INTBUS705 Assessment One – Jessica Maher [ARTICLE SUMMARY] <br />Tapsell, P., & Woods, C., (2008), Potikitanga: Indigenous Entrepreneurship in a Maori Context, Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Community, 2(3)<br />Tapsell & Woods (2008) take more in depth considerations of the “cultural genealogical setting” for indigenous entrepreneurs, emphasizing the need to encourage and develop kin-accountability beyond current socioeconomic entrepreneurial thinking (p192). Using the metaphor of “Mauipreneur” which is an existing model of explaining indigenous entrepreneurship, used to foster and encourage entrepreneurship in Maori communities (p195). Tapsell & Woods (2008) state very early that it is not the aim of this article to join the debate around definitions of indigenous entrepreneurship; instead they draw on accepted definitions that are relevant and applicable in a Maori context (p193). <br />While traditional models of entrepreneurship characteristically have a lack of consideration for the community / tribal / collective notions of indigenous entrepreneurship – by contemporary definitions it is accepted that indigenous entrepreneurship speaks to both social and economic entrepreneurial activity. Tapsell & Woods (2008) complement this by acknowledging the need for opportunity driven action by individuals within a collective setting (p195). The genealogical matrix of group accountability guides opportunity recognition and traditionally, aligning members with threats that by acting outside, the risk being ostracized by the community is significant. <br />It stands to reason that such conceptualizations follow the foundations laid by Kirzner (1973), upon which, later discourse analysis has been drawn. The effects and impacts sociologically of colonization have been recognized and accepted in current contexts. Traditionally, the Maori kinship approach to development was primarily collective in nature. The influence and impact of the single minded focus of early colonizers has acted as a catalyst for the spiritual divorce and alienation of a new generation of Maori entrepreneurs. The fight to “maintain and leverage kinship identity in order to reverse colonization” is over 100 years old, however its relevance has grown as the urbanization of Maori youth continues. In order to create legitimate benefit from entrepreneurial activity within Maori society, the colonially based values and models need to integrate the genealogical aspects and rebalance value perceptions, in order to inspire a new generation of Maori entrepreneurs. <br />The article features three parts; - (1) “definitional and historical backgrounds”, (2) the “Mauipreneur” model, (3) and finally “the more kin-inclusive potiki:rangatira dynamic”. Please see table one for more of a complete overview of these. This provides a strong and clear overview of defining characteristics from both settings (being Maoridom and entrepreneurship). Overlapping and aligning divergent cultural values appear to be crucial for further understanding and encouragement within increasingly alienated Maori youth. This model is particularly useful and relevant for indigenous entrepreneurship within wider contexts, providing a model to aid understanding in varying cultures and novel situations.<br />Being New Zealand’s indigenous population, Maori have a particularly important role in our economy. This is particularly relevant on an international scale as Maori have a uniquely empowered role in our society, yet still struggle with impoverishment common to many indigenous people around the world. “Marae, once at the heart of kin power over surrounding resources, began reflecting the poverty of communities alienated from their estates.” (p198). A representative case for western markets, New Zealand features the colonially based nature to our interpretations of value which have fundamentally created tension and impact for indigenous communities. Considering the Maori context for such reasons, plays an important role in further developing understandings of indigenous entrepreneurship.<br />Main Assessment Questions;a) Core contribution to field.b) Historic / contemporary contextc) Important characteristicsd) Overall qualitye) Relevance to weeks topic<br />Table One <br />
Importance & Core contributions to fieldStressed the importance of entrepreneurial behaviours must be taking the cultural dynamic seriously and to acknowledge the complexities and parodies existing (p192). ‘mauipreneur’ – an indigenous model of entrepreneurship from the Maori communityGeneological matrix of group accountability guides opportunity recognition and traditionally, to act outside this risked being ostracized by the community.Relevant Historical ContextBased on work of von Mises (1949) & Kirzner (1973, 1997) the foundations have been supplemented through discourse analysis Model of “mauipreneur” has already been posed (complementing the Maori/potiki narrative with Tapsell (1995) and Kauwharus (2000) anthropological perspective of rangatira). It was Keelan & Woods (2006) in which the story of Maui was placed at the center of explanations of entrepreneurial behavior in Maori communities.The “mauipreneur” concept was more clearly understood after reviewing the original Keeland & Woods (2006) model.Overview of Important CharacteristicsFeatures three parts; - (1) “definitional and historical backgrounds”, (2) the “mauipreneur” model, (3) and finally “the more kin-inclusive potiki:rangatira dynamic”. See figure 1.0 below for further summary and outline of the interaction and considerations, both of and within these three parts. acknowledges a lack of consideration for the community / tribal / collective notions of indigenous entrepreneurship – by traditional definitions Indigenous entrepreneurship as speaking & performing to both social and economic entrepreneurship (NB/ it is not the aim to debate the widely addressed specifics of definition- reference was drawn only aligned with Maori considerations of indigenous entrepreneurship).‘mauipreneur’ – an indigenous model of entrepreneurship from the Maori communityMaui was an archetypical hero, typifying the potiki status. Adorned with attributes such as resourceful, quick witted and fearless, he provides an attractive and familiar platform to understand & encourage Maori growthGeneological matrix of group accountability guides opportunity recognition and traditionally, to act outside this risked being ostracized by the community. Taking a tribal/social response required the recognition of dualisms intrinsic in Maori culture.Colonization –Foley (2008) claims it destroys & subjugates by its very nature. Evidence of this is considered and discussed with reference to ongoing influences on Maori society. Separating Maori youth from their cultural heritage, particularly Grey’s efforts during the 1940’s, to deliberately dismantling this dynamic balance by inproportional empowering pokiti, has had ongoing and significant influences to this day, as this critical balance remains skewed. Also provides three case examples of various tourism operators, only one of which appears to achieve balance and embrace Maori value chain from bottom.Basis principles of model Kin-inclusive Potiki:Rangatira dynamicRangatiratanga (kin accountability’) held by Rangatira (elders), upon which Potiki (youth) challenge and enforce growth and innovation upon these restrictions towards kin survival management models of risk aversion, crisis management & sanctions. The innovative, aspiration aims of youth, particularly young males seeking leadership roles & ‘maui’ like adventure, referred to as Potikatanga (the individual focus on innovation & growth). Together, (Potiki: Rangatira ) represents a balance between the individual focus of youth with consistency and stability, typical to the dynamic duality and customary leadership tensions. Relevance & QualityMaori are New Zealand’s indigenous people.Provides strong and clear overview of defining characteristics from both settings (being Maoridom and entrepreneurship) and overlapping and aligning understandings appears to have effect impact for further understanding and encouragement. This is also particularly useful and relevant for indigenous entrepreneurship within wider contexts, by providing a model to aid understanding of novel situations.
Directly addressing the assessment questions outlined by assessment notes for INTBUS705, Advanced Entrepreneurship<br />Figure One Overview of the important characteristics <br />Reference also made to; Keelan, J. and Woods, C.R. (2006), “Mauipreneur: understanding Maori entrepreneurship, International Indigeneous Journal of Entrepreneurship 2 (pp1-20); Kirzner, I.M. (1973), Competition and Entrepreneurship; Foley (2008) Does culture and social capital impact on networking attributes of indigenous entrepreneurs?;Tapsell, P. (1995), “Comets and Whakapapa: a study of tribal taonga through the eyes of Te Arawa” [unpublished];Kawharu, M. (2000), “Kaitiakitanga: a Maori anthropological perspective of the Maori socio-environmental ethic of resource management”<br />