Teenage Pregnancy JEZREEL A. SARABIA, RN CHAIRMAN, MIDWIFERY DEPT.
Some DataAge of mother Year 1999 Year 2004 No of babies No of babies born born15 years 8 1616 23 3017 40 4018 41 4719 42 5420 42 74
Some Comments• As the girls grow older, the number of those becoming pregnant increases• 23.3% of all births of women between 17 and 24 are out of wedlock• Is this a case of teenage pregnancy?• Or is it an increasing tolerance for children out of wedlock?• Why is this happening?
Predisposing Factors for teenage pregnancy 0-18• Living with a single parent• Mothers with an adolescent pregnancy• Having older sexually active siblings• Having pregnant/parenting teenage sisters• In a lower SES family• Being a victim of sexual, physical or emotional abuse• Living in stress, depression and conflict at home
Difficulties in their relations outside the family• More submissive and exhibit poorer interpersonal communication abilities• Partners tend to be 2 to 4 years older, with low educational achievement• Residing in disorganized/dangerous neighborhood
School Context• Lower levels of education• Lower educational aspirations & performance• Higher levels of school dropout
What decreases the risk?• Parent-child closeness or connectedness not intrusiveness or control• Parental supervision• Parents’values against teen intercourse (Miller, 2002)
Who is more likely to abort?• Those who are more educationally ambitious• From higher socioeconomic backgrounds• Are from less religious families• Have parents and peers who support abortion (Hofferth & Hayes,1987)Last year, In Region IV-B, 63 were reported to have had an abortion in San Jose Occidental Mindoro alone. Most go to Batangas.
The Maltese Experience• Initial reactions• Disclosing the pregnancy• Deciding what to do with the baby• The importance of family support read from Dissertation by Graziella Zammit p.33
The Boys• Often forgotten• A research gap• Who are they?• Research shows that they have a very similar profile to the girls.• Read from dissertation page 53,54 & 56
The Way Forward• More research regarding the Maltese Context in order for us to be able to formulate effective policies.Eg Richardson (2001) from Ireland reports:1. the understanding and use of contraception prior to their pregnancy was limitedIs the case in San Jose?2. for those who had received sex education in school over half of them felt it was of no value to them.Again what about the situation here in San Jose?
• Mahon et al 19981.Young women felt they would be stigmatised for being sexually active in the eyes of their parents,doctor or authority figure if they approached them concerning contraceptives and therefore were making decisions about its use on the basis of what method carried least risk of discovery by their parents.2. Also adolescents tend to be impulsive and engage in risky behaviour.Why are adolescents not making more use of contraceptives?
For some young girls their life experiences of school alienation, unemployment and lack of career prospects make them view early parenthood as less problematic (Luker, 1996)Is this the case in San Jose for the older girls?