Psychometric Tests


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Psychometric Tests

  2. 2. FLOW OF PRESENTATION <ul><li>Merits & Demerits of Psychometric Tests </li></ul><ul><li>MBTI </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Career Anchor </li></ul><ul><li>Holland’s Theory </li></ul>
  3. 3. MERITS & DEMERITS <ul><li>MERITS </li></ul><ul><li>Helps draw up a comprehensive Behavioural profile </li></ul><ul><li>Warns management of recruit’s weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Can be successfully utilized for career development </li></ul><ul><li>DEMERITS </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological testing can be unreliable </li></ul><ul><li>Job requirement specs may be subjective </li></ul><ul><li>Results are open to interpretation rather than conclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Does not account for recruit’s intellect or exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Should never be used as a stand-alone technique </li></ul>
  4. 4. THE MBTI
  5. 5. Psychological Type <ul><li>Is a theory of personality developed by Swiss psychiatrist, Carl G. Jung; </li></ul><ul><li>Asserts that differences between people result from inborn preferences; </li></ul><ul><li>Defines a ”Psychological Type” as : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The natural, preferred way of using one’s mind and directing energy; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The behavioral habits that develop as people use their preferences. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Psychological Type Contd. . . <ul><li>Is NOT about skills, intelligence, abilities, or technical expertise; </li></ul><ul><li>Does NOT tell you what you can and can’t do; </li></ul><ul><li>Affirms that people are a lot more than their Psychological Type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education & Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interests & Motivations </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator <ul><li>The MBTI </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers. </li></ul><ul><li>Present version has evolved after 50 years of research; </li></ul><ul><li>Has been translated into more than 30 languages; </li></ul><ul><li>Is the most widely used personality inventory in the world. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The MBTI <ul><li>Identifies polar opposites in four areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By using </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judging or Perceiving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ways people Naturally prefer to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is no right or wrong to MBTI results – each preference and type identifies normal and valuable human behaviours. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion or Introversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct and get energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take in information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organize their external world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing or Intuition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking or feeling </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Extraversion & Introversion <ul><li>E = Energy directed outward in action </li></ul><ul><li>I = Energy directed inward in reflection </li></ul><ul><li>E = Seeking stimulation in the outer environment </li></ul><ul><li>I = Seeking stimulation in the inner environment </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sensing & Intuition <ul><li>S = Focusing on the realities of the present </li></ul><ul><li>N = Focusing on possibilities in the future </li></ul><ul><li>S = Noticing factual and concrete information </li></ul><ul><li>N = Seeing patterns and connections between facts </li></ul><ul><li>S = Trusting experience </li></ul><ul><li>N = Trusting insights </li></ul>
  11. 11. Thinking & Feeling <ul><li>Two essential ways of making rational judgements </li></ul><ul><li>T = Using Logical analysis to make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>F = Using person-centered values to make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>T = Using objective and impersonal criteria </li></ul><ul><li>F = Weighing human values and motives </li></ul><ul><li>T = Seeking rational order by logic </li></ul><ul><li>F = Seeking rational order through harmony </li></ul>
  12. 12. Remember <ul><li>“ Extravert” does not mean “talkative”; </li></ul><ul><li>“ Introvert” does not mean “shy” or “inhibited”; </li></ul><ul><li>“ Feeling” does not mean “emotional”; </li></ul><ul><li>“ Judging” does not mean “judgmental”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Perceiving” does not mean “perceptive”. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Assumptions Underlying Type Theory <ul><li>Preferences are inborn; </li></ul><ul><li>Environment enhances or impedes expression of type; </li></ul><ul><li>People use all ``four processes (Sensing, Intuition, Thinking, and Feeling) in both extraverted and introverted attitudes some of the time; </li></ul><ul><li>Type is dynamic, not static; </li></ul><ul><li>All of the types are equally valuable </li></ul>
  14. 14. The MBTI is used in : <ul><li>Self-development; </li></ul><ul><li>Career development and exploration; </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship counseling; </li></ul><ul><li>Academic counseling; </li></ul><ul><li>Organization development; </li></ul><ul><li>Team building; </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving; </li></ul><ul><li>Management and leadership training; </li></ul><ul><li>Education and curriculum development; </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity and multicultural training. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Things to Remember About Type <ul><li>Each type and each individual has special gifts. There is no right or wrong type, no better or worse combinations of types in work or relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of knowing about type is to help you understand yourself and to enhance your relationships with others through appreciation of individual differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Each person is unique. An ENFP is like every other ENFP, like some other ENFP, and like no other ENFP. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Things to Remember About Type Contd. . . <ul><li>Everyone uses each of the preferences to some degree. Our type is made up of those we prefer. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU are the one to decide what type you truly are. Your results on the MBTI suggest your probable type based on the choices you made when you answered the questions; however, only you know your true preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Type does not explain everything. The human personality is much too complex. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Things to Remember About Type Contd. . . <ul><li>Number scores on the MBTI indicate clarity of preference. They do not measure skills or ability or even degree of use. </li></ul><ul><li>You may use type to understand and forgive yourself, but NOT as an excuse for doing or not doing anything. </li></ul><ul><li>Your type should NOT keep you from considering any career, activity, or relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Become aware of your type biases (we all have them!) to avoid negative stereotyping. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Thomas International PPA System <ul><li>Designed by Thomas Hendrick, a disciple of Dr. William Marstron, who designed the original mode of the instrument in 1928. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Thomas International PPA System <ul><ul><li>DOMINANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive behaviour in an antagonistic situation. Drive to accomplishment in the face of opposition or antagonism. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INDUCEMENT INFLUENCE OVER OTHERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive behaviour in favourable or friendly situations influencing others to react positively or favourably. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STEADINESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive behaviour in a favourable situation. Steadiness or suitable for performing routine and repetitive work. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMPLIANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive behaviour in an antagonistic situation. Compliance with high work standards to avoid trouble or error. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Thomas International PPA System <ul><li>Theoretical Perspective – An Interpersonal / Situational Theory </li></ul><ul><li>PERCEIVED SITUATION </li></ul>Dependable Deliberate Amiable STEADINESS Persistent (-PACE) Good listener Kind ( a passive response in a hostile situation. Attempts to maintain status quo until hostility is over in order to avoid insecurity) Influential Persuasive Friendly INFLUENCE Verbal (+PEOPLE) Communicative Positive ( an active, positive posture designed to move away from an unfriendly situation towards a more friendly and favourable state by using persuasion thus avoiding rejection) Compliance Careful Systematic Precise COMPLIANCE Accurate (+POLICY) Perfectionist Logical ( a cautious undecided response to an antagonistic environment. Designed to negate the degree of antagonism and thus avoid trouble or conflict ) Assertive Driving Competitive Forceful DOMINANCE Inquisitive (+POWER ) Direct Self-starter ( an active positive posture in hostile or unfriendly environment Confronts in order to overcome and in doing so avoid failure ) active behaviours passive behaviours
  22. 22. Thomas International PPA System <ul><li>The Personal Profile is not a clinical instrument. It is intended for use only in business and not for diagnosis of abnormal behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>This technique for measuring behaviour, requires approximately fifteen minutes and because we use the forced-choice technique in the Personal Profile, it makes it difficult to distort </li></ul>
  23. 23. Thomas International PPA System <ul><li>MATCHING THE PERSON WITH THE POSITION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To measure the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>we use the Human Job Analysis form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To measure the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>we use the Personal Profile Analysis. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Thomas International PPA System <ul><li>STUDYING THE GRAPHS </li></ul><ul><li>Once you have completed scoring the Profile you will be studying three graphs (reverse side of Profile form) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graph ( I ) ‘HOW OTHER SEE YOU’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This graph indicates how the individual feels he / she is expected to behave in order to be successful. ( The mask ) If the pattern is too close to the centre line, the person is uncertain as to how to behave. (This could mean that he or she is new to the job, has too much responsibility or is uncertain as to what is expected. ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This graph should not be considered when a profile is being used for hiring a new employee. It is only used for present employees or for personal counselling. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Thomas International PPA System <ul><li>STUDYING THE GRAPHS ( contd. ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GRAPH ( II ) ‘BEHAVIOUR UNDER PRESSURE’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This graph indicates how a person behaves under pressure or even in a personal environment. It indicates limitations and should be recognized but underplayed in the evaluation. Used for constructive suggestions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GRAPH ( III ) ‘HOW YOU SEE YOURSELF’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This graph is the most accurate as it indicates the person’s self image. It will give you an idea if the person can communicate, how to make decision, and if they are self-starters. If this person is close to the centre line, the person probably was finding it difficult to complete the Profile. He or she could have tried to read into it or could be going through a change of values. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Thomas International PPA System <ul><li>WHAT YOU GET FROM THE SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires :Identifies compatibility with the role under consideration and supplies penetrating questions based on the interviewee’s profile. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audits : Three types of audit are available in Thomas Key. They are Management, Sales and Administration / Technical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Management Audit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>covers Managing and Motivating, Decision making, Planning and problem solving, Communication, Administration and Developing others. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Thomas International PPA System <ul><li>WHAT YOU GET FROM THE SYSTEM [contd.] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audits [contd.] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Sales Audit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>covers Opening and communication, Closing, Customer service, Presentation and Administration. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Admin / Technical Audit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reports on Organizing workflow, Time management, Meeting information / service needs, Ensuring quality and accuracy and Problem solving. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strengths & Limitations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a Management summary in the form of bullet points about the person who has completed the PPA. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to Manage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explains what sort of supervision is most likely to be effective. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Thomas International PPA System <ul><li>HOW CAN YOU BENIFIT? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The system highlights potential development opportunities and so increases the probability of job satisfaction; this, in turn, tends to increase productivity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In recruitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reports from the system describe strengths and weakness in relation to a role and therefore identify job compatibility. It also provides an opportunity to discuss frustrations or pressures felt by the candidate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In encouraging & motivating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas PPA provides a person with the opportunity to understand both themselves and others and to identify how best to modify their own behaviour in order to strengthen relationships and improve communications. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. CAREER ANCHOR <ul><li>According to Schein ( 1978 ), a person’s “Career Anchor” is his or her occupational self-concept consisting of : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-perceived talents and abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-perceived motives and needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-perceived attitudes and values </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. CAREER ANCHOR <ul><li>Schein’s further research ( 1990, 1993 ) uncovered eight Career Anchors : </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who kept clawing right up the ladder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical / Functional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who settled down happily to pay attention to the details of their craft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security / Stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who discovered that promotions were rewarding largely because they meant, that the company prized them and wanted to keep them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autonomy / Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who found ways of carving out their own space in large organizations and are not ready to compromise on their freedom </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. CAREER ANCHOR [contd.] <ul><li>Schein’s eight Career Anchors [contd.] </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial / Creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who ended up starting new ventures products and services to meet their needs to be creative and to reap the benefits of their labours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service / Dedication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who are dedicated to a particular cause, client group or ideology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pure Challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with primary concerns to solve unsolvable problems, to win out over tough opponents, and to surmount difficult obstacles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Balance / Life-style Integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with primary concerns to integrate family concerns, career concerns and concerns for self-development </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. CAREER ANCHOR <ul><li>(Derr – 1986) Five diverse internal career orientations : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V - Getting Ahead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These are people who are primarily interested to grow vertically and also much faster compared to their peers; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W - Getting Secure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>these are people who are motivated primarily by a sense of a job security and a life long organizational identity; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X - Getting Free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These are people who value autonomy most, which they are not ready to give up under any circumstances; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Z - Getting High </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The objective here is getting challenging and exciting work, staying at the cutting edge; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Y - Getting Balanced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Career, self development and relationship with others. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. CAREER ANCHOR FOR CAREER MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS <ul><li>According to Schein (1996), the metaphor of ‘Anchor’ signifies that stability will be achieved in one’s career if he / she is in an organizational environment that provides an opportunity to realize the components of his / her career anchor. </li></ul>
  36. 36. HOLLAND’S THEORY <ul><li>Holland’s ( 1985 / 1992 ) theory of vocational personalities and work environments. </li></ul><ul><li>This theory is intended to explain career choice, satisfaction, and persistence. </li></ul><ul><li>People & Job Environment can be classified in six types. Employee satisfaction would depend on the Congruence between the two. </li></ul>
  37. 37. HOLLAND’S THEORY Realistic Investigative Artistic Social Conventional Enterprising
  38. 38. HOLLAND’S THEORY - Classification of Personalities <ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manual and mechanical competencies and interaction with machines, tools and objects. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical, technical, scientific, and verbal competencies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation or creative ability. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal competencies and skill in treating, healing or teaching others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skills in the persuasion and manipulation of other people. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clerical skills or skills in meeting precise standards for performance. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. HOLLAND’S THEORY <ul><li>CONGRUENCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congruence is assessed according to the degree of match between the vocational personality of an individual and the environmental type of an occupation or position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational environments that are adjacent on the hexagon theoretically make similar demands on a person, and occupational environments that are more distant make divergent demands. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CONSISTENCY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Career move will be most predictable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DIFFERENTIATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All score with the same range – denotes erratic career movement. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. THANK YOU