Invasive Plant Management
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Invasive Plant Management



Presentation on invasive plant management presented at Kickapoo Valley Reserve

Presentation on invasive plant management presented at Kickapoo Valley Reserve



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Invasive Plant Management Invasive Plant Management Presentation Transcript

  • Managing Invasive Plants Kickapoo Valley Reserve June 11, 2011 John Exo, UW-Extension
  • Outline History of invasive establishment Why species are invasive Strategies Some problem species
  • Early Vegetation From John T. Curtis, Vegetation of Wisconsin, 1959
  • Early Landscape “Our waters filled with fish, and the air with game birds, and the rock ledges with rattlesnakes, and the woods with large game…We have no Canada thistles or mean men.” Wm. H Canfield, 1842 Sauk County Surveyor
  • Invasive Beginnings Wisconsin Historical Society
  • New People, New Pests“Ever since the settlement of the country, there has been a tendency for certain plants and animals to get out of hand…Usually these runaways have been foreigners (like the carp, Norway rat…) but native species…are clearly also capable of pest behavior.” Aldo Leopold, 1945
  • Definitions“Invasive” definitions differ depending on the goal. “…causes economic harm to….” “interferes with land management goals…” “kills or displaces populations of native species…”
  • What makes a plant invasive? Tolerate wide range of soil, light, other conditions Longer growing period Alter soil chemistry Prolific seed production Few or no natural controls
  • What do we do? Get educated: inventory, map, make a plan Learn to ID and know plants’ biology Create a plan Learn & use control methods Monitor & adapt
  • Take inventory Aerial photo or scaled lot layout Plant I.D. books/websites Estimate species present & density I.D. land use – past, present & future Look beyond your property lines
  • Know thy enemy Learn to identify the plants  Seedling  Adult  Dormancy Learn plants’ biology  Annual  Biennial  Perennial
  • Know thy enemyAnnuals  Live one growing season as a plant  Survive through seed  If they don’t produce seed, they can’t reproduce
  • AnnualsLive one year, survive by seedGiant, common ragweedFoxtail grass
  • Know thy enemyBiennials  Live TWO growing seasons  Survive through seed  Produce a lot of seed
  • BiennialsLive two years, survive by seed  Garlic mustard  Wild parsnip  Bull, musk, plumeless thistle  Sweet clover  Spotted knapweed
  • Biennials:Garlic mustard WI DNR photos
  • Biennials:Wild Parsnip*(a monocarpic perennial)
  • Wild parsnip burns!• Phyto-Photo-Dermatitis:• Juice-skin-sunlight• Blister scars can last years.
  • Biennials: Bull thistle
  • Know thy enemyPerennials  Live many growing seasons  Survive through stored energy  Reproduce via seeds, suckers, roots  Important to know if:  Simple roots (honeysuckle)  Creeping roots (Can. thistle)
  • Perennial: Canada thistle •Primary reproduction: creeping horizontal lateral roots •dense clonal growth
  • Perennial: Multiflora Rose(Rosa multiflora)
  • Multiflora Rose Identifying characteristic: bristles at base of petiole
  • Perennial: Common buckthorn
  • Unfair competition. . .
  • Perennials: Bush Honeysuckles (Lonicera spp.)Habitat: upland, especiallyunder roost treesBlooms: May to June,produces orange or redberriesFlowers are white, yellow,orange, or pinkEarly spring leaf-out, late fallleaf drop
  • Perennials: Autumn oliveHabitat: dry uplandBlooms: May to JuneFlowers are white and fragrantReproduces mostly by root suckering
  • Autumn olive
  • Problem Ornamental Species Japanese knotweed Japanese barberry buckthorns Asian honeysuckles Amur maple Common tansy Oriental, or Round- leaved bittersweet
  • Some watch list species Japanese hedge parsley Wild chervil Hill’s mustard Japanese knotweed Teasels
  • Prioritization Importance of habitat Size of population Rate of spread interfere with land use? Resources available
  • Management strategies Monitor year-round, especially along trails, roads Look beyond property lines Prioritize species; areas Timing is everything
  • Management methods Ounce of prevention… Pull Cut/Mow Girdle Cut stem Graze Prescribed fire Herbicide (foliar, basal bark) Integrated methods are most successful
  • Prevention Encourage competition Proactively establish competition
  • Pull !!!! Good for young people, small infestations, small plants.
  • Mow/Cut Timing is critical—best when in flower. Repeated mowings likely needed Slows, but may not kill plants. Can be combined with herbicide methods.
  • Mowing/Cutting Equipment
  • GirdleGood for clonal treespecies Labor intensive Very effective if done correctly Photo courtesy of Tom Brock Timing: June best 1 or 2 step method
  • Girdling – Step 1 Girdling – Step 2
  • Cut-Stem Treatment  Good winter Photo courtesy of Tom Brock option  Very targeted use of herbicidesPhoto: Savanna Oaks Foundation, Inc
  • Basic Woody ShrubCut-stem Control MethodTarget: Small to medium invasive shrubs, e.g. buckthorn, honeysuckle, Autumn olive, prickly ash, etc.Herbicides: systemic herbicide such as glyphosate (Roundup or generic) or Triclopyr (Garlon 4 or generic)
  • Basic Woody ShrubCut-stem Control MethodTiming: Summer, Fall or Winter are preferred. Avoid early spring and heavy snow periods. Above-freezing temps when using water-soluble herbicides such as glyphosate. Apply water-soluble herbicides within minutes of cutting. Triclopyr can be applied at any temp
  • Basic Woody ShrubCut-stem Control Method Technique:  Cut stems at no higher than 6”  Work in pairs, if possible, to avoid “escapes”  Work in a pattern  Treat only outer edge Photo courtesy: Tom Brock
  • Grazing Timing Palatability Goats can be “trained” tosome speciesRepeated treatmentsnecessary
  • Prescribed Fire Requires training Experience Specialized equipment Good Public relations Good neighbor relations Photo courtesy of Tom Brock Timing! Usually integrated with other methods
  • Using Fire for ManagementRequires: Special training Specialized equipment Good Public relations Good neighbor relations Experience Timing! Integrated with other methods
  • Foliar herbicide Safety first Timing is critical better for larger infestations Good in combination with mowing Selective vs non-selective herbicides Pre- vs post-emergence application
  • Basal bark herbicide Small; smooth bark Generally, single-stem shrubs & trees Limited herbicide choices Treat all clone stems Photos courtesy of Tom Brock
  • Integrated Methods Most successful control efforts involve an integrated approach that include monitoring & early detection. Photo courtesy Tom Brock
  • Other Precautions Clean shoes to prevent seed spread Minimize soil disturbance Consider wildlife & water role in spread Monitor imported materials (gravel, mulch, etc)
  • Develop a management plan •Garlic mustard presence shown. •Goal is to … Road
  • Garlic mustard biology Biennial Seedling/rosette yr 1 Flower, then die yr 2 Spread by seed only  Vehicles  Shoes  Animals  Water
  • Develop a management plan 1. satellites: goal to eradicate Combine methods to prevent any seed production. 2. Patch along road: goal to prevent spread. Road Focus efforts on outer edges and roadside
  • Example Plan Satellite populations:  Pull 2nd year plants before flowering  Spray in 1st year plants in fall or very early spring
  • Example Plan Large patch along road/trail  Mow, pull, spray along road before seed set.  Work perimeter inward  Spray rosettes fall/early spring  Pull escapes in between Repeat, monitor, re-map ? years.
  • Calling All Volunteers! Kickapoo Valley Woods Cooperative The Prairie Enthusiasts The Nature Conservancy Kickapoo Valley Reserve?
  • Other ResourcesMembership, links, and information
  • Summary Invasives are already here Early detection & prevention are critical Introduction of new species mostly dependent on our behavior Set realistic goals Make a plan, then adapt
  • Questions?