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Gymnastics is an activity involving performance of exercises requiring physical strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, balance, and grace. Internationally, all of the gymnastic sports are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG) with each country having its own national governing body affiliated to FIG.
To the Ancient Greeks, physical fitness was paramount, and all Greek cities had a gymnasium , a courtyard for jumping, running, and wrestling. As the Roman Empire ascended, Greek gymnastics gave way to military training. The Romans, for example, introduced the wooden horse. In 393 AD the Emperor Theodosius abolished the Olympic Games, which by then had become corrupt, and gymnastics, along with other sports, declined. For centuries, gymnastics was all but forgotten. 
In the fifteenth century, Girolamo Mercuriale from Forlì ( Italy ) wrote De Arte Gymnastica , that brought together his study of the attitudes of the ancients toward diet, exercise and hygiene, and the use of natural methods for the cure of disease. De Arte Gymnastica also explained the principles of physical therapy and is considered the first book on sports medicine .
In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Germany, two pioneer physical educators – Johann Friedrich GutsMuths (1759–1839) and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778–1852) – created exercises for boys and young men on apparatus they had designed and that ultimately led to what is considered modern gymnastics. In particular, Jahn crafted early models of the horizontal bar , the parallel bars (from a horizontal ladder with the rungs removed), and the vaulting horse . 
The Federation of International Gymnastics (FIG) was founded in Liege in 1881.  By the end of the nineteenth century, men's gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first "modern" Olympic Games in 1896. From then on until the early 1950s, both national and international competitions involved a changing variety of exercises gathered under the rubric gymnastics that would seem strange to today's audiences: synchronized team floor calisthenics , rope climbing , high jumping , running , horizontal ladder , etc. During the 1920s, women organized and participated in gymnastics events, and the first women's Olympic competition – primitive, for it involved only synchronized calisthenics – was held at the 1928 Games in Amsterdam.
By 1954, Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format, and uniform grading structures (including a point system from 1 to 15) had been agreed upon. At this time, Soviet gymnasts astounded the world with highly disciplined and difficult performances, setting a precedent that continues. The new medium of television helped publicize and initiate a modern age of gymnastics. Both men's and women's gymnastics now attract considerable international interest, and excellent gymnasts can be found on every continent. Nadia Comăneci received the first perfect score, at the 1976 Summer Olympics held in Montreal , Canada . She was coached in Romania by the Romanian coach, (Hungarian ethnicity), Béla Károlyi . Comaneci scored four of her perfect tens on the uneven bars, two on the balance beam and one in the floor exercise.  Even with Nadia's perfect scores, the Romanians lost the gold medal to the Soviet Union . Nevertheless, Comaneci became an Olympic icon.
In 2006, a new points system for Artistic gymnastics was put into play. With an A Score (or D score) being the difficulty score, which as of 2009 is based on the top 8 high scoring elements in a routine (excluding Vault). The B Score (or E Score), is the score for execution, and is given for how well the skills are performed. 
Floor Exercise- A routine of dance type movements with acrobatic skills performed without equipment on a mat about 40 square feet (12m).
Pommel Horse- A routine performed on a leather- covered piece of equipment in which two pommels or handles are inserted in the center 15.7 to 17.7 inches (40 to 45cm) apart. The routine includes a series of continuous swinging and circular motions with the upper body and legs throughout as the athlete travels from one end of the horse to the other using only his hands and feet for support.
Rings- A routine performed while grasping to wooden rings, one in each hand, with the rings hanging from straps and hung parallel to each other 9 feet (2.75 m) above the floor mat. The routine combines a series of powerful positions with rapid movements designed to test strength and precision.
Vault- A routine involving an apparatus known as a horse that measures 5.2 feet long and 4.4 feet high and has no pommels. The gymnast runs toward the vault approaching the vault lengthwise. He then takes off from a springboard placing both hands on the surface of the vault. Then the gymnast completes the flight with an acrobatic airborne maneuver before making a controlled landing.
Parallel Bars- A routine performed on two flexible parallel rails 6.4 feet above the ground and 16.5 to 20.5 inches apart from each other. The routine includes a series of swinging, balancing and flying moves.
Horizontal Bar- A routine performed on a single steel bar suspended 9 feet above the floor mat. The routine requires continual swinging motions around the bar with many constant changes in the direction and in grip. In the dismount the gymnast casts himself off the bar, soars through the air, and then makes a stable landing.
Vault- The event is similar to the men’s event. The vault is similar in shape and size but the height is lowered to 3.9 feet and is approached by the side.
Floor Exercise- A routine performed without an apparatus on a floor mat. The mat is about the same size as the men’s (40 feet square). The routine is similar to the men’s floor exercise but it is performed to music.
Uneven Bars-A routine performed on a set of two flexible bars between a maximum of 4.7 feet apart from each other and at different heights. The upper bar is between 7.7 feet and 7.9 feet from the floor. The lower bar, parallel to it, is between 4.6 feet and 5.2 feet above the floor. The routine requires continuous swinging, releasing, and changing of direction over, under, and between the bars with a mount and a dismount.
Balance Beam- A routine performed on a single beam 4 inches wide, 16.4 feet long, and 3.9 feet off the ground. The routine consists of a series of tumbling moves, turns, jumps, and leaps. The routine requires a mount and a dismount