Hydropower makes us wet! What’s Inside? – Introduction: General Facts & Figures Reporters <ul><li>Diaz, Rudolf </li></ul><ul><li>Ecot, Josa Marie </li></ul><ul><li>Oliveros, Louelamie </li></ul><ul><li>Lagdamat, Raymund </li></ul><ul><li>Lamanilao, Juphil </li></ul><ul><li>Manon-og, Alona Amor </li></ul><ul><li>Sumampong Geraldine </li></ul>The “HYDROPOWERS”
HYDROPOWER Going With the Flow is power that is derived from the force or energy of moving water.
Contents How Hydropower Works Attributes of Hydropower Forms of Hydropower Sizes of Hydro Plants ENERGY FROM FALLING WATER History of Hydropower
Contents Major Components Types of Hydro plant TURBINES Hydro Turbine Parameters Cost ENERGY FROM FALLING WATER Types Of Hydropower Plants Hydroelectric Power Pant (Philippines)
History of Hydropower <ul><li>Saqia - a wheel used by the Persians to </li></ul><ul><li>raise water from a river to higher place. </li></ul><ul><li>250 BC , water power was used as a clock . </li></ul><ul><li>80 BC , the Antipater of Thessalonica wrote, "Cease your work, ye maids who labour at the mill . . . for Ceres has commanded the water-nymphs to perform your task." The work of grinding grains such as corn was automated by water power. </li></ul><ul><li>762 AD , water mills became popular by the Saxons in England. A millwright traveled the countryside and fixed broken mills. </li></ul>
History of Hydropower <ul><li>1086 AD , the Domesday survey found that there were more than 5000 mills. </li></ul><ul><li>1400 –1500, iron works exploited the power of the water to cool the blast furnace. In Sheffield and Sussex, England iron works were employed next to the water. </li></ul><ul><li>1581, Peter Morise installed a water wheel under the old London Bridge. It worked on the ebb and flood tides, meaning it was reversible. </li></ul>
History of Hydropower <ul><li>1086 AD , the Domesday survey found that there were more than 5000 mills. </li></ul><ul><li>1824 , the Catrine cotton mill used a water wheel and through gearing shafting and belting achieved 9000 rev/s. </li></ul><ul><li>1838, 28 Tide mills existed in England even though the era of steam engines was beckoning. </li></ul><ul><li>1882 , the transmission of hydroelectric power was demonstrated at the Exposition in Munich with direct current of 2400 volts The first central hydroelectric station of a capacity of 250 lights was installed in Appleton, Wisconsin. </li></ul>
History of Hydropower <ul><li>1883 , a hydro-electric plant was developed at Portrush in Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>1885 , also in Ireland, a 65 horsepower turbine was opened for the Bessbrook and Newry railway. </li></ul><ul><li>1900 , Oliver Evans developed a completely water powered mill that handled everything from unloading sacks of grain to packing flour in turbines. </li></ul><ul><li>2000 , water power is becoming highly implemented and extremely utilized. </li></ul>
A renewable ENERGY source … … … Hydropower is the leading source of renewable energy. Other sources account for less than 3% of renewable electricity production. Provides more than 97% of all electricity generated by renewable sources.
A renewable ENERGY source <ul><li>The sun provides the water by evaporation from the sea, and will keep on doing so. </li></ul><ul><li>The water on the earth is continuously replenished by precipitation. </li></ul><ul><li>The fall and movement of water is part of a continuous natural cycle called the hydrologic cycle. </li></ul>Why is it renewable? Hydrologic Cycle 01 02 03
How Hydropower Works Hydropower plants capture the energy of falling water to generate electricity. A dam impounds water to form a reservoir and raises the water level to create head. Reservoir Power <ul><li>Water from the reservoir flows due to gravity to drive the turbine. </li></ul><ul><li>Power generated is transmitted over power lines. </li></ul>Turbine <ul><li>Turbine is connected to a generator. </li></ul>
Attributes Emissions-free, with virtually no CO2,NOx, SOx, hydrocarbons, or particulates. Renewable resource with high conversion efficiency to electricity ( 80+ %). Dispatchable with storage capability. Usable for base load, peaking, and pumped storage applications Advantages : Scalable from 10 kWe to 10,000 MWe Low operating and maintenance costs Long lifetime – 50+ years typical Left as blank…
Attributes Frequently involves impoundment of large amounts of water with loss of habitat due to land inundation Variable output – dependent on rainfall and snowfall Impacts on river flows and aquatic ecology, including fish migration and oxygen depletion Social impacts of displacing indigenous people Disadvantages : High initial capital costs Long lead time in construction of mega-sized projects Left as blank… Health impacts in developing countries
Forms Of Hydropower used for hundreds of years to power mills and machinery Water wheels Hydroelectricity Damless hydro Vortex power impacts which creates vortices which can then be tapped for energy usually referring to hydroelectric dams, or run-of-the-river setups. which captures the kinetic energy in rivers, streams and oceans
Forms Of Hydropower which captures energy from the tides in horizontal direction Tidal power Wave power Osmotic power Marine current power which captures the kinetic energy from marine currents. which uses the energy in waves which channels river water into a container separated from sea water by a semipermeable membrane. Ocean thermal energy conversion - which exploits the temperature difference between deep and shallow waters.
Sizes of Hydropower Plants More than 100 MW feeding into a large electricity grid <ul><ul><li>15 - 100 MW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually feeding a grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity above 1MW </li></ul></ul>Small HP Micro HP Large Medium HP Mini HP Capacity 300kW to 1MW Capacity 0kW to 300kW Pico HP - Up to 10kW, remote areas away from the grid
Types Of Hydropower Plants Hydro plants can be classified according to water flow/storage characteristics Impoundment Diversion Pump storage Types
Major Components… Water in the reservoir is located at the height above the rest of the dam structure. Reservoir … built at location where the height of the river is sufficiently high so as to get maximum possible potential energy from water. Damn Passages through which is conveyed from dam to power house. Inlet water ways A building that houses turbines, generators and other auxiliaries . Power-house Trail race A passage for discharging water leaving the turbine
Major Components… Tunnel Spillways Penstock - closed pressure pipes Tunnel – made by cutting mountains Spillways - provide discharge of surplus water Inlet water ways include …
Types of Hydro plant TURBINES Impulse Reaction Reaction Pelton turbines are suited to high head, low flow applications. … contains a runner that has water passages through it formed by curved vanes or blades having an output of 750 MW. Kaplan turbines are well suited to situations in which there is a low head and a large amount of discharge. Kaplan turbine Pelton turbine Francis turbine
Hydro Turbine Parameters POWER Specific Speed Head Discharge Efficiency Add Your Text N = Turbine speed P = Power Q = Rate of water flow H = head = efficiency P = n x g x Q x H
Cost <ul><li>Hydropower is an efficient way to generate electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern hydro turbines can convert as much as 90% of the available energy into electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>The best fossil fuel plants are only about 50% efficient. </li></ul>Natural gas Fossil fuel Nuclear 25% the cost natural gas 40% the cost of fossil fuel 50% the cost of nuclear
Hydroelectric Power Pant (Philippines) Escudero Hydroelectric Power Plant 1. The First and Oldest It was built in 1937. located at Villa Escudero Tiaong, Quezon, Philippines. 2. Purpose it generated power for the Escudero coconut plantation. 3. What else? composed of 2 hydro units; a 75 kW ( located below the 1937 unit) and a 37.5 kW plant ( located 700meters down river).
Norwegian energy utility Statkraft build the world's first osmotic power plant , using the natural process of osmosis to produce clean energy. The plant works by separating sea water and fresh water using a membrane which draws fresh sea water through it, increasing pressure on one side to produce power. (osmotic power)
The HydroWing is a marine current turbine power system which operates anchored, submerged at a variable depth, and is capable of operating in depths of up to 150 meters.
View of a land based OTEC facility at Keahole Point on the Kona coast of Hawaii