Figure 5.12 Spirometry tracings
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© 2005 Elsevier
Figure 5.24 Respiratory systemSVC = superior vena cava.Sitting up (if not acutely ill)
1. General inspection Sputum mug co...
Figure 4.42 Roth's spot on fundoscopy
Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 6 August 2011 08:47 AM)
© 2005 Elsevier
Figure 4.43 Hypertensive retinopathy grade 3Note flame-shaped haemorrhages and cottonwool spots.
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Figure 4.44 Hypertensive retinopathy grade 4Note AV nipping, silver wiring and papilloedema.
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Figure 6.8 Porphyria cutanea tarda-scarring from photosensitivity
Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 6 August 2011 08:47 ...
Figure 6.39 Generalised ileusThe large bowel is filled with gas and is dilated, except in the descending colon. Dilated sm...
Figure 6.40 Small bowel obstructionThere is gross dilatation of the small bowel. It is recognised as small bowel from its ...
Figure 6.41 Large bowel obstructionThe large bowel is markedly distended around to the sigmoid colon, where it abruptly st...
Figure 6.42 Gastric dilatationThe stomach is massively enlarged and distended with air. When this occurs acutely, prompt n...
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Tally ospe

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Tally ospe

  1. 1. Figure 5.12 Spirometry tracings Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 6 August 2011 08:46 AM) © 2005 Elsevier
  2. 2. Figure 5.24 Respiratory systemSVC = superior vena cava.Sitting up (if not acutely ill) 1. General inspection Sputum mug contents (blood, pus etc)Type of coughRate and depth of respiration, and breathing pattern at restAccessory muscles of respiration 2. Hands ClubbingCyanosis (peripheral)Nicotine stainingWasting, weakness-finger abduction and adduction (lung cancer involving the brachial plexus)Wrist tenderness (hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy)Pulse (tachycardia, pulsus paradoxus)Flapping tremor (CO2 narcosis) 3. Face Eyes-Horner's syndrome (apical lung cancer), anaemiaMouth-central cyanosisVoice-hoarseness (recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy)Facial plethora-smoker, SVC obstruction 4. Trachea5. Chest posteriorly Inspect Shape of chest and spineScarsProminent veins (determine direction of flow) Palpate Cervical lymph nodesExpansionVocal fremitus Percuss Supraclavicular regionBackAxillaeTidal percussion (diaphragm paralysis) Auscultate Breath soundsAdventitious soundsVocalDownloaded from: StudentConsult (on 6 August 2011 08:46 AM) © 2005 Elsevier
  3. 3. Figure 4.42 Roth's spot on fundoscopy Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 6 August 2011 08:47 AM) © 2005 Elsevier
  4. 4. Figure 4.43 Hypertensive retinopathy grade 3Note flame-shaped haemorrhages and cottonwool spots. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 6 August 2011 08:47 AM) © 2005 Elsevier
  5. 5. Figure 4.44 Hypertensive retinopathy grade 4Note AV nipping, silver wiring and papilloedema. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 6 August 2011 08:47 AM) © 2005 Elsevier
  6. 6. Figure 6.8 Porphyria cutanea tarda-scarring from photosensitivity Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 6 August 2011 08:47 AM) © 2005 Elsevier
  7. 7. Figure 6.39 Generalised ileusThe large bowel is filled with gas and is dilated, except in the descending colon. Dilated small bowel is also seen in the right hypochondrium (arrow). As gas is seen around to the rectum (arrow), mechanical obstruction is excluded. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 6 August 2011 08:47 AM) © 2005 Elsevier
  8. 8. Figure 6.40 Small bowel obstructionThere is gross dilatation of the small bowel. It is recognised as small bowel from its central position and its transverse mucosal bands-the valvulae conniventes (black arrow). Air-fluid levels are seen on the erect view (a). The supine view (b) gives a better view of the distribution of the dilated loops. From the number and position of the displayed dilated loops, the obstruction would be at the level of the mid-small bowel. The round radio-opaque shadow in the left hypochondrium is a tablet (open arrow). Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 6 August 2011 08:47 AM) © 2005 Elsevier
  9. 9. Figure 6.41 Large bowel obstructionThe large bowel is markedly distended around to the sigmoid colon, where it abruptly stops (arrow). The common causes of obstruction are carcinoma or diverticular stricture. The increased peristalsis occurring at the onset of obstruction can remove the gas and faeces distal to the obstruction. Therefore no gas is seen in this patient. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 6 August 2011 08:47 AM) © 2005 Elsevier
  10. 10. Figure 6.42 Gastric dilatationThe stomach is massively enlarged and distended with air. When this occurs acutely, prompt nasogastric aspiration is necessary. Mechanical obstruction due to a pyloric ulcer or carcinoma needs exclusion. Atonic dilatation is usually a postoperative complication, but may occur with diabetic coma, trauma, pancreatitis or hypokalaemia. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 6 August 2011 08:47 AM) © 2005 Elsevier
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