Aim: How did interactionsbetween the countries of EastAsia and between Europeaffect the culture andpolicies of China and Japan?
OVERVIEWMing (1368-1644)-recovery from Yuandynasty-militarily active andpolitically dynamic-conquered neighborsand explored lands-cultural power,literary masterpieces-revival ofConfucianism-1st European contact-1600s-rapid declinebecause of govdecentralization,invaders, revolts, andfamines-Manchus fromManchuria tookBeijing End of Mingand beginning of QingQing (1644-1911)-Manchus (skilledwarriors with longbraids and shavedforeheads) continuedconquests and addedto tributary system-full scale trade withEuropeans wasregulated by state-1750-trade restrictedto port of Canton-1724-Christianitybanned-Emperors Kangxi andQianlong-poverty, decline inadvancementsopen to Europeanand AmericaninfluenceCHINAJAPAN-after 1185, shogunsgoverned Japan-late 1300s-1400s:decentralization,feudalism-Era ofIndependent Lords(independentstates ruled bydaimyo)-political weaknessallowed foreignersand their beliefs togain influence-1560-1615:reunificationof Japan (OdaNobunaga,ToyotomiHideyosehi,Tokugawa Ieyasu)TokugawaShogunate (1603-1868)-Great Peace/PaxTokugawa-Ieyasu centraliizedcountry and movedcapital to Edo-social stratificationincreased-women lived underrestrictions-late 1500s: Portuguese,Spanish, Dutch tradersand missionaries-increase in Christianity-persecution of Christiansand restriction of foreignaccess-only allowedtrade at port of Nagasaki(isolation)-oppressive rule resortedand kept peace,economic growth
Background-After the fall of the Tang dynasty in 906, China was separateduntil the 1200s when they were conquered by the Mongols.-Genghis Khan and his descendants had captured almost all ofwestern and northern China by 1234.-After his death, his grandsons began to divide the Mongolempire.-Kublai Khan, “the Great Khan of the Mongols”, moved thecapital from Mongolia to Beijing and proclaimed the YuanEmpire (1271-1368). He also conquered the rest of China and therest of the Song state.
-He and the Mongol leaders adapted themselves to Chineseways: Buddhism, civil service exams and made MandarinChinese the official language UNIFICATION-Kublai Khan made Yuan rich and powerful: successful militarycampaigns, made neighbors pay tribute, resisted Mongolattacks from other states, rebuilt bureaucracy and economy,repaired roads and canals, built new cities, restored tradewith the West and helped the Silk Road emerge again.-After the death of Kublai Khan, China suffered frompopulation loss because of the Bubonic Plague/ BlackDeath economic decline civil war rebellion decline ofthe Yuan fall of the Yuan empire in 1368
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)-Zhu Yuanzhang established the Ming dynasty and took thename Hongwu (1368-1403) when he became emperor-Hongwu and his son Yongle (1403-1424) recentralized thecountry and repaired damage from the wars of the 1300s (afterKublai Khan’s death). Population increased and the economyrecovered.-to restore imperial legitimacy, Yongle built the Forbidden Cityin the capital of Beijing- served as imperial residence and seatof gov. (this would later cause problems in the 16th century)-Ming rulers expanded China’s borders and maintained atributary system where they made other countries makeregular monetary payments to avoid punishment.-alliances with kingdoms in Vietnam (Annam and Chamba) andKorea (Yi)-large navy and army intimidation
-(1405-1433) explorer Zheng He made 7 long voyagesto Southeast Asia, India, Middle East and East Africa.He expanded trade, increased outside knowledge,and even forced 50 states and cities to pay tribute.-after Yongle’s death, Ming rulers lost interest inexploration and naval expansion
Ming Art and Culture-Chinese art, religion, and literature exerted influence oncountries such as Korea, Vietnam, and Japan-foot binding (began in late Tang dynasty: 618-906) spreadto majority of the population-Confucianism (philosophy) was restored: Buddhism(religion)-classical Chinese literature (Journey to the West), new formof writing-artisans produced exquisite glassware, ceramics, andporcelain-scroll paintings-depicted landscapes on vertical rolls of silkand paper
First Contact with Europeans-Portuguese traders and captains establishedcommercial ties with the Ming-Spanish and Dutch arrived later-China was too large and powerful for Europeans toconquer, so instead, they established embassies andtrading houses there-Catholic (Jesuit) missionaries(Matteo Ricci-early ItalianChristian missionary in China)
Ming China in the late 16th andearly 17th Centuries-sudden influx of precious metal (silver from Spanish and Portuguese)inflation economic breakdown-1520s-1560s: pirates and smugglers disruption of coastal communitiesand interior regions, weakened navy-gov stayed in the Forbidden City in Beijing, weak rulers anger of thepeople and decentralization of gov-population grew famine, gov was unable to help-1644- rebel forces captured capital at Beijing Manchu nomads (Mingallies from the north) helped crush the rebels and recover Beijing, butrefused to restore Ming rule displaced the Ming dynasty QingDynasty
Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)-main concern: maintain stability-promoted Chinese ways, favored Chinese political andcultural traditions (civil service exams)-ruling elites were schooled in Chinese language andConfucian thought-to preserve their own identity, they outlawed intermarriagebetween Manchus and Chinese, forbade Chinese to travel toManchuria and learn their language, created ethnically basedsystem of social stratification (Chinese had to wear certainclothing, tie hair in long braids and men had to shave the frontof their heads)-“lose your hair or lose your head”
-empire included Manchuria and northern China; skilled warlordscontinued conquests and by 1683, they took over southern China andisland of Formosa (Taiwan) as well.-added Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal, Burma, Vietnam and most of CentralAsia to tributary system-North: had contact with Russia-Kangxi (1661-1722)- Confucian scholar who conquered Taiwan,extended to Mongolia, and Central Asia and Tibet (expanded Chineseinfluence). He issued the Sacred Edict (rules and laws that wouldcreate harmony).-Qianlong (1736-1795)- made Vietnam, Burma, and Nepal his vassalstates, cancelled tax collections and paid less attention to imperialaffairs gave responsibilities to eunuchs faced difficulties-(lastgood leader)
Population Growth andEconomic Development-agricultural society: had to use intensive techniques because only small part ofchina’s land was suitable for planting-traditional food crops=rice, wheat, millet-mid17th century- Spanish introduced American food crops (maize, sweetpotatoes, peanuts) increase in food supply increase in population=limitedresources labor force at low cost-global trade prosperity: produced silk, lacquer ware and tea for consumersin Indian ocean basin, Central Asia, and Europe-imported spices form Maluku, exotic products (birds, animal skins) fromtropical regions and woolen textiles from Europe-exchanged silk and porcelain for American silver in Manila-commercial ties with Portuguese-Foreign trade was regulated by the state-only allowed to trade in port ofCanton (1750s)-one of the busiest and most cosmopolitan trading centers-policy of trade protection-more exports than imports to maintain balance oftrade
Christianity in China-7th century-Nestorian Christians established churches and monasteries inchina but didn’t convert many people because of plague-Jesuit Movement: Matteo Ricci (17th and 18th centuries)-goal: make China aChristian country. He conversed and studied with Confucian scholarssuccess , brought over the mechanical clock that impressed the Chinese.-missionaries sent from Europe tried to convert the Chinese by sayingChristianity was similar to Chinese culture-arguments between Jesuits and members of Franciscan and Dominicanorders end of Roman Catholic missions in China-Macartney Mission-permanent mission in Beijing to convert Chinese toChristianity, wanted to open trade to China and establish safe livingconditions for British in China. Emperor Qianlong objected because hebelieved it wasn’t necessary, since China was the “center of the world” andEuropeans were seen as barbarians mission failed-suspicion of outside influences banned Christianity in 1724
Japanese Feudalism (12th-17thcentury)1. Emperor-figurehead2. Shogun-”temporary” leader-held real power (12th-17thcenturies)3. Daimyo-wanted to gain power, had connections toEuropeans4. Samurai-loyal to daimyo5. Ronin-unemployed samurai6. Peasants/ Artisans- 90% of population-provided foodand supplies7. Merchants-had no skill*feudalism-a political systemdeveloped because of dividedgeography
-Japan was governed after 1185 by military rulers-shoguns: preserved order and kept Japan unified in thelate 1200s and early 1300s-1300s -1400s: decentralization became a problemduring Ashikaga Shogunate (1336-1573)-Japan was becoming more feudal: independent satesruled by daimyo who belonged to samurai elite-1460s-Era of Independent Lords-shoguns were weak,civil war between daimyos, samurai who lost/left theirmasters (ronin) became mercenaries or turned to theft-economy suffered crime increasedProblems
Arrival of the Europeans-1540s- Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch traders and Catholic missionaries(Jesuit Francis Xavier) arrived in Japan.-Christianity spread because of the shoguns’ weakness-Europeans introduced gunpowder weapons
Reunification of Japan-reunification took more than 50 years (1560-1615)-Oda Nobunaga-one of the firstJapanese generals to use gunpowderweapons, conquered east and central Japan-Toyotomi Hideyoshi-politician who centralizedpower from his capital of Osaka and restoredorder (when he died, civil war broke out again)-Tokugawa Ieyasu-commander who appointedhimself shogun in 1603 and unified all of Japanin 1615 . (tokugawa shoguns would rule Japanfor 2 ½ centuries.
Tokugawa Shogunate (1603-1868)-era of Great Peace (Pax Tokugawa)-Ieyasu centralized country, established new capital at city ofEdo-emperor remained figurehead-increased social stratification-impossible for a person to movefrom one class to another-Ieyasu emphasized Confucianism.-ordinary citizens forbidden to own weapons, samurai retainedprivilege of owning swords-wanted to keep the number ofguns in Japan as small as possible-women lived under increase restrictions-had to obey husbandsor face death, little authority, less education (girl childrenwere less valued-sold into prostitution or put to death)
Japanese Isolationism-Christianity became popular fear of foreign ideas(religious ideas), and uncontrolled importation ofgunpowder weaponry-Nobunaga and Hideyoshi started to restrict foreignaccess to Japan and even persecuted Christians-Tokugawa shoguns continued policy ofisolationism-Christianity was discouraged-Closed Country Edict of 1635-acts of exclusion(only allowed to trade in port of Nagasaki)-Japan isolated until the 1850s
Japan: Economics, Society, and Culture-population grew rapidly, rice and grain production doubled-became urbanized-shoguns built network of roads and canals-economic growth: produced lacquer ware, pottery, steel, andweapons-1600s-1700s: merchant class became wealthy and powerfulPeace no use for samurai-became ronin (code of Bushido lostimportance)Kabuki theater-acrobatics, swordplay, city life scenes-woodblock printing (ukiyo-e painting)
ESSAY QUESTIONS• Choose TWO of the areas listed below and analyze how each area’srelationship to global trade patterns changed from 1750 to thepresent. Be sure to describe each area’s involvement in globalpatterns around 1750 as your starting point.Latin AmericaEast AsiaEastern EuropeSouth and Southeast AsiaSub-Saharan AfricaThe Middle EastNorth America