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Sex Roles</full-title></periodical><pages>757-766</pages><volume>56</volume><number>11-12</number><edition>May 29 </edition><dates><year>2007</year></dates><isbn>0360-0025 </isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1007/s11199-007-9234-0</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Embrick et al., 2007). There are still considerable barriers even within this adoption of this approach that work to alienate or ostracize homosexuals, which is especially evident in some industries or workplaces, a strong example found in the military ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>234</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 234). On the flip side to this, many organisations feel the EEO violates their rights to choose and discretion in hiring whom they wants ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><Pages>8</Pages><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c, p. 8), and as such find ways to covertly discriminate. <br />Figure 2.6 43624502225675This approach inadvertently works to present further inequalities between the different groups, which commonly causes resentment or discord among dominant groups ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>201</RecNum><Pages>8</Pages><record><rec-number>201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 4: Diversity Management - The Business Case</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland </pub-location><publisher>University of Auckland CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides </work-type><urls></urls><remote-database-name>CECIL</remote-database-name></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008c, p. 8). Homosexuals commonly experience this within the nature and culture of workplaces, if making ‘visible the heteronormativity of the dominant discourse, members of the homosexual community are often accused of “ramming it [heterosexuality] down the throats” of co-workers’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Skidmore</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>203</RecNum><Pages>235</Pages><record><rec-number>203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Skidmore, Paul</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Paul Skidmore, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Juristische Fakultt L.S. Baer Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin, Germany, e-mail: paul.skidmore@rewi.hu-berlin.de</auth-address><titles><title>A Legal Perspective on Sexuality and Organization: A Lesbian and Gay Case Study</title><secondary-title>Gender Work and Organization</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Gender Work and Organization</full-title></periodical><pages>229-253</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>1468-0432</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00230.x</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Skidmore, 2004, p. 235). These kinds of mindsets and perceptions continue in an environment where accommodation for difference occurs structurally and procedurally. At the end of the day, many of the barriers presented to homosexuals within the workforce or any minority group for that matter are perpetuated by the stereotypes, mindsets and norms of individuals, organisations and within society and cultural change doesn’t occur from forcing equalities. <br />Amalgamation <br />Amalgamation (represented by Figure 2.6) is a more complex and dynamic approach to managing diversity which recognises that the collective is advanced by the contributions of different groups whose individual identities are melted together into an integrated whole ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>238</RecNum><Pages>20</Pages><record><rec-number>238</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">238</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 3: Diversity Managment: Assimilation, amalgamation and accomodation approaches, Discrimination in Organizations</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><number>Lecture 2</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 8 </date></pub-dates></dates><publisher>The University of Auckland University CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides</work-type><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008b, p. 20). Minorities groups are often not seeking special treatment as offered by the accommodation approach, but instead seek equality; members of the homosexual community are searching for someone to stop discrimination and finally put into practise a policy of true acceptance for all ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Friedman</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>213</RecNum><record><rec-number>213</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">213</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Friedman, Richard </author></authors><secondary-authors><author>The Observer Online</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Stop justifying prejudice against homosexuals</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 2</number><dates><year>2004</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 27 </date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://media.www.ndsmcobserver.com/media/storage/paper660/news/2004/10/27/Viewpoint/Stop-Justifying.Prejudice.Against.Homosexuals-782057.shtml</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Friedman, 2004). By developing an amalgamation approach to embrace the diversity presented by the homosexual population of the community, organisations could, if nothing more, potentially capitalise from the inclusion of this consumer group, which has proven to be a potentially very lucrative market ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Miller</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>219</RecNum><record><rec-number>219</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">219</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Miller, Toby</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Queer Eye for the Metrosexual Guy</title><secondary-title>GLQ: A Journal of Gay and Lesbian Studies </secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>GLQ: A Journal of Gay and Lesbian Studies</full-title></periodical><pages>112-117</pages><volume>11</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2005</year></dates><label>On File Advertising &amp; Society </label><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Evan</Author><Year>2002 </Year><RecNum>220</RecNum><record><rec-number>220</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">220</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Evan, G. Russell</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>DINKs Have Double Incomes and No Kids</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Nov 3</number><dates><year>2002 </year><pub-dates><date>April 2</date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://archive.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/4/1/183032.shtml</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Evan, 2002 ; Miller, 2005). <br />This approach highlights a diverse is a business asset and provides benefit and opportunity to any organisation embracing it ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>238</RecNum><Pages>20</Pages><record><rec-number>238</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">238</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 3: Diversity Managment: Assimilation, amalgamation and accomodation approaches, Discrimination in Organizations</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><number>Lecture 2</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 8 </date></pub-dates></dates><publisher>The University of Auckland University CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides</work-type><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008b, p. 20), rather than a problem that must be avoided as underlying in the other two approaches. Through the amalgamation approach it is recognised there are two levels of required change; systemic and interpersonal ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Houkamau</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>238</RecNum><Pages>15-16</Pages><record><rec-number>238</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">238</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Houkamau, Carla</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Lecture 3: Diversity Managment: Assimilation, amalgamation and accomodation approaches, Discrimination in Organizations</title><secondary-title>MGMT 317&apos;734 Diversity in Organisations </secondary-title></titles><number>Lecture 2</number><dates><year>2008</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 8 </date></pub-dates></dates><publisher>The University of Auckland University CECIL</publisher><work-type>PowerPoint Slides</work-type><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Houkamau, 2008b, pp. 15-16). The interpersonal changes involved in the education and communication required by this approach allows for the slow modification of social and business standards and norms overtime. The effect of a considerable lack of evidence of these barriers for subcultures of homosexuality within certain diverse workplaces demonstrates the support for this approach. TD Bank Financial Group’s work to embrace the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender community have won several awards within the homosexual community for their work embracing this community which they made a priority ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Douglas</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>242</RecNum><record><rec-number>242</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">242</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Douglas, Paul</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Diversity and the Gay and Lesbian Community: More than chasing the Pink Dollar</title><secondary-title>Ivey Business Journal Online</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Ivey Business Journal Online</full-title></periodical><keywords><keyword>Gays &amp; lesbians</keyword><keyword>Workplace diversity</keyword><keyword>Sexual orientation</keyword><keyword>Corporate culture</keyword><keyword>Organizational change</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1399135381&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Douglas, 2007). <br />The homosexual community have experienced barriers within the workforce that broadly fulfil three categories; exclusion, isolation or ostracization or denial of benefits awarded to partnerships of opposite sex. The underlying layers of these barriers lie within three levels of discrimination; individual, organisational and social structure, the influences within each are representative of and dependent on each other. There is an underlying heterosexual discourse presented in society and organisations derived from historical cultural, political and religious conceptualisations of sexuality. In order to remove the barriers presented by such diversity, we need to refocus the way diversity is approached, from something of a concern, like adopted in the assimilation and accommodation approaches, to an environment where diversity is recognised as an asset to businesses whom create situations and cultures where diversity is recognised, respected, encouraged and embraced. <br /> ADDIN EN.REFLIST References <br />AAP. (2008, April 12 ). 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